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Photosynthesis, Productivity, and Environmental Stress


Photosynthesis, Productivity, and Environmental Stress


1. Aufl.

von: Parvaiz Ahmad, Mohammad Abass Ahanger, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Pravej Alam

152,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 10.09.2019
ISBN/EAN: 9781119501831
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 352

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Beschreibungen

<p><b>A guide to environmental fluctuations that examines photosynthesis under both controlled and stressed conditions</b></p> <p><i>Photosynthesis, Productivity and Environmental Stress</i> is a much-needed guide that explores the topics related to photosynthesis (both terrestrial and aquatic) and puts the focus on the basic effect of environmental fluctuations. The authors—noted experts on the topic—discuss photosynthesis under both controlled and stressed conditions and review new techniques for mitigating stressors including methods such as transgeneics, proteomics, genomics, ionomics, metabolomics, micromics, and more.  </p> <p>In order to feed our burgeoning world population, it is vital that we must increase food production. Photosynthesis is directly related to plant growth and crop production and any fluctuation in the photosynthetic activity imposes great threat to crop productivity. Due to the environmental fluctuations plants are often exposed to the different environmental stresses that cause decreased photosynthetic rate and problems in the plant growth and development. This important book addresses this topic and:</p> <ul> <li>Covers topics related to terrestrial and aquatic photosynthesis</li> <li>Highlights the basic effect of environmental fluctuations</li> <li>Explores common stressors such as drought, salinity, alkalinity, temperature, UV-radiations, oxygen deficiency, and more</li> <li>Contains methods and techniques for improving photosynthetic efficiency for greater crop yield </li> </ul> <p>Written for biologists and environmentalists, <i>Photosynthesis, Productivity and Environmental Stress </i>offers an overview of the stressors affecting photosynthesis and includes possible solutions for improved crop production.</p>
<p>List of Contributors xiii</p> <p>Preface xvii</p> <p>About the Editors xxi</p> <p><b>1 Effects of Organic Pollutants on Photosynthesis 1<br /> </b><i>Rupal Singh Tomar, Bhupendra Singh, and Anjana Jajoo</i></p> <p>1.1 Introduction to Organic Pollutants 1</p> <p>1.2 Characteristics of the Organic Pollutants 3</p> <p>1.3 Sources of Organic Pollutants 3</p> <p>1.4 Uptake and Accumulation of Organic Pollutants in Plants 4</p> <p>1.5 Effects of Organic Pollutants on Plant Growth 5</p> <p>1.6 Effects of Organic Pollutants on Photosynthesis 7</p> <p>1.6.1 Effects of Pesticides on the Light Reactions 7</p> <p>1.6.2 Effects of Pesticides on the Dark Reactions 9</p> <p>1.6.3 Effects of Antibiotics on the Light Reactions 11</p> <p>1.6.4 Effects of Antibiotics on the Dark Reactions 13</p> <p>1.6.5 Effects of Bisphenol A on the Light Reactions 13</p> <p>1.6.6 Effects of Bisphenol A on the Dark Reactions 14</p> <p>1.6.7 Effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on the Light Reactions 14</p> <p>1.6.8 Effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on the Dark Reactions 16</p> <p>1.7 Conclusion and Future Prospects 17</p> <p>References 18</p> <p><b>2 Cold Stress and Photosynthesis 27<br /> </b><i>Aditya Banerjee and Aryadeep Roychoudhury</i></p> <p>2.1 Introduction 27</p> <p>2.2 Primary Targets of Cold Stress in Plants 27</p> <p>2.3 Cold Stress Distorts the Chloroplast Membrane Integrity 28</p> <p>2.4 Cold Stress Damages the Photosynthetic