Details

Paleoclimatology


Paleoclimatology

From Snowball Earth to the Anthropocene
1. Aufl.

von: Colin P. Summerhayes

66,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 10.06.2020
ISBN/EAN: 9781119591474
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 560

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Beschreibungen

<p>Life on our planet depends upon having a climate that changes within narrow limits – not too hot for the oceans to boil away nor too cold for the planet to freeze over. Over the past billion years Earth’s average temperature has stayed close to 14-15°C, oscillating between warm greenhouse states and cold icehouse states. We live with variation, but a variation with limits. Paleoclimatology is the science of understanding and explaining those variations, those limits, and the forces that control them. Without that understanding we will not be able to foresee future change accurately as our population grows. Our impact on the planet is now equal to a geological force, such that many geologists now see us as living in a new geological era – the Anthropocene.</p> <p><i>Paleoclimatology</i> describes Earth’s passage through the greenhouse and icehouse worlds of the past 800 million years, including the glaciations of Snowball Earth in a world that was then free of land plants. It describes the operation of the Earth’s thermostat, which keeps the planet fit for life, and its control by interactions between greenhouse gases, land plants, chemical weathering, continental motions, volcanic activity, orbital change and solar variability. It explains how we arrived at our current understanding of the climate system, by reviewing the contributions of scientists since the mid-1700s, showing how their ideas were modified as science progressed. And it includes reflections based on the author’s involvement in palaeoclimatic research.</p> <p>The book will transform debate and set the agenda for the next generation of thought about future climate change. It will be an invaluable course reference for undergraduate and postgraduate students in geology, climatology, oceanography and the history of science.</p> <p> </p>
<p>Author Biography xi</p> <p>Acknowledgement xiii</p> <p><b>1 Introduction </b><b>1</b></p> <p>1.1 What is Palaeoclimatology? 1</p> <p>1.2 What Can Palaeoclimatology Tell Us About Future Climate Change? 2</p> <p>1.3 Using Numerical Models to Aid Understanding 4</p> <p>1.4 The Structure of This Book 4</p> <p>1.5 Why is This History Not More Widely Known? 6</p> <p>References 7</p> <p><b>2 The Great Cooling </b><b>9</b></p> <p>2.1 The Founding Fathers 9</p> <p>2.2 Charles Lyell, ‘Father of Palaeoclimatology’ 13</p> <p>2.3 Agassiz Discovers the Ice Age 19</p> <p>2.4 Lyell Defends Icebergs 22</p> <p>References 28</p> <p><b>3 Ice Age Cycles </b><b>31</b></p> <p>3.1 The Astronomical Theory of Climate Change 31</p> <p>3.2 James Croll Develops the Theory 33</p> <p>3.3 Lyell Responds 35</p> <p>3.4 Croll Defends His Position 36</p> <p>3.5 Even More Ancient Ice Ages 37</p> <p>3.6 Not Everyone Agrees 38</p> <p>References 39</p> <p><b>4 Trace Gases Warm The Planet </b><b>41</b></p> <p>4.1 De Saussure’s Hot Box 41</p> <p>4.2 William Herschel’s Accidental Discovery 41</p> <p>4.3 Discovering Carbon Dioxide 42</p> <p>4.4 Fourier, the ‘Newton of Heat’ Discovers the ‘Greenhouse Effect’ 43</p> <p>4.5 Tyndall Shows How the ‘Greenhouse Effect’ Works 44</p> <p>4.6 Arrhenius Calculates How CO<sub>2 </sub>Affects Air Temperature 47</p> <p>4.7 Chamberlin’s Theory of Gases and Ice Ages 49</p> <p>References 53</p> <p><b>5 Changing Geography Through Time </b><b>57</b></p> <p>5.1 The Continents Drift 57</p> <p>5.2 The Sea Floor Spreads 63</p> <p>5.3 The Dating Game 71</p> <p>5.4 Base Maps