Details

People Flow in Buildings


People Flow in Buildings


1. Aufl.

von: Marja-Liisa Siikonen

102,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 10.09.2021
ISBN/EAN: 9781119545552
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 448

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

<p><b>Discover how to measure, control, model, and plan people flow within modern buildings with this one-stop resource from a leading professional </b></p> <p><i>People Flow in Buildings</i> delivers a comprehensive and insightful description of people flow, analysis with software-based tools. The book offers readers an up-to-date overview of mathematical optimization methods used in control systems and transportation planning methods used to manage  vertical and horizontal transportation. </p> <p>The text offers a starting point for selecting the optimal transportation equipment for new buildings and those being modernized. It provides insight into making passenger journeys pleasant and smooth, while providing readers with an examination of how modern trends in building usage, like increasingly tall buildings and COVID-19, effect people flow planning in buildings. </p> <p><i>People Flow in Buildings</i> clearly defines the terms and symbols it includes and then moves on to deal with the measurement, control, modelling, and planning of people flow within buildings of all kinds. Each chapter contains an introduction describing its contents and the background of the subject. Included appendices describe measured passenger data and performed analyses. </p> <p>Readers will also benefit from the inclusion of: </p> <ul> <li>A thorough introduction to people-counting methods, including counting technology inside and outside buildings, passenger traffic components, and manual people-counting </li> <li>An examination of the passenger arrival process in building, including the Poisson arrival process and probability density function, and passenger arrivals in batches </li> <li>A consideration of daily vertical passenger traffic profiles, including two-way traffic profiles and the effects of inter-floor traffic </li> <li>An exploration of people flow solutions, including stairs, escalators, and elevators with collective and destination group control systems, as well as double-deck and multicar system </li> <li>People flow calculation and simulation models </li> <li>Elevator planning with ISO simulation method </li> <li>Elevator planning and evacuation of tall buildings  </li> </ul> <p>Perfect for software designers in the private sector and academia, <i>People Flow in Buildings</i> will also earn a place in the libraries of elevator consultants, manufacturers, and architects who seek a one-stop reference for transportation devices from a functional and design perspective, as opposed to a hardware perspective. </p>
<p>Symbols and Abbreviations</p> <p>Preface</p> <p>Scope of the book</p> <p><b>PART I</b></p> <p><b>1. Building design population</b></p> <p>1.1 Office building population</p> <p>1.2 Number of inhabitants in residential buildings</p> <p>1.3 Number of hotel guests</p> <p>1.4 People arriving from parking areas</p> <p>1.5 Population in hospitals</p> <p>1.6 Other types of populated buildings</p> <p><b>2. People counting methods</b></p> <p>2.1. Counting technology inside and outside buildings</p> <p>2.2. Passenger traffic components</p> <p>2.3. Manual people-counting</p> <p>2.4. Use of optical vision</p> <p>2.5. Visitor-counting with photocell signals and infra-red beams</p> <p>2.6. People-counting with access control system</p> <p>2.7. Passenger-counting by load-weighing device</p> <p>2.8. Elevator monitoring systems</p> <p>2.9. External traffic measurement devices</p> <p>2.10. Smart sensing and mobile computing</p> <p><b>3. Passenger arrival process in buildings</b></p> <p>3.1 Introduction</p> <p>3.2 Poisson arrival process</p> <p>3.2.1 Probability density function</p> <p>3.2.2 Example of passenger arrivals through security cages</p> <p>3.3 Passenger arrivals in batches</p> <p>3.3.1 Batch arrivals in elevator lobbies</p> <p>3.3.2 Batch arrivals in escalators</p> <p>3.3.3 Observed batch size distributions in several building types</p> <p>3.3.4 Batch size variation in elevator lobbies during the day</p> <p>3.3.5 Modelling of batch size distribution</p> <p><b>4. Daily vertical passenger traffic profiles</b></p> <p>4.1 Introduction</p> <p>4.1 Vertical building traffic components</p> <p>4.1 Two-way traffic profiles</p> <p>4.1 Effect of inter-floor traffic</p> <p>4.1 Occupancy in buildings</p> <p>4.2 Passenger trips