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Packaging Technology and Engineering


Packaging Technology and Engineering

Pharmaceutical, Medical and Food Applications
1. Aufl.

von: Dipak Kumar Sarker

147,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 16.06.2020
ISBN/EAN: 9781119213895
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 544

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Beschreibungen

<p><b>Covers chemistry, physics, engineering, and therapeutic aspects of packaging—universal to pharmaceutical, medical, and food applications <br /></b><br />This book covers the chemistry, physics, materials science, engineering, and therapeutic aspects of many different types of packaging materials, emphasizing throughout the applicability of various aspects of packaging science and technology. It also provides a simultaneous discussion of interrelated fields, and addresses the universal issues within these fields’ application areas. Intended as a technical reference and as a study aid, it is relevant to anyone who studies or uses packaging or packaging materials. </p> <p><i>Packaging Technology and Engineering: Pharmaceutical, Medical and Food Applications</i> begins with an overview of the history of the topic. It then offers chapters on the methods of obtaining raw materials, the chemistry of polymeric and non-polymeric packaging materials, physico-chemical quality parameters, and the manufacturing of packaging. Other topics look at: additives, use, suppliers, safety and environmental concerns, regulation, anti-fraud activities, new trends, and the future of packaging technology. The book also features numerous problems and worked solutions to aid student comprehension.</p> <ul> <li>Covers packaging and packaging materials, their properties and technologies</li> <li>Addresses the chemical engineering, physics, and chemistry of packaging materials, and the individual requirements for food, pharmaceutical, and medical device packaging</li> <li>Includes current issues such as environmental concerns and sustainability, recycling and after-use, anti-counterfeiting technology, and packaging regulations and guidelines</li> </ul> <p><i>Packaging Technology and Engineering: Pharmaceutical, Medical and Food Applications</i> will appeal to all packaging technologists, scientists, and engineers in industry, and in regulatory agencies. It is also an excellent book for advanced students studying packaging courses, within pharmacy, pharmaceutical sciences, chemical sciences, biomedical sciences, medical sciences, engineering, product design and technology, and food science/technology.</p>
<p>List of Figures xi</p> <p>List of Tables xv</p> <p>About the Author xvii</p> <p>Preface xix</p> <p><b>Section I Scientific and Technological Background to Materials </b><b>1</b></p> <p><b>1 Historical Perspective and Evolution </b><b>3</b></p> <p>1.1 Introduction 3</p> <p>1.1.1 The Chronology of Packaging Development 3</p> <p>1.1.2 The Origins of Commercial Packaging 6</p> <p>1.1.3 Closures, Films, and Plastics 6</p> <p>1.1.4 Major Types of Packaging 7</p> <p>1.2 Survey of Packaging Use 9</p> <p>1.2.1 Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Packaging 13</p> <p>1.2.2 Types of Packaging: An Overview and the Basics 14</p> <p>1.2.2.1 The Meaning of Symbols on Packaging 16</p> <p>1.2.2.2 Glass Packaging 17</p> <p>1.2.2.3 Metal Packaging 18</p> <p>1.2.2.4 Paper and Cardboard Packaging 19</p> <p>1.2.2.5 Wooden Packaging 20</p> <p>1.2.2.6 Plastic Packaging 20</p> <p>1.2.2.7 Composite Packaging 22</p> <p>1.2.2.8 Novel Materials: Bioplastics and Oxo-Degradable Polymers 22</p> <p>References 24</p> <p><b>2 Chemical Engineering of Packaging Materials </b><b>27</b></p> <p>2.1 Introduction 27</p> <p>2.2 Building Blocks, Extraction, and Raw Materials 30</p> <p>2.3 Industrial Processes, Wood-Pulping, Processing, and Smelting 33</p> <p>2.3.1 Refining Ores 