Apparatus 28</p> <p>2.5 Cold Stress Affects Carbon Dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) Fixation 31</p> <p>2.6 Strategies to Ameliorate Cold Stress and Improve Photosynthesis 32</p> <p>2.7 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 33</p> <p>Acknowledgements 33</p> <p>References 33</p> <p><b>3 High‐Temperature Stress and Photosynthesis Under Pathological Impact 39<br /> </b><i>Murat Dikilitas, Eray Simsek, Sema Karakas, and Parvaiz Ahmad</i></p> <p>3.1 Introduction 39</p> <p>3.2 High‐Temperature Stress on Crop Plants 41</p> <p>3.3 High‐Temperature Stress on Photosynthesis Mechanisms 43</p> <p>3.4 Impact of Pathogens on Photosynthesis Mechanisms Under Temperature Stress 45</p> <p>3.5 Genomic, Biochemical, and Physiological Approaches for Crop Plants Under Temperature and Pathogenic Stresses 51</p> <p>3.6 Conclusions and Future Prospects 55</p> <p>References 55</p> <p><b>4 Effect of Light Intensity on Photosynthesis 65<br /> </b><i>Rinukshi Wimalasekera</i></p> <p>4.1 Introduction 65</p> <p>4.2 Characteristics of Light 66</p> <p>4.2.1 Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) 66</p> <p>4.3 Light Absorption and Pigments 67</p> <p>4.3.1 Dissipation of Excess Light Energy 67</p> <p>4.3.2 Photoinhibition 68</p> <p>4.4 Light Absorption by Leaves 68</p> <p>4.4.1 Light Absorption and the Anatomy, Morphology, and Biochemical Characteristics of Leaves 68</p> <p>4.4.2 Light‐Mediated Leaf Movement 69</p> <p>4.4.3 Light Absorption by Sun and Shade Adapted Leaves 69</p> <p>4.5 Light and Photosynthetic Responses 70</p> <p>4.6 Conclusion and Future Prospects 70</p> <p>References 71</p> <p><b>5 Regulation of Water Status, Chlorophyll Content, Sugar, and Photosynthesis in Maize Under Salinity by Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria 75<br /> </b><i>Yachana Jha</i></p> <p>5.1 Introduction 75</p> <p>5.2 Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria 76</p> <p>5.3 Isolation and Identification of Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria 77</p> <p>5.4 Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria Maintain the Photosynthetic Efficiency of Maize Under Salinity 78</p> <p>5.5 Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria Maintain the Photosynthetic Efficiency of Plants by Regulating Chlorophyll Content 79</p> <p>5.6 Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria Maintain the Photosynthetic Efficiency of Plants by Regulating Relative Water Content 80</p> <p>5.7 Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria Maintain the Photosynthetic Efficiency of Plants by Regulating Stomatal Behavior 82</p> <p>5.8 Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria Maintain Photosynthesis to Regulate Soluble Sugar by Altering Vascular Tissue 83</p> <p>5.9 Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria Maintain the Photosynthetic Efficiency of Plants by Accumulating Various Osmoprotectants 84</p> <p>5.10 Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria Maintain the Photosynthetic Efficiency of Plants by Regulating Sugar Biosynthesis 87</p> <p>5.11 Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria Maintain the Photosynthetic Efficiency of Plants by Reducing Ethylene Biosynthesis 88</p> <p>5.12 Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria Maintain the Photosynthetic Efficiency of Plants by Inducing Various Signaling Molecule 89</p> <p>5.13 Conclusion 90</p> <p>References 90</p> <p><b>6 Regulation of Photosynthesis Under Metal Stress 95<br /> </b><i>Mumtaz Khan, Neeha Nawaz, Ifthekhar Ali, Muhammad Azam, Muhammad Rizwan, Parvaiz Ahmad, and Shafaqat Ali</i></p> <p>6.1 Introduction 95</p> <p>6.2 Effects of Metals on Photosynthesis 96</p> <p>6.2.1 Reduction in