for Palaeoclimatology 72</p> <p>5.5 The Evolution of the Modern World 74</p> <p>References 77</p> <p><b>6 Mapping Past Climates </b><b>81</b></p> <p>6.1 Climate Indicators 81</p> <p>6.2 Palaeoclimatologists Get to Work 82</p> <p>6.3 Refining Palaeolatitudes 86</p> <p>6.4 Oxygen Isotopes to the Rescue 87</p> <p>6.5 Cycles and Astronomy 88</p> <p>6.6 Pangaean Palaeoclimates (Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic) 91</p> <p>6.7 Post-Break Up Palaeoclimates (Jurassic, Cretaceous) 97</p> <p>6.8 Numerical Models Make Their Appearance 104</p> <p>6.9 From Wegener to Barron 110</p> <p>References 110</p> <p><b>7 Into the Icehouse </b><b>117</b></p> <p>7.1 Climate Clues from the Deep Ocean 117</p> <p>7.2 Palaeoceanography 118</p> <p>7.3 The World’s Freezer 124</p> <p>7.4 The Drill Bit Turns 126</p> <p>7.5 Global Cooling 131</p> <p>7.6 Arctic Glaciation 138</p> <p>References 141</p> <p><b>8 Greenhouse Gas Theory Matures </b><b>147</b></p> <p>8.1 CO<sub>2</sub> in the Atmosphere and Ocean (1930–1955) 147</p> <p>8.2 CO<sub>2</sub> in the Atmosphere and Ocean (1955–1979) 149</p> <p>8.3 CO<sub>2</sub> in the Atmosphere and Ocean (1979–1983) 161</p> <p>8.4 Biogeochemistry: The Merging of Physics and Biology 166</p> <p>8.5 The Carbon Cycle 167</p> <p>8.6 Ocean Carbon 170</p> <p>8.7 A Growing International Emphasis 173</p> <p>8.8 Reflection on Developments 174</p> <p>References 176</p> <p><b>9 Measuring and Modelling CO<sub>2</sub> Back Through Time </b><b>183</b></p> <p>9.1 CO<sub>2 </sub>– The Palaeoclimate Perspective 183</p> <p>9.2 Modelling CO<sub>2</sub> Back Through Time 187</p> <p>9.3 The Critics Gather 191</p> <p>9.4 Fossil CO<sub>2</sub> 197</p> <p>9.5 Measuring CO<sub>2</sub> Back Through Time 199</p> <p>9.6 CO<sub>2</sub>, Temperature, Solar Luminosity, and the Ordovician Glaciation 204</p> <p>9.7 Some Summary Remarks 215</p> <p>References 216</p> <p><b>10 The Pulse of the Earth </b><b>223</b></p> <p>10.1 Climate Cycles and Tectonic Forces 223</p> <p>10.2 Ocean Chemistry 232</p> <p>10.3 Black Shales 235</p> <p>10.4 Sea Level 238</p> <p>10.5 Biogeochemical Cycles, Gaia and Cybertectonic Earth 240</p> <p>10.6 Meteorite Impacts 242</p> <p>10.7 Massive Volcanic Eruptions and Biological Extinctions 246</p> <p>10.8 An Outrageous Hypothesis: Snowball Earth 252</p> <p>References 259</p> <p><b>11 Numerical Climate Models and Case Histories </b><b>267</b></p> <p>11.1 CO<sub>2</sub> and General Circulation Models 267</p> <p>11.2 Climate Sensitivity 270</p> <p>11.3 CO<sub>2</sub> and Climate in the Early Cenozoic 272</p> <p>11.4 The First Great Ice Sheet 276</p> <p>11.5 Hyperthermal Events 280</p> <p>11.6 Case History – The Palaeocene – Eocene Boundary 282</p> <p>11.7 Case History – The Mid – Miocene Climatic Optimum 287</p> <p>11.8 Case History – The Pliocene 296</p> <p>References 305</p> <p><b>12 Solving the Ice Age Mystery – The Deep Ocean Solution </b><b>315</b></p> <p>12.1 Astronomical Drivers 315</p> <p>12.2 An Ice Age Climate Signal Emerges from the Deep Ocean 317</p> <p>12.3 Flip-Flops in the Conveyor 324</p> <p>12.4 Ice Age CO<sub>2</sub> Signal Hidden on Deep Sea Floor 326</p> <p>12.5 A Surprise Millennial Signal Emerges 327</p> <p>12.6 Ice Age Productivity 331</p> <p>12.7 Observations on Deglaciation and Past Interglacials 333</p> <p>12.8 Sea Level 335</p> <p>12.9 Natural Climatic Envelopes 337</p> <p>References 338</p> <p><b>13 Solving the Ice Age Mystery – The Ice Core Tale </b><b>345</b></p> <p>13.1 The Great Ice Sheets 345</p> <p>13.2 The Greenland Story 347</p> <p>13.3 Antarctic Ice 350</p> <p>13.4 Seesaws 354</p> <p>13.5 CO<sub>2</sub> in the Ice Age Atmosphere 362</p> <p>13.6 The Ultimate Climate Flicker – The Younger Dryas Event 373</p> <p>13.7 Problems in the Milankovitch Garden 