33</p> <p>2.3.2 Forming and Sheet-Making 35</p> <p>2.4 Making Glass 36</p> <p>References 41</p> <p><b>3 Material Science and Chemistry </b><b>43</b></p> <p>3.1 Introduction 44</p> <p>3.2 Glasses 44</p> <p>3.3 Metallic Materials 48</p> <p>3.3.1 Aluminium, Tinplate, Steel, and Brass 49</p> <p>3.4 Polymeric Materials 56</p> <p>3.4.1 Polyolefins, Cellulosics, and Polyisoprenes 64</p> <p>3.4.2 Thermosets and Thermoforming Plastics 68</p> <p>3.4.3 Laminates 74</p> <p>3.4.4 Expanded Materials 79</p> <p>3.4.5 Paper and Paperboard 80</p> <p>3.5 Colorants, Opacifiers, and Colouring 84</p> <p>3.5.1 Coal Tar Dyes, Lakes, and Pigments 90</p> <p>3.6 Plasticisers and Other Additives 92</p> <p>3.6.1 Anti-Oxidants and Preservatives 98</p> <p>3.6.2 Oxidations by Numerous Processes 98</p> <p>3.7 Barriers, Barrier Properties, and Product Modification 105</p> <p>3.7.1 Resistant Coatings 105</p> <p>3.7.2 Ageing and Degradation 109</p> <p>3.7.3 Chemical Breach and Leaching 112</p> <p>3.7.4 Water and Gas Penetration 114</p> <p>3.8 Estimating the Shelf Life of Packaging 126</p> <p>3.9 Chemical Testing 134</p> <p>3.10 Contemporary Issues and Controversies with Modern Packaging Materials 138</p> <p>References 151</p> <p><b>4 The Physics of Packaging Materials </b><b>161</b></p> <p>4.1 Introduction 161</p> <p>4.2 Characterisation of Packaging Substrates 165</p> <p>4.2.1 Surface and Structural Morphology 167</p> <p>4.2.1.1 Printing 175</p> <p>4.2.2 Wettability, Polymorphism, Crystallinity and Crystallites, Melting, and Phase Behaviour 179</p> <p>4.2.3 Toughness, Tensile Strength, and Young’s Modulus 185</p> <p>4.2.4 Brittleness, Hardness, and the Mohs Scale 187</p> <p>4.2.5 Puncture Resistance and Slip 189</p> <p>4.3 Test Methods 190</p> <p>References 193</p> <p><b>5 Engineering of the Product: Design, Formation, and Machining </b><b>197</b></p> <p>5.1 Introduction 197</p> <p>5.2 Fourdrinier Processing and Paper-Making 199</p> <p>5.3 Sheeting, Injection Moulding, Thermoforming, Welding, Extrusion, Plasma Treatment, Annealing, and Curing 214</p> <p>5.3.1 Bodies and Closures 221</p> <p>5.3.2 Seals, Bungs, and the Septum 225</p> <p>5.4 Classification of Moulded Packaging Forms 226</p> <p>5.4.1 Bottles 229</p> <p>5.4.2 Dosators 230</p> <p>5.4.3 Pouches, Trays, Wallets, and Cartons 230</p> <p>References 232</p> <p><b>Section II Application and Processing </b><b>239</b></p> <p><b>6 Packaging for Various Applications </b><b>241</b></p> <p>6.1 Introduction 242</p> <p>6.2 Hermetically Sealed Containers and Developments 248</p> <p>6.2.1 The Tin-Plated Steel Can 251</p> <p>6.2.1.1 Cans 254</p> <p>6.2.2 Napoleon and Nicolas Appert: ‘The Father of Canning’ 256</p> <p>6.3 Modern Sterilisation and Pasteurisation Procedures and the Effects of Chemistry, Temperature, Pressure, and Irradiation on the Product and Pack 264</p> <p>6.3.1 Retorting and High-Pressure Steam 283</p> <p>6.3.2 Radappertisation, Radurisation, and Radicisation 289</p> <p>6.3.3 Ethylene Oxide 294</p> <p>6.3.4 Hyperbaric Treatment 295</p> <p>6.3.5 Sterilised Pouches and the Tetra Pak<sup>®</sup> 297</p> <p>6.4 Metered Therapeutic Dose Devices 299</p> <p>6.5 Heat-Sealed Goods and Modified Atmosphere 300</p> <p>6.6 Childproof and Easy-Open Packaging 308</p> <p>6.7 Multi-Dose Pharmaceutical Bottles 310</p> <p>References 310</p> <p><b>7 Food, Pharmaceutical, and Medical Packaging </b><b>317</b></p> <p>7.1 Introduction 317</p> <p>7.2 Food Packaging 320</p> <p>7.2.1 Restrictions and Key Criteria Relevant to Foods and Beverages 327</p> <p>7.3 Pharmaceutical Packaging 332</p> <p>7.3.1 Restrictions and Key Criteria Relevant to Therapeutics 340</p> <p>7.4 Medical Device Packaging 347</p> <p>7.4.1 Restrictions and Key Criteria Relevant to Devices 354</p> <p>References 359</p> <p><b>Section III Quality, Integrity, and Traceability </b><b>367</b></p> <p><b>8 Suppliers and Manufacturers of Packaging </b><b>369</b></p> <p>8.1 Introduction 