CO<sub>2</sub> Stomatal Conductance and Mesophyll Transport 96</p> <p>6.2.2 Inhibition of Biosynthesis of Photosynthetic Pigments 97</p> <p>6.2.3 Changes in Leaf Morphology and Chloroplast Ultrastructure 97</p> <p>6.2.4 Induction of Reactive Oxygen Species 98</p> <p>6.2.5 Metal‐Induced Hormonal Changes 98</p> <p>6.2.6 Alterations in Photosynthetic Enzymes 99</p> <p>6.3 Mechanisms of Photosynthesis Regulation under Metal Stress 99</p> <p>6.3.1 Cell Signaling and Growth Hormones 99</p> <p>6.3.2 Avoiding and Scavenging Reactive Oxygen Species 100</p> <p>6.3.3 Interconversion of Chlorophylls 101</p> <p>6.3.4 Role of Alleviatory Agents in Photosynthesis Regulation 101</p> <p>6.3.5 Photosynthesis Regulation Through Overexpression of Genes 102</p> <p>6.4 Conclusions 102</p> <p>References 102</p> <p><b>7 Heavy Metals and Photosynthesis: Recent Developments 107<br /> </b><i>Zahra Souri, Amanda A. Cardoso, Cristiane J. da‐Silva, Letuzia M. de Oliveira, Biswanath Dari, Debjani Sihi, and Naser Karimi</i></p> <p>7.1 Introduction 107</p> <p>7.2 Heavy Metals and Hyperaccumulation 109</p> <p>7.2.1 Characteristics of Hyperaccumulator Plants 110</p> <p>7.2.2 Hyperaccumulation and Photosynthesis 112</p> <p>7.3 Heavy Metals and Chloroplast Structure 113</p> <p>7.4 Heavy Metals and Gas‐Exchange 115</p> <p>7.5 Heavy Metals and Photosynthetic Pigments 115</p> <p>7.6 Heavy Metals and Photosystems (PSI and PSII) 117</p> <p>7.7 Heavy Metals and Key Photosynthetic Enzymes 120</p> <p>7.8 Heavy Metals and Antioxidant Defense Mechanism of the Photosynthetic System 121</p> <p>7.9 Conclusion and Further Prospects 123</p> <p>References 125</p> <p><b>8 Toward Understanding the Regulation of Photosynthesis under Abiotic Stresses: Recent Developments 135<br /> </b><i>Syed Sarfraz Hussain</i></p> <p>8.1 Introduction: Abiotic Stresses, Photosynthesis and Plant Productivity 135</p> <p>8.1.1 Impact of Abiotic Stress on the Photosynthetic System of Plants 137</p> <p>8.1.2 Drought Stress 137</p> <p>8.1.3 Salinity Stress 139</p> <p>8.1.4 Cold Stress 142</p> <p>8.1.5 Heat Stress 144</p> <p>8.2 Overexpression of Photosynthesis Related Genes and Transcription Factors 145</p> <p>8.3 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 146</p> <p>References 147</p> <p><b>9 Current Understanding of the Regulatory Roles of miRNAs for Enhancing Photosynthesis in Plants Under Environmental Stresses 163<br /> </b><i>Syed Sarfraz Hussain, Meeshaw Hussain, Muhammad Irfan, and Bujun Shi</i></p> <p>9.1 Introduction: Interaction Between miRNAs and Plant Growth/Functional Diversity of miRNAs and Their Impact in Plant Growth 163</p> <p>9.2 miRNAs Involved in Photosynthesis and Other Downstream Biological Processes 165</p> <p>9.3 Abiotic Stresses Drastically Affect Photosynthesis and Plant Productivity 166</p> <p>9.4 Genome Wide miRNA Profiling Under Abiotic Stresses 168</p> <p>9.5 Functional Characterization of miRNAs Associated with Photosynthesis 170</p> <p>9.6 miRNAs and Shoot/Tiller Development 172</p> <p>9.7 miRNAs in Root Development 173</p> <p>9.8 miRNAs in Controlling Stomatal Density 175</p> <p>9.9 miRNAs in Hormone Signaling 175</p> <p>9.10 miRNAs in Controlling Nodule Development in Leguminous Crops 176</p> <p>9.11 Conclusion and Future Perspective 177</p> <p>References 178</p> <p><b>10 Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria Mediated Regulation of Secondary Metabolites for Proper Photosynthesis in Maize Under Stress 197<br /> </b><i>Yachana Jha</i></p> <p>10.1 Introduction 197</p> <p>10.2 Isolation and Inoculation of Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria 198</p> <p>10.2.1 Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria Mediated Regulation of Nutrients for Secondary Metabolites Production and