with elevators</p> <p>4.3 People flow in office buildings</p> <p>4.3.1 Traffic in offices</p> <p>4.3.2 Observed daily two-way traffic profiles</p> <p>4.3.3 Daily traffic profiles with interfloor traffic</p> <p>4.4 People flow in hotels</p> <p>4.4.1 Traffic in hotels</p> <p>4.4.2 Daily traffic profiles in hotels</p> <p>4.5 People flow in residential buildings</p> <p>4.5.1 Traffic in residential buildings</p> <p>4.5.2 Traffic profiles in residential buildings</p> <p>4.6 People flow profiles in hospitals</p> <p>4.6.1 Hospital traffic</p> <p>4.6.2 Daily traffic in hospitals</p> <p>4.7 People flow in commercial and public buildings</p> <p>4.7.1 Traffic in commercial and public buildings</p> <p>4.7.2 Daily people flow in escalators</p> <p>4.7.3 Daily people flow in elevators in shopping centers</p> <p>4.7.4 Duration of a visit in a shopping centre</p> <p>4.7.5 People flow by GPS in public buildings</p> <p>4.8 People flow on cruise ships</p> <p>4.8.1 Traffic in cruisers</p> <p>4.8.2 Daily traffic profiles for typical days</p> <p><b>5. Monitored elevator traffic data</b></p> <p>5.1 Introduction</p> <p>5.2 Service quality parameters</p> <p>5.3 Measured passenger service level</p> <p>5.3.1 Measured passenger traffic with external device</p> <p>5.3.2 Call time distribution</p> <p>5.3.3 Waiting time distribution with destination control</p> <p>5.3.4 Monthly service times</p> <p>5.4 Measured elevator performance</p> <p>5.4.1 Number of starts during a month</p> <p>5.4.2 Correlation between cycle time and round trip time</p> <p><b>Part II: People flow solutions</b></p> <p><b>6. Historical overview</b></p> <p><b>7. Push button control systems</b></p> <p>7.1 Signal operation</p> <p>7.2 Single-button collective control</p> <p>7.3 Down collective control</p> <p>7.4 Interconnected full collective control principle</p> <p><b>8. Collective group control system</b></p> <p>8.1 Software-based collective control system</p> <p>8.2 Bunching</p> <p>8.3 Next car up</p> <p>8.4 Dynamic sub-zoning</p> <p>8.5 Channeling</p> <p>8.6 Queue selective control system</p> <p><b>9. Intelligent group control systems</b></p> <p>9.1 Performance requirements</p> <p>9.2 Control system architectures</p> <p><b>10. Artificial Intelligence in elevator dispatching</b></p> <p>10.1 Introduction</p> <p>10.2 AI architectures</p> <p>10.3 Traffic forecasting</p> <p>10.4 Fuzzy logic</p> <p>10.5 Genetic algorithm</p> <p>10.6 Neural networks</p> <p>10.7 Optimization objective functions</p> <p>10.8 Elevator lobby with collective control system</p> <p>10.9 Hospital service modes</p> <p><b>11. Destination control system</b></p> <p>11.1 Adaptive call allocation algorithm</p> <p>11.2 Destination control system</p> <p>11.3 Hybrid destination control system</p> <p>11.4 “Harmonized” elevator dispatching</p> <p>11.5 Elevator lobby with destination control system</p> <p><b>12. Multi-car control systems</b></p> <p>12.1 Introduction</p> <p>12.2 Paternoster</p> <p>12.3 Odyssey</p> <p>12.4 Double-deck elevators</p> <p>12.4.1 Functional principle of double-deck elevators</p> <p>12.4.2 Double-deck collective control</p> <p>12.4.3 Double-deck destination control</p> <p>12.4.4 Harmonized dispatching for double-deck elevators</p> <p>12.5 TWIN</p> <p>12.6 MULTI</p> <p>12.7 Other possible multi-car elevator control systems</p> <p><b>13. Access control systems</b></p> <p>2.11. Application areas</p> <p>2.12. Access control by an external provider</p> <p>2.13. Access control embedded in an elevator control</p> <p><b>14. Architectural considerations of elevators</b></p> <p>14.1 Layouts with conventional control</p> <p>14.2 Layouts with destination control system</p> <p>14.3 Dimensions of passenger elevators</p> <p>14.1 Vertical elevator dimensions</p> <p>14.2 Lobby arrangement with double-deck elevators</p> <p><b>15. Architectural considerations of other people flow solutions</b></p> <p>15.1 Escalator arrangements</p> <p>15.2 Horizontal escalator dimensions</p> <p>15.3 Vertical escalator dimensions</p> <p>15.4 Dimensions of moving walkways</p> <p>15.5 Staircase dimensions</p> <p>15.6 Building door types</p> <p><b>Part III: People flow calculation methods</b></p> <p><b>16. Introduction</b></p> <p><b>17. Elevator traffic calculation methods</b></p> <p>17.1 Elevator performance parameters</p> <p>17.2 Elevator handling capacity equation</p> <p>17.3 Elevator kinematics</p> <p>17.3.1 Elevator rated speed</p> <p>17.3.2 Flight time calculation</p> <p>17.4 Up-peak roundtrip time equations</p> <p>17.4.1 Uniform passenger arrivals</p> <p>17.4.2 Poisson arrival process</p> <p>17.4.3 Uniform arrival process