370</p> <p>8.2 Environmental Concerns and Sustainability 370</p> <p>8.3 Recycling and After-Use 373</p> <p>8.4 Tracing, Anti-Counterfeiting Technology, and Anti-Fraud Devices 388</p> <p>8.4.1 Chemical Watermarks 391</p> <p>8.4.2 Radiofrequency Identification and Tracking 393</p> <p>8.4.3 Barcoding, Overt, and Covert Identifiers 394</p> <p>8.4.4 History and Environmental Logging 399</p> <p>8.4.4.1 Intelligent Packaging 404</p> <p>8.5 Accelerated Testing 417</p> <p>8.6 The Distribution Chain and Transport Logistics 431</p> <p>8.7 Packaging Regulations and Guidelines 436</p> <p>8.7.1 Labelling and Information 438</p> <p>8.8 Safety, Health, and Practicality 442</p> <p>8.8.1 New Trends and Opportunities 444</p> <p>8.8.2 The Future 456</p> <p>References 464</p> <p><b>Section IV Revision and Information </b><b>475</b></p> <p><b>Problems: Questions, Calculations, Estimates, and Dilemmas </b><b>477</b></p> <p>Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) 477</p> <p>Short Answer Questions (SAQs);Worth 4 Marks 486</p> <p>Very Short Answer Questions (VSAQs);Worth 2 Marks 487</p> <p>Calculation Questions;Worth 20–30 Marks 488</p> <p>Calculation Questions;Worth 5 Marks 490</p> <p>Answers to Problems 490</p> <p>References 497</p> <p><b>Appendices, Glossary of Terms, and Abbreviations </b><b>499</b></p> <p>Glossary of Terms and Acronyms 499</p> <p>Periodic Table of Chemical Elements and Fundamental Chemistry 501</p> <p>Chemical Symbols and Abbreviations 504</p> <p>Scientific and Engineering Symbols 505</p> <p>Unit Prefixes 508</p> <p>Index 509</p>
<p><b>Dipak Kumar Sarker</b> is Principal Lecturer in Physical Sciences and Manufacturing Technology at the School of Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, UK.
<p><b>Covers chemistry, physics, engineering, and therapeutic aspects of packaging—universal to pharmaceutical, medical, and food applications</b> <p>This book covers the chemistry, physics, materials science, engineering, and therapeutic aspects of many different types of packaging materials, emphasizing throughout the applicability of various aspects of packaging science and technology. It also provides a simultaneous discussion of interrelated fields, and addresses the universal issues within these fields' application areas. Intended as a technical reference and as a study aid, it is relevant to anyone who studies or uses packaging or packaging materials. <p><i>Packaging Technology and Engineering: Pharmaceutical, Medical and Food Applications</i> begins with an overview of the history of the topic. It then offers chapters on the methods of obtaining raw materials, the chemistry of polymeric and non-polymeric packaging materials, physico-chemical quality parameters, and the manufacturing of packaging. Other topics covered are additives, use, suppliers, safety and environmental concerns, regulation, anti-fraud activities, new trends, and the future of packaging technology. The book also features numerous problems and worked solutions to aid student comprehension. <ul> <li>Covers packaging and packaging materials, their properties and technologies</li> <li>Addresses the chemical engineering, physics, and chemistry of packaging materials, and the individual requirements for food, pharmaceutical, and medical device packaging</li> <li>Includes current issues such as environmental concerns and sustainability, recycling and after-use, anti-counterfeiting technology, and packaging regulations and guidelines</li> </ul> <p>This book<i></i> will appeal to all packaging technologists, scientists, and engineers in industry, and in regulatory agencies. It is also an excellent book for advanced students studying packaging courses, within pharmacy, pharmaceutical sciences, chemical sciences, biomedical sciences, medical sciences, engineering, product design and technology, and food science/technology.

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