374</p> <p>13.8 The Mechanics of Change 377</p> <p>References 395</p> <p><b>14 The Holocene Interglacial </b><b>403</b></p> <p>14.1 Holocene Climate Change 403</p> <p>14.2 The Role of Greenhouse Gases – Carbon Dioxide and Methane 417</p> <p>14.3 Climate Variability 427</p> <p>References 432</p> <p><b>15 The Late Holocene and the Anthropocene </b><b>437</b></p> <p>15.1 The Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age 437</p> <p>15.2 Solar Activity and Cosmic Rays 455</p> <p>15.3 Volcanoes and Climate 466</p> <p>15.4 Sea Level 468</p> <p>15.5 The End of the Little Ice Age 476</p> <p>15.6 The Anthropocene 490</p> <p>References 494</p> <p><b>16 Putting It All Together </b><b>507</b></p> <p>16.1 A Fast Evolving Subject 507</p> <p>16.2 Natural Envelopes of Climate Change – Earth’s Thermostat 508</p> <p>16.3 Evolving Knowledge 510</p> <p>16.4 Where is Climate Headed? 515</p> <p>16.5 Some Final Remarks 518</p> <p>16.6 What Can Be Done? 520</p> <p>References 523</p> <p>Appendix 1: Further Reading 527</p> <p>Appendix 2: List of Figure Sources and Attributions 529</p> <p>Index 539</p>
<p><b>About the Author</b> <p><b>Colin P. Summerhayes</b> is an Emeritus Associate of the Scott Polar Research Institute of Cambridge University. He has carried out research and managed research programmes on aspects of past climate change in academia, in government laboratories, in intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, and in industry since obtaining a PhD in Geochemistry from Imperial College, London, in 1970. <p>The cover shows a view of some the numerous small crevassed glaciers typical of the Antarctic Peninsula, which are seen here cutting across the Mid-Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous volcanic rocks of the exposed magmatic core of the ancient island arc underlying the Peninsula, on the east side of the northern entrance to the Lemaire Channel.
<p>Life on our planet depends upon having a climate that changes within narrow limits – not too hot for the oceans to boil away nor too cold for the planet to freeze over. Over the past billion years Earth's average temperature has stayed close to 14–15°C, oscillating between warm greenhouse states and cold icehouse states. We live with variation, but a variation with limits. Palaeoclimatology is the science of understanding and explaining those variations, those limits, and the forces that control them. Without that understanding we will not be able to foresee future change accurately as our population grows. Our impact on the planet is now equal to a geological force, such that many geologists now see us as living in a new geological era – the Anthropocene. <p>This book describes Earth's passage through the greenhouse and icehouse worlds of the past 800 million years, including the glaciations of Snowball Earth in a world that was then free of land plants. It describes the operation of the Earth's thermostat, which keeps the planet fit for life, and its control by interactions between greenhouse gases, land plants, chemical weathering, continental motions, volcanic activity, orbital change and solar variability. It explains how we arrived at our current understanding of the climate system, by reviewing the contributions of scientists since the mid-1700s, showing how their ideas were modified as science progressed. And it includes reflections based on the author's involvement in palaeoclimatic research. <p>The book will transform debate and set the agenda for the next generation of thought about future climate change. It will be an invaluable course reference for undergraduate and postgraduate students in geology, climatology, oceanography and the history of science.

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