Political PsychologyA Social Psychological Approach
BPS Textbooks in Psychology 1. Aufl.
A research-based guide to political psychology that is filled with critical arguments from noted experts Political Psychology is solidly grounded in empirical research and critical arguments. The text puts the emphasis on alternative approaches to psychological enquiry that challenge our traditional assumptions about the world. With contributions from an international panel of experts, the text contains a meaningful exchange of ideas that draw on the disciplines of social psychology, sociology, history, media studies and philosophy. This important text offers a broader understanding of the different intellectual positions that academics may take towards political psychology. Comprehensive in scope Political Psychology provides a historical context to the subject and offers a critical history of common research methods. The contributors offer insight on political thought in psychology, the politics of psychological language, narrating as political action, political decision-making and much more. This important text: Offers contributions from a panel of international experts on the topic Includes a review of some political ideas associated with the work of Karl Marx, Erich Fromm, R.D. Laing, Michel Foucault and others Presents information on prejudice, stereotypes and discrimination in the context of mass migration Reviews a wide range of relevant topics such as identity, social exclusion and foreign policy and more Contains questions for group debate and discussion at the end of each chapter Written for academics and students of political psychology, Political Psychology is a comprehensive resource that includes contributions from experts in a variety of fields and disciplines.
List of Contributors xv Preface xx CHAPTER 1 Some Historical and Philosophical Considerations 1Christopher J. Hewer When People Come Together 3 Social Psychology 4 The Development of Religious Identities 5 Intersecting Histories: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam 5 The Issue of Governance 8 Transformations in the Twentieth Century 8 The Social and Moral Order 10 The Search for Scientific Understanding 11 Psychology: A New Way of Seeing the World 12 The Influence of Political Philosophy on Social Psychology 14 Locating the Root of Human Behavior 15 Social Cognition 17 A Societal Approach to Political Psychology 18 Social Constructionism 19 The Social Construction of Reality 22 Summary 24 Glossary 24 Further Reading 26 Questions for Group Discussion 27 CHAPTER 2 A Critical History of Research Methods 28Ron Roberts and Christopher J. Hewer What Do We Want to Know About the World and Why? 30 How Can We Know the World? 31 Searching for Universal Laws of Behavior 32 The Computability Problem 33 The Historic Nature of Research Findings 35 The Origin of Statistics 37 The Construction of Norms, Normality, and Normalcy 38 Using Statistical Measures and Models for Political Purposes 40 The Null Hypothesis Significance Test 43 Bayesian Methods 45 The Issue of Replication 47 The File Drawer Effect 48 A Cautionary Note on Theory 48 Conclusions 50 Summary 50 Glossary 51 Further Reading 52 Questions for Group Discussion 53 CHAPTER 3 From Alienation to Estrangement: Political Thought and Psychology 54Ron Roberts Mechanistic Models 56 Karl Marx 57 Alienation 58 Erich Fromm 59 R. D. Laing 61 Mystification 61 Michel Foucault 62 Discursive Regimes, Power, and Freedom 63 Disciplinary boundaries 63 Politics and governance of the self 64 Svetlana Boym 66 Estrangement 66 Off?modern psychology 68 Art and dissent 69 Summary 70 Glossary 71 Further Reading 71 Questions for Group Discussion 71 CHAPTER 4 The Politics of Psychological Language: Discourse and Rhetoric 73Simon Locke Discursive Psychology, Rhetorical Psychology, and Cognitive Psychology 75 The Scientific Laboratory 76 The Validity of Experiments and Surveys 77 Language, Discourse, and Rhetoric 78 Arguing and Thinking 80 Relativism and Ideology—or the DP?CA/RP?CDA Fandango 81 Ideology 83 Critical Discourse Analysis 84 The Politics of Experience 85 Conspiracy Discourse 86 A Cognitive Approach to Conspiracy 87 Reinstating the Thinking Person 88 Summary 90 Glossary 90 Further Reading 91 Questions for Group Discussion 92 CHAPTER 5 Identity 93Christopher J. Hewer and Evanthia Lyons Identity and Human Relations 95 Categorization 95 Self and Society 96 Occupational Identity: Roles and Performance 97 Political Mobilization: National Identity and Nationalism 98 