Details

Pollutant Fate and Transport in Environmental Multimedia


Pollutant Fate and Transport in Environmental Multimedia


1. Aufl.

von: Frank M. Dunnivant, Elliot Anders

115,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 21.03.2019
ISBN/EAN: 9781119414636
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 416

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

Bridges the gaps between regulatory, engineering, and science disciplines in order to comprehensively cover pollutant fate and transport in environmental multimedia  This book presents and integrates all aspects of fate and transport: chemistry, modeling, various forms of assessment, and the environmental legal framework. It approaches each of these topics initially from a conceptual perspective before explaining the concepts in terms of the math necessary to model the problem so that students of all levels can learn and eventually contribute to the advancement of water quality science. The first third of Pollutant Fate and Transport in Environmental Multimedia is dedicated to the relevant aspects of chemistry behind the fate and transport processes. It provides relatively simple examples and problems to teach these principles. The second third of the book is based on the conceptual derivation and the use of common models to evaluate the importance of model parameters and sensitivity analysis; complex equation derivations are given in appendices. Computer exercises and available simulators teach and enforce the concepts and logic behind fate and transport modeling. The last third of the book is focused on various aspects of assessment (toxicology, risk, benefit-cost, and life cycle) and environmental legislation in the US, Europe, and China. The book closes with a set of laboratory exercises that illustrate chemical and fate and transport concepts covered in the text, with example results for most experiments. Features more introductory material on past environmental disasters and the continued need to study environmental chemistry and engineering Covers chemical toxicology with various forms of assessment, United States, European, and Chinese regulations, and advanced fate and transport modeling and regulatory implications Provides a conceptual and relatively simple mathematical approach to fate and transport modeling, yet complex derivations of most equations are given in appendices Integrates the use of numerous software packages (pC-pH, EnviroLab Simulators, Water, Wastewater, and Global Issues), and Fate©2016 Contains numerous easy-to-understand examples and problems along with answers for most end-of-the-chapter problems, and simulators for answers to fate and transport questions Includes numerous companion laboratory experiments with EnviroLab Requiring just a basic knowledge of algebra and first-year college chemistry to start, Pollutant Fate and Transport in Environmental Multimedia is an excellent textbook for upper-level undergraduate and graduate faculty and students studying environmental engineering and science.
Preface xi Acknowledgments xiii Acronyms xv Glossary xix About the Companion Website xxiii To the Instructor xxv To the Student xxvii To the Environmental Professional xxix How to Use the Book with Fate® and Associated Software xxxi Instructor/Student Resources xxxiii Part I Introduction 1 1 Sources and Types of Pollutants, Why We Need Modeling, and the Need to Study Historical Pollution Events 3 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Need for Modeling of Pollutants in Environmental Media 4 1.3 Pollution versus Contamination; Pollutant versus Contaminant 4 1.4 Pollution Classifications 5 1.5 Sources of Pollution 5 1.6 Historic Examples of Where Fate and Transport Modeling Are Useful 10 1.7 Environmental Laws 21 Concepts 22 Exercises 22 Bibliography 22 Part II Chemistry of Fate and Transport Modeling 25 2 Basic Chemical Processes in Pollutant Fate and Transport Modeling 27 2.1 The Liquid Medium: Water and the Water Cycle 27 2.2 Unique Properties of Water 28 2.3 Concentration Units 32 2.4 Chemical Aspects of Environmental Systems 32 2.5 Reactions and Equilibrium 44 2.6 Complexation 53 2.7 Equilibrium Sorption Phenomena 54 2.8 Transformation/Degradation Reactions 63 2.9 Fugacity Concepts and Modeling 67 2.10 Summary 68 Concepts 68 Exercises 68 References 69 3 Quantitative Aspects of Chemistry Toward Modeling 71 3.1 Introduction 71 3.2 Calculation of the Free Metal Ion Concentration in Natural Waters 71 3.3 Methods for Determining Kd and Kp 83 3.4 Kinetics of the Sorption Process 85 3.5 Sorption Isotherms 87 3.6 Kinetics of Transformation Reactions 89 3.7 Numerical Chemical Speciation Models 90 3.8 Putting It All Together: Where Chemistry Enters Into the Modeling Effort 91 3.9 Basic Approach to Fate and Transport Modeling 93 Exercises 95 Bibliography 99 Part III Modeling 101 4 An Overview of Pollutant Fate and Transport Modeling 103 4.1 Modeling Approaches 103 4.2 Quality of Modeling Results 109 4.3 What Do You Do with Your Modeling Results? 