Photosynthesis 200</p> <p>10.2.2 Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria Mediated Regulation of Chlorophyll Content for Secondary Metabolites Production and Photosynthesis 201</p> <p>10.2.3 Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria Mediated Regulation of Carbon/Sugar Metabolites for Secondary Metabolites Production and Photosynthesis 203</p> <p>10.2.4 Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria Mediated Regulation of Nitrogen Metabolites for Secondary Metabolites Production and Photosynthesis 206</p> <p>10.2.5 Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria Mediated Regulation of Secondary Metabolites Production and Photosynthesis Under Biotic Stress 207</p> <p>10.2.6 Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria Mediated Regulation of Secondary Metabolites Production and Photosynthesis Under Abiotic Stress 207</p> <p>10.2.7 Mineral Mobilizing Bacteria Mediated Regulation of Gene Expression for Secondary Metabolites Production and Photosynthesis 208</p> <p>10.3 Conclusion 210</p> <p>References 210</p> <p><b>11 Role of Plant Hormones in Improving Photosynthesis 215<br /> </b><i>Belur Satyan Kumudini and Savita Veeranagouda Patil</i></p> <p>11.1 Introduction 215</p> <p>11.2 Phytohormones: Watchdogs of Plant Growth and Development 216</p> <p>11.2.1 Auxins 216</p> <p>11.2.2 Gibberellins or Gibberellic Acids 217</p> <p>11.2.3 Cytokinins 217</p> <p>11.2.4 Ethylene 218</p> <p>11.2.5 Abscisic Acid 218</p> <p>11.2.6 Jasmonic Acid 220</p> <p>11.2.7 Salicylic Acid 220</p> <p>11.2.8 Brassinosteroids 220</p> <p>11.2.9 Strigolactones 221</p> <p>11.3 Photosynthesis 221</p> <p>11.3.1 Role of Plant Hormones in Photosynthesis 222</p> <p>11.4 Phytohormones and Abiotic Stress Tolerance vis‐a‐vis Photosynthesis 223</p> <p>11.4.1 Heavy Metals 223</p> <p>11.4.2 Salinity 224</p> <p>11.4.3 Drought 225</p> <p>11.5 Deciphering the Role of Phytohormones in Perceiving Photosynthesis During Biotic Stress 225</p> <p>11.6 Interplay Between the Phytohormones to Facilitate Photosynthesis Under Stress 227</p> <p>11.7 Conclusion and Future Prospects 228</p> <p>Acknowledgments 228</p> <p>References 228</p> <p><b>12 Promising Monitoring Techniques for Plant Science: Thermal and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging 241<br /> </b><i>Aykut Saglam, Laury Chaerle, Dominique Van Der Straeten, and Roland Valcke</i></p> <p>Abbreviations 241</p> <p>12.1 Introduction 241</p> <p>12.2 Thermal Imaging 242</p> <p>12.2.1 Plant Water Status and Drought Stress 243</p> <p>12.2.2 Salt Stress 245</p> <p>12.2.3 Herbicide Stress 245</p> <p>12.2.4 Air Humidity and Air Pollutants 245</p> <p>12.2.5 Ice Nucleation and Freezing 246</p> <p>12.2.6 Plant–Pathogen Interactions 247</p> <p>12.2.7 Herbivory Effects 249</p> <p>12.3 Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging 249</p> <p>12.3.1 Drought Stress 251</p> <p>12.3.2 Light Stress 252</p> <p>12.3.3 Herbicide Stress 252</p> <p>12.3.4 Air Pollutants 254</p> <p>12.3.5 Mineral Deficiency and Toxicity 255</p> <p>12.3.6 Pathogen Effects 256</p> <p>12.3.7 Herbivory Effects 258</p> <p>12.4 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 259</p> <p>References 260</p> <p><b>13 Introgression of C4 Pathway Gene(s) in C3 Plants to Improve Photosynthetic Carbon Assimilation for Crop Improvement: A Biotechnological Approach 267<br /> </b><i>Sonam Yadav and Avinash Mishra</i></p> <p>13.1 Introduction 267</p> <p>13.2 Carbon Assimilation 268</p> <p>13.2.1 CO<sub>2 </sub>Assimilation in C3 Plants: Photorespiration a Major Constraint 268</p> <p>13.2.2 CO<sub>2 </sub>Assimilation in C4 Plants: Efficient Photosynthesis 269</p> <p>13.2.3 C3 vs. C4 Plants 271</p> <p>13.3 Evolution of C4 Metabolism in Higher Plants 271</p> <p>13.3.1 