for r-floor elevator jumps</p> <p>17.4.4 Poisson arrival process for r-floor elevator jumps</p> <p>17.4.5 Uniform arrival process for elevator jumps between floor pairs</p> <p>17.4.6 Poisson arrival process for elevator jumps between floor pairs</p> <p>17.4.7 A generalized roundtrip time formula</p> <p>17.5 Round trip time related equations</p> <p>17.5.1 Shuttle elevators</p> <p>17.5.2 Express zones</p> <p>17.5.3 Dynamic zoning in up-peak</p> <p>17.5.4 Unsymmetric elevator groups</p> <p>17.5.5 Multiple entrance floors</p> <p>17.5.6 Two-way traffic</p> <p>17.6 Multicar traffic analysis</p> <p>17.6.1 Paternoster performance</p> <p>17.6.2 Double-deck performance</p> <p>17.6.3 Number of MULTI cabins and shafts</p> <p><b>18. Passenger service level</b></p> <p>18.1 Queuing theoretical approach</p> <p>18.1.1 Waiting times</p> <p>18.1.2 Transit times</p> <p>18.1.3 Journey time</p> <p>18.2 Queuing at hot spots</p> <p>18.3 Egress time with elevators</p> <p><b>19. Pedestrian traffic</b></p> <p>19.1 People flow density</p> <p>19.1.1 Level of Service</p> <p>19.1.2 Human body size</p> <p>19.1.3 Passenger characteristics</p> <p>19.1.4 Passenger space demand in elevators</p> <p>19.2 Escalator handling capacity</p> <p>19.3 Handling capacity of moving walkways</p> <p>19.4 People flow in walkways</p> <p>19.5 People flow in staircases</p> <p>19.6 People flow in corridors and doorways</p> <p>19.7 Handling capacities of turnstiles and ticket counters</p> <p>19.8 Number of destination operation panels</p> <p><b>Part IV: People flow simulation methods</b></p> <p><b>20. Introduction</b></p> <p><b>21. Traffic simulation methods</b></p> <p>21.1 Monte Carlo simulation</p> <p>21.2 Passenger traffic generation</p> <p>21.3 Traffic simulation of an elevator group</p> <p>21.4 Building traffic simulation</p> <p>21.5 People flow simulation</p> <p>21.5.1 Simulation software architecture</p> <p>21.5.2 Passenger routing model</p> <p>22. Simulation procedure</p> <p>22.1 Simulated handling capacity</p> <p>22.2 Initial transient</p> <p>22.3 Stepwise or ramp arrival profiles</p> <p>22.4 Traffic patterns</p> <p>22.4.1 Introduction</p> <p>22.4.2 Office traffic templates</p> <p>22.4.3 Hotel traffic templates</p> <p>22.4.4 Traffic templates of residential buildings</p> <p><b>23. Validation of elevator traffic simulation software</b></p> <p>23.1 Introduction</p> <p>23.2 Verification of simulator models</p> <p>23.3 Validation of the elevator traffic simulator</p> <p><b>24. Simulated elevator performance and passenger service level</b></p> <p>24.1 Introduction</p> <p>24.1 Up-peak boosting</p> <p>24.1.1 Traffic boosting with destination control</p> <p>24.1.2 Boosting with double-deck system</p> <p>24.1.3 Effect of elevator group size</p> <p>24.2 Traffic simulations with diverse control systems</p> <p>24.2.1 Simulation setup for an example building</p> <p>24.2.2 Conventional control with single-car elevator system</p> <p>24.2.3 Destination control with single-car elevator system</p> <p>24.2.4 Conventional control double-deck system</p> <p>24.2.5 Destination control double-deck system</p> <p>24.3 Comparison handling capacities</p> <p>24.4 Service time distributions with conventional system</p> <p><b>Part V: People flow planning and evacuation</b></p> <p><b>25. Introduction</b></p> <p><b>26. ISO 8100-32</b></p> <p>26.1 Background</p> <p>26.2 Design process</p> <p>26.3 ISO calculation method</p> <p>26.1 ISO simulation method</p> <p>26.2 Selection of rated load based on mass</p> <p>26.3 Selection of rated load based on area and mass</p> <p><b>27. Design criteria</b></p> <p>27.1 ISO 8100-32 design criteria</p> <p>27.2 BCO design criteria for offices</p> <p>27.3 Other design criteria</p> <p><b>28. Elevatoring low and mid-rise buildings</b></p> <p>28.1 Offices</p> <p>28.2 Hotels</p> <p>28.3 Residential buildings</p> <p>28.4 Hospitals</p> <p>28.5 Parking areas</p> <p><b>29. People transportation in commercial and public buildings</b></p> <p>29.1 Mass transits</p> <p>29.2 Public transportation buildings</p> <p>29.3 Commercial buildings</p> <p>29.4 Observation decks</p> <p><b>30. Elevatoring tall buildigs</b></p> <p>30.1 Background</p> <p>30.2 Zoning of supertall buildings</p> <p>30.3 Example zonings of a supertall building</p> <p>30.4 Arrangements with zoning from the ground</p> <p>30.4.1 Elevator arrangement selection with ISO simulation method</p> <p>30.4.2 Elevator group lobby layouts</p> <p>30.4.3 Main entrance core areas</p> <p>30.5 Sky lobby arrangement</p> <p>30.5.1 Double-deck shuttle elevators</p> <p>30.5.2 Multi-car shuttle elevators</p> <p>30.5.3 Elevator