109 Bibliography 110 5 Fate and Transport Concepts for Lake Systems 111 Case Study 1: Lake Onondaga 111 Case Study 2: Lake Erie, A More Positive Example 112 Chapter Overview 112 5.1 Introduction 112 5.2 Types of Lakes and Lake-forming Events 113 5.3 Input Sources 117 5.4 Stratification of Lake Systems 118 5.5 Environmental Sampling of Lake Systems 120 5.6 Important Factors in the Modeling of Lakes: Conceptual Model Development 122 5.7 Two Basic Mathematical Models for Lakes (Derivation by John Brooksbank in the Chapter Appendix) 126 5.8 Sensitivity Analysis 130 5.9 Limitations of Our Models 131 5.10 Remediation 131 5.11 Numerical Modeling Approaches for Large Lakes 133 5.12 Useful Algebraic Model Formulation 133 5.A Derivation of the two basic forms of fate and transport models for lake system: step (continuous) model and pulse (instantaneous) (derivations by John Brooksbank) 134 Concepts 136 Exercises 136 Bibliography 139 6 Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Rivers and Streams 141 Case Study: The Rhine River 141 6.1 Introduction 141 6.2 Examples of Rivers and Volumetric Flows of Water 142 6.3 Input Sources 143 6.4 Sampling of Surface Waters 143 6.5 Important Factors in the Modeling of Streams: Conceptualization of Terms 144 6.6 Mathematical Development of Transport Models (Derivations by John Brooksbank, Here and in Chapter Appendix) 147 6.7 Sensitivity Analysis 151 6.8 Limitations of Our Models 151 6.9 Remediation of Polluted Stream Systems 152 Suggested Papers for Class Discussion 153 Concepts 153 Exercises 153 Spreadsheet Exercise 156 6.A Model Derivatives for River and Stream Systems (Derivations by John Brooksbank) 156 Bibliography 161 7 Dissolved Oxygen Sag Curves in Streams: The Streeter–Phelps Equation 163 Case Study: Any Stream, Anywhere in the World 163 7.1 Introduction 163 7.2 Basic Input Sources (Wastewater Flow Rates and BOD Levels) 166 7.3 Sampling of Wastewater 168 7.4 Mass Balance-Based Development of the Basic Streeter–Phelps Model 168 7.5 Sensitivity Analysis 175 7.6 Limitations of Our Basic Model and More Elaborate Models 175 7.7 Remediation 175 7.8 One Last Note on Estuaries 177 Suggested Reading for Discussion 178 Concepts 178 Exercises 178 Spreadsheet Exercise 182 7.A Derivation of the Streeter-Phelps (DO Sag Curve) Equation (By John Brooksbank 182 Bibliography 184 8 Fate and Transport Concepts for Groundwater Systems 187 Case Study: The Test Area North Deep Well Injection Site at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) 187 8.1 Introduction 187 8.2 Input Sources 188 8.3 Monitoring Wells 189 8.4 Groundwater Sampling Equipment 195 8.5 Chemistry Experiments Used to Support Modeling Efforts 195 8.6 Direction of Water Flow (The Three-Point Problem) 200 8.7 Physical Parameters Important in Pollutant Fate and Transport 202 8.8 Derivation of Mathematical Models for Groundwater 208 8.9 Sensitivity Analysis 213 8.10 Limitations of Our Models 213 8.11 Remediation 214 8.12 Numerical Models Used by Professionals 216 Suggested Papers for Class Discussion 216 Concepts 216 Exercises 216 Spreadsheet Exercise 219 Bibliography 219 9 Fate and Transport Concepts Atmospheric Systems 221 Case Study: The Union Carbide-Bhopal Accident 221 9.1 Introduction 222 9.2 Input Sources 222 9.3 Atmospheric Sampling Equipment and Efforts 222 9.4 Important Factors in the Modeling of Atmospheric Pollution: Conceptual Model Development 224 9.5 Mathematical Development of Model 227 9.6 Sensitivity Analysis 233 9.7 Limitations of Our Model 234 9.8 Remediation 235 9.9 Models Used by Professionals 235 Concepts 235 Suggested Reading for Class Discussions 235 Exercises 235 Plume (step or continuous) Input Problems 236 Puff (Pulse or Instantaneous) Pollutant Inputs 236 Spreadsheet Exercise 237 Bibliography 237 10 Regulatory Environmental Modeling Practices and Software 239Raymond C. Whittemore 10.1 Introduction 239 10.2 Generic Model Types 239 10.3 Model Availability 240 10.4 Atmospheric Quality Models 240 10.5 Surface Water Models 242 10.6 Large-Scale Watershed Models 246 10.7 Subsurface or Groundwater Models 248 10.8 Modeling of Toxic Substances 250 10.9 Human Health Risk Assessment 251 10.10 Other Useful Regulatory Models 251 Exercises 251 Bibliography 252 Part IV Toxicology and Risk Assessment 255 11 Toxicology, Risk Assessment, Cost–Benefit Analysis, and Life Cycle Assessment 257 11.1 Introduction 257 11.2 Toxicology 257 11.3 Risk Assessment 258 11.4 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) 274 11.5 Benefit–Cost Analysis 276 11.6 Summary 276 Concepts 276 Exercises 277 Bibliography 280 Part V Environmental Legislation in the United States 281 12 US Environmental Laws 283Frank Dunnivant, Lance DeMuth, Savanna Ferguson, Rose Kormanyos, Loren Sackett, and Jill Schulte 12.1 Environmental Movements in the United States 283 12.2 The History of the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) 284 12.3 Major US Environmental Laws 285 12.4 EPA’s Record 300 12.5 Environmental Permitting and Compliance 302 12.6 International Agreements/Treaties Involving the United States 302 12.7 Summary 305 Exercises 305 Disclaimer 305 Bibliography 305 13 Environmental Policy in the European Union 307Steven Woolston and Aisha Kimbrough 13.1 Introduction to the European Union 307 13.2 The Environment and the European Union 307 13.3 The Early Stages of the EU’s Environmental Efforts 307 13.4 Existing Environmental Legislation 308 13.5 Waste Management Legislation 308 13.6 Water Legislation 309 13.7 Air Quality Legislation 309 13.8 Environmental Disasters 310 Bibliography 310 14 Environmental Laws in China 311Zeyu Liu (???) and Yi Xu (??) 