Identity Threats 101 Identity Politics 102 Image, Images, and Appearance 104 Political Identities 106 Social Identity Theory 106 Identity Process Theory 108 Discursive Approaches to Identity 109 Narrative Identities 111 Conclusions 111 Summary 112 Glossary 112 Further Reading 113 Questions for Group Discussion 113 CHAPTER 6 Narrating as Political Action 114Brian Schiff Psychology and Politics 116 Speech and Political Action 117 The Personal and Political Nature of Narrative 117 Expansive Political Narratives 118 Psychoanalytic and Personological Tradition 119 Narrative Approaches 119 Narrative Hermeneutics 120 Narrative and Narrating 120 Intensifying Persons and Social Context 121 Collective Memory 121 Repression 122 Relational Contexts 123 Meanings and Action 123 Producers and Consumers of Memory 124 Palestinians with Israeli Citizenship 124 Hiba: The Real Story 125 Lana: Torn Between the Two 128 Conclusions 130 Summary 131 Glossary 132 Further Reading 132 Questions for Group Discussion 132 CHAPTER 7 Connecting Social Exclusion and Agency: Social Class Matters 134Sarah Jay, Orla Muldoon, and Caroline Howarth Class Matters 136 Cultural Capital 138 The Precariat 139 Capitalist Restructuring and Poverty 140 Stigma 141 Collective Identities 141 The Individualization of Class 142 Agency and Social Class 143 Social Capital 144 Cultural Incompatibility in Education 145 Threats to Identity 146 The Transmission of Cultural Capital 146 Implications for a Social and Political Psychology of Social Exclusion 147 Conclusions 148 Summary 149 Glossary 150 Further Reading 150 Questions for Group Discussion 150 CHAPTER 8 Migration 152Spyridoula Ntani, Artemis M. Griva, and Xenia Chryssochoou Prejudice, Stereotypes, and Discrimination Against Immigrants 155 Stereotyping, Racism, and Forms of Discrimination Against Immigrant Groups 155 Explanations of Prejudice 156 Individual and Collective Reactions to Prejudice 157 Reducing Prejudice? The Contact Hypothesis 158 Changing Societies: The Issue of Acculturation 159 Changing Individuals: The Issue of Adaptation 162 Calling for a New Social Organization: The Paradox of Integration 163 Summary 166 Glossary 166 Further Reading 167 Questions for Group Discussion 167 CHAPTER 9 Political Decision?Making 168Jack S. Levy The Levels?of?Analysis Framework 171 The Rational Model of Judgment and Decision?Making 173 Psychological Models of Information Processing 175 Cognitive Biases 176 Motivated Biases 180 Psychological Models of Choice 182 Prospect Theory 183 Conclusion 185 Summary 186 Glossary 186 Further Reading 188 Questions for Group Discussion 188 CHAPTER 10 Foreign Policy and Identity 189Emma O’Dwyer Foreign Policy and Identity: Conceptual and Theoretical Anchors 192 The Influence of Citizens on Foreign Policy 193 Outgroup Perceptions and Foreign Policy Attitudes 194 A Case Study: Irish Neutrality 196 Irish Neutrality in Context 196 The Social Representation of Irish Neutrality 198 Cead Mile Failte Neutrality 199 The Macropolitical Dimension of Identity Construction 200 Constructing the National Ingroup in International Affairs 201 Unanswered Questions: Opportunities for Future Research 202 Summary 203 Glossary 204 Further Reading 205 Questions for Group Discussion 205 CHAPTER 11 Social Memory and the Collective Past 207Christopher J. Hewer The Role of the Past in the Formation of Identity 209 The Social Nature of Memory 211 Taxonomies and Classifications 212 The Resurgence of Interest in the Collective Past 213 Competing Memory Narratives 214 Communicative and Cultural Memory 216 How to Study the Collective Past 217 Landscape, Social Space, and Memory 217 Narratives 221 Social Representations of History 221 The Nature of Representations 222 Memory as Performance 224 The Collective Pasts of Families, Groups, and Organizations 224 Time Conceptions 225 The Politics of Remembering and Forgetting 226 The Individual and the Collective Past 227 Summary 228 Glossary 228 Further Reading 229 Questions for Group Discussion 229 CHAPTER 12 Crowds, Social Identities, and the Shaping of Everyday Social Relations 231Fergus G. Neville and Stephen D. Reicher The Political Significance of Social Identities 233 Classic Crowd Psychology: The Loss of Individual Identity in the Mass 235 Dispositional Theories: The Accentuation of Individual Characteristics in the Mass 236 Crowds and the Expression of Social Identities 238 A Social Identity Model of Crowds 239 Crowds and the Construction of Social Identities 241 An Elaborated Social Identity Model of Crowds 243 