selection with ISO simulation method</p> <p>30.5.4 Elevator group loofbby layouts</p> <p>30.5.5 Main entrance core areas for sky lobby arrangements</p> <p><b>31. Core space of different arrangements</b></p> <p><b>32. Building evacuation</b></p> <p>32.1 Introduction</p> <p>32.2 Egress time calculation in building design</p> <p>32.2.1 Background</p> <p>32.2.2 Egress by stairs</p> <p>32.2.3 Egress by elevators</p> <p>32.3 Generic emergency evacuation types</p> <p>32.3.1 Non-fire emergency evacuation</p> <p>32.3.2 Fire evacuation modes</p> <p>32.3.3 Scenatio configuration from BMS</p> <p>32.4 Elevator evacuation-related standards and guidelines</p> <p>32.4.1 Evacuation elevator requirements</p> <p>32.4.2 Firefighters lifts - EN 81-72:2015</p> <p>32.4.3 Evacuation of disabled persons using lifts - CEN/TS 81-76:2011</p> <p>32.4.4 Occupant Evacuation Operation - ASME A17.1:2013</p> <p>32.4.5 Elevators used to assist in building evacuation - ISO/TS 18870:2014</p> <p>32.5 Evacuation strategies of megatall buildings</p> <p>32.5.1 Introduction</p> <p>32.5.2 Jeddah Tower</p> <p>32.5.3 Shanghai Tower</p> <p>32.5.4 Royal Clock Tower, Makkah</p> <p>32.5.5 One World Trade Center, New York</p> <p><b>33. How high can we go?</b></p> <p>Epilogue</p> <p>Bibliography</p> <p>Glossary</p>
<p><b>Dr. Marja-Liisa Siikonen (née Jokela), PhD,</b> is the CEO of MLS Lift Consulting. Earlier she worked as a Director of People Flow Planning in KONE Corporation, Finland. She received her M.Sc. in technical physics, and Lic.Sc. (Tech.) and D.Sc. (Tech.) degree in applied mathematics from the Helsinki University of Technology. She has published around 100 articles and holds 250 patents in the field of elevator control systems and energy consumption, elevator traffic planning, building traffic simulation and evacuation, and people flow in buildings.
<p><b>Discover how to measure, control, model, and plan people flow within modern buildings with this one-stop resource from a leading professional</b> <p><i>People Flow in Buildings</i> delivers a comprehensive and insightful description of people flow, analyzed with software-based tools. The book offers readers an up-to-date overview of mathematical optimization methods used in control systems and transportation planning methods used to manage vertical and horizontal transportation. <p>The text offers a starting point for selecting the optimal transportation equipment for new buildings and those being modernized. It provides insight into making passenger journeys pleasant and smooth, while providing readers with an examination of how modern trends in building usage, like increasingly tall buildings and COVID-19, affect people flow planning in buildings. <p><i>People Flow in Buildings</i> clearly defines terms and symbols and then moves on to the measurement, control, modelling, and planning of people flow within buildings of all kinds. Each chapter contains an introduction describing its contents and the background of the subject. Included appendices describe measured passenger data and performed analyses. <p>The book also provides: <ul><li>A thorough introduction to people-counting methods, including counting technology inside and outside buildings, passenger traffic components, and manual people-counting</li><li>An examination of the passenger arrival process in building, including the Poisson arrival process and probability density function, and passenger arrivals in batches</li> <li>A consideration of daily vertical passenger traffic profiles, including two-way traffic profiles and the effects of inter-floor traffic</li> <li>An exploration of people flow solutions, including stairs, escalators, and elevators with collective and destination group control systems, as well as double-deck and multicar system</li><li>The latter part of the book concentrates on people flow planning by calculation and traffic simulation methods</li><li>The effect of traffic patterns for simulation results are compared and examples of elevator planning using the ISO 8100-32 standard, and CIBSE Guide D are shown for different building types</li><li>Finally the status of evacuation standards and examples of evacuation modes in tall buildings are described</li></ul> <p>Perfect for software designers in the private sector and academia, <i>People Flow in Buildings</i> also appeals to elevator consultants, manufacturers, and architects who seek a one-stop reference for transportation devices from a functional and design perspective, as opposed to a hardware perspective.

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