14.1 Environmental Law and Policy in the People’s Republic of China 311 14.2 Brief Introduction to China 311 14.3 Economy and the Environment 311 14.4 History of Environmental Law and Policy 312 14.5 Existing Environmental Law and Policy 314 14.6 Challenges and the Future of Environmental Governance 314 14.7 Can China Take on the Leading Role in the Global Environmental Governance? 315 Bibliography 316 Part VI World Class Pollutants 319 15 World Class Pollutants 321Frank Dunnivant and Emily Welborn 15.1 Mercury 321 15.2 Lead 323 15.3 PCBs 325 15.4 DDT 326 15.5 Endocrine Disruptors 328 15.6 Plastics 330 15.7 Carbon Dioxide and Climate Change 331 Bibliography 332 Part VII Supporting Laboratory Experiments 335 16 Laboratory Experiments 337 16.1 Introduction 337 16.2 Keeping a Legally Defensible Laboratory Notebook 337 16.3 Quarter- and Semester-Long Experiments 338 16.4 Pollutant Fate and Transport Experiments for the Last Two Dispersion Experiments 338 16.5 The Measurement of Dispersion in a Simulated River System 355 16.6 The Measurement of Dispersion and Sorption in a Simulated Groundwater System 358 Bibliography 365 Index 367
FRANK M. DUNNIVANT, PHD, is currently a professor in the Department of Chemistry, Whitman College. He has worked for several labs including the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and the Swiss Federal Institute for Water and Waste Water Pollution (EAWAG). He has extensive experience with practical applications, research, and writing on environmental engineering and analytical science topics. ELLIOT ANDERS holds a degree in Environmental Chemistry, works as a software engineer with a commitment to social justice and improving the environment, and is a cofounder of Educational Solutions, LLC.
Bridges the gaps between regulatory, engineering, and science disciplines in order to comprehensively cover pollutant fate and transport in environmental multimedia This book presents and integrates all aspects of fate and transport: chemistry, modeling, various forms of assessment, and the environmental legal framework. It approaches each of these topics initially from a conceptual perspective before explaining the concepts in terms of the math necessary to model the problem so that students of all levels can learn and eventually contribute to the advancement of water quality science. The first third of Pollutant Fate and Transport in Environmental Multimedia is dedicated to the relevant aspects of chemistry behind the fate and transport processes. It provides relatively simple examples and problems to teach these principles. The second third of the book is based on the conceptual derivation and the use of common models to evaluate the importance of model parameters and sensitivity analysis; complex equation derivations are given in appendices. Computer exercises and available simulators teach and enforce the concepts and logic behind fate and transport modeling. The last third of the book is focused on various aspects of assessment (toxicology, risk, benefit-cost, and life cycle) and environmental legislation in the US, Europe, and China. The book closes with a set of laboratory exercises that illustrate chemical and fate and transport concepts covered in the text, with example results for most experiments. Features more introductory material on past environmental disasters and the continued need to study environmental chemistry and engineering Covers chemical toxicology with various forms of assessment, United States, European, and Chinese regulations, and advanced fate and transport modeling and regulatory implications Provides a conceptual and relatively simple mathematical approach to fate and transport modeling, yet complex derivations of most equations are given in appendices Integrates the use of numerous software packages (pC-pH, EnviroLab Simulators, Water, Wastewater, and Global Issues), and Fate®2016 Contains numerous easy-to-understand examples and problems along with answers for most end-of-the-chapter problems, and simulators for answers to fate and transport questions Includes numerous companion laboratory experiments with EnviroLab Requiring just a basic knowledge of algebra and first-year college chemistry to start, Pollutant Fate and Transport in Environmental Multimedia is an excellent textbook for upper-level undergraduate and graduate faculty and students studying environmental engineering and science.

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