The Impact of Crowds Beyond the Crowd 244 Contesting the Meaning of Crowd Behavior 247 Summary 250 Acknowledgments 250 Glossary 250 Further Reading 251 Questions for Group Discussion 251 CHAPTER 13 State Militarism and International Conflict 253Stephen Gibson A Political Psychology of International Relations 256 The Individual?Social Dichotomy in Social and Political Psychology 257 Beyond Social Identity: Accounts of Military Service 259 Beyond Attitudes: Constructing Evaluations of the Iraq War 263 Concluding Remarks 268 Summary 269 Glossary 270 Further Reading 270 Questions for Group Discussion 270 CHAPTER 14 Social Influence and Malevolent Authority: Obedience Revisited 271Ron Roberts Milgram’s Studies of Obedience 273 How Did Milgram Interpret His Findings? 274 Ethics and Ecological Validity 274 Was There a Legitimate Parallel Between Milgram’s Laboratory and Nazi Germany? 276 The Political and Historical Context of Milgram’s Studies 278 The Contemporary Relevance of Milgram’s Work 279 The Role of Science and Bureaucracy 281 The Holocaust and the Eichmann Trial 282 A Reinterpretation of Milgram’s Studies 285 Free Will and Personal Responsibility 286 What Do We Learn From Milgram’s Studies? 287 A Social Psychology of Resistance 288 Summary 290 Glossary 290 Further Reading 290 Questions for Group Discussion 291 CHAPTER 15 Intergroup Conflict, Peace, and Reconciliation 292J. Christopher Cohrs, Johanna R. Vollhardt, and Shelley McKeown Intergroup Conflicts 295 Conflict Analysis 296 Conflict Management, Resolution, and Transformation 298 Conflict Resolution 299 Principles of Conflict Resolution 300 Achieving Conflict Resolution 300 Conflict Transformation 301 Conflict Transformation in Practice 302 Postconflict Reconstruction and Reconciliation 303 Social Psychological Definitions of Reconciliation 304 Instrumental Reconciliation 304 The Role of History and Power 304 Socioemotional Reconciliation and the Needs?Based Model of Reconciliation 306 History as a Necessity for and an Obstacle to Reconciliation 307 Conclusion 309 Summary 309 Glossary 310 Further Reading 311 Questions for Group Discussion 311 References 313 Index 349
Christopher J. Hewer is Senior Lecturer in Social and Political Psychology at Kingston University, London where he teaches critical social psychology and the psychology of art and film. His research interests focus on collective memory, shifting memorialization and forgetting in cultural discourse. Evanthia Lyons is Head of School and Professor of Social and Political Psychology at Kingston University, London, UK. Her research focuses on people's understanding of political processes and the factors that influence their engagement in conventional and unconventional political actions.
A RESEARCH-BASED GUIDE TO POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY THAT IS FILLED WITH CRITICAL ARGUMENTS FROM NOTED EXPERTS Political Psychology is solidly grounded in empirical research and critical arguments. The text puts the emphasis on alternative approaches to psychological enquiry that challenge our traditional assumptions about the world. With contributions from an international panel of experts, the text contains a meaningful exchange of ideas that draw on the disciplines of social psychology, sociology, history, media studies and philosophy. This important text offers a broader understanding of the different intellectual positions that academics may take towards political psychology. Comprehensive in scope Political Psychology provides a historical context to the subject and offers a critical history of common research methods. The contributors offer insight on political thought in psychology, the politics of psychological language, narrating as political action, political decision-making and much more. This important text: Offers contributions from a panel of international experts on the topic Includes a review of some political ideas associated with the work of Karl Marx, Erich Fromm, R.D. Laing, Michel Foucault and others Presents information on prejudice, stereotypes and discrimination in the context of mass migration Reviews a wide range of relevant topics such as identity, social exclusion and foreign policy and more Contains questions for group debate and discussion at the end of each chapter Written for academics and students of political psychology, Political Psychology is a comprehensive resource that includes contributions from experts in a variety of fields and disciplines.
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