Environmental Imperatives/Obligations 272</p> <p>13.3.2 Evolution of C4 Photosynthesis Gene(s) 272</p> <p>13.4 Effect of Elevated CO<sub>2</sub> on C3 and C4 Plants 273</p> <p>13.5 Ectopic Expression of C4 Photosynthesis Genes in C3 Plants 274</p> <p>13.5.1 Single Gene Introgression 274</p> <p>13.5.2 Double Gene Introgression 275</p> <p>13.6 Conclusion 275</p> <p>Acknowledgment 276</p> <p>References 276</p> <p><b>14 Interaction of Photosynthesis, Productivity, and Environment 283<br /> </b><i>Ulduza Ahmad Gurbanova, Tofig Idris Allahverdiyev, Hasan Garib Babayev, Shahnigar Mikayil Bayramov, and Irada Mammad Huseynova</i></p> <p>14.1 Introduction 283</p> <p>14.2 Plant Materials 286</p> <p>14.3 Effect of Drought Stress on Some Physiological Traits, Yield, and Yield Components of Durum (Triticum durum Desf.) and Bread (Triticum aestivum L.) Wheat Genotypes 286</p> <p>14.4 Subcellular Localization of the NADP‐Malic Enzyme and NAD‐Malic Enzyme Activity in the Leaves of the Wheat Genotypes Under Soil Drought Conditions 299</p> <p>14.5 Physico‐Chemical Parameters of NADP‐Malic Enzyme and NAD‐Malic Enzyme in the Leaves of the Barakatli 95 and Garagylchyg 2 Genotypes Under Soil Drought Conditions 302</p> <p>14.6 Conclusion 310</p> <p>Acknowledgement 311</p> <p>References 311</p> <p>Index 315</p>
<p><b>ABOUT THE EDITORS</b> <p><b>PARVAIZ AHMAD,</b> Department of Botany and Microbiology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and Department of Botany, S. P. College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. <p><b>MOHAMMAD ABASS AHANGER,</b> College of Life Science, NorthWest A & F University, Yangling Shaanxi, China. <p><b>MOHAMMED NASSER ALYEMENI,</b> Department of Botany and Microbiology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. <p><b>PRAVEJ ALAM,</b> Department of Biology, Prince Sattam bin Abdul Aziz University, Alkharaj, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
<p><b>A guide to environmental fluctuations that examines photosynthesis under both controlled and stressed conditions</b> <p><i>Photosynthesis, Productivity, and Environmental Stress</i> is a much-needed guide that explores the topics related to photosynthesis (both terrestrial and aquatic) and puts the focus on the basic effect of environmental fluctuations. The authors—noted experts on the topic—discuss photosynthesis??under both controlled and stressed conditions and review new techniques for mitigating stressors including methods such as transgeneics, proteomics, genomics, ionomics, metabolomics, micromics, and more. <p>In order to feed our burgeoning world population, it is vital that we must increase food production. Photosynthesis is directly related to plant growth and crop production and any fluctuation in the photosynthetic activity imposes great threat to crop productivity. Due to the environmental fluctuations plants are often exposed to the different environmental stresses that cause decreased photosynthetic rate and problems in the plant growth and development. This important book addresses this topic and: <ul> <li>Covers topics related to terrestrial and aquatic photosynthesis</li> <li>Highlights the basic effect of environmental fluctuations</li> <li>Explores common stressors such as drought, salinity, alkalinity, temperature, UV-radiations, oxygen deficiency, and more</li> <li>Contains methods and techniques for improving photosynthetic efficiency for greater crop yield</li> </ul> <p>Written for biologists and environmentalists, <i>Photosynthesis, Productivity, and Environmental Stress</i> offers an overview of the stressors affecting photosynthesis and includes possible solutions for improved crop production.

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