Details

Organic and Molecular Electronics


Organic and Molecular Electronics

From Principles to Practice
2. Aufl.

von: Michael C. Petty

71,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 12.10.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781118879276
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 512

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Beschreibungen

An introduction to the interdisciplinary subject of molecular electronics, revised and updated The revised second edition of Organic and Molecular Electronics offers a guide to the fabrication and application of a wide range of electronic devices based around organic materials and low-cost technologies. Since the publication of the first edition, organic electronics has greatly progressed, as evidenced by the myriad companies that have been established to explore the new possibilities. The text contains an introduction into the physics and chemistry of organic materials, and includes a discussion of the means to process the materials into a form (in most cases, a thin film) where they can be exploited in electronic and optoelectronic devices. The text covers the areas of application and potential application that range from chemical and biochemical sensors to plastic light emitting displays. The updated second edition reflects the recent progress in both organic and molecular electronics and: Offers an accessible resource for a wide range of readers Contains a comprehensive text that covers topics including electrical conductivity, optical phenomena, electroactive organic compounds, tools for molecular electronics and much more Includes illustrative examples based on the most recent research Presents problems at the end of each chapter to help reinforce key points Written mainly for engineering students, Organic and Molecular Electronics: From Principles to Practice provides an updated introduction to the interdisciplinary subjects of organic electronics and molecular electronics with detailed examples of applications. 
Preface xv Acknowledgements xvii Symbols and Abbreviations xix About the Companion Website xxv 1 Scope of Organic and Molecular Electronics 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Organic Materials for Electronics 2 1.3 Molecular Electronics 4 1.3.1 Evolution of Microelectronics 5 1.3.2 Moore’s Laws 6 1.3.3 Beyond Moore 8 1.4 The Biological World 12 1.5 Future Opportunities 13 1.6 Conclusions 15 Problems 15 References 16 Further Reading 17 2 Materials’ Foundations 19 2.1 Introduction 20 2.2 Electronic Structure 20 2.2.1 Atomic Structure 20 2.2.2 Electrons in Atoms 20 2.2.3 Filling of Orbitals 24 2.2.4 The Periodic Table 25 2.3 Chemical Bonding 27 2.3.1 Bonding Principles 27 2.3.2 Ionic Bond 28 2.3.3 Covalent Bond 29 2.3.4 Metallic Bonding 33 2.3.5 Van der Waals Bonding 33 2.3.6 Hydrogen Bonding 34 2.4 Bonding in Organic Compounds 35 2.4.1 Hybridized Orbitals 35 2.4.2 Isomers 36 2.4.3 Double and Triple Bonds 40 2.5 Crystalline and Noncrystalline Materials 43 2.5.1 States of Matter 43 2.5.2 Phase Changes and Thermodynamic Equilibrium 44 2.5.3 The Crystal Lattice 45 2.5.4 Crystal Systems 45 2.5.5 Miller Indices 47 2.5.6 Distance between Crystal Planes 48 2.5.7 Defects 48 2.5.8 Amorphous Solids 52 2.6 Polymers 53 2.6.1 Molecular Weight 54 2.6.2 Polymer Structure 55 2.6.3 Polymer Crystallinity 56 2.7 Soft Matter: Emulsions, Foams, and Gels 58 2.8 Diffusion 59 Problems 60 Reference 60 Further Reading 60 3 Electrical Conductivity 63 3.1 Introduction 64 3.2 Classical Theory 64 3.2.1 Electrical Conductivity 65 3.2.2 Ohm’s Law 66 3.2.3 Charge Carrier Mobility 67 3.2.4 Fermi Energy 69 3.3 Energy Bands in Solids 71 3.3.1 Quantum Mechanical Foundations 71 3.3.2 Kronig?Penney Model 77 3.3.3 Conductors, Semiconductors, and Insulators 81 3.3.4 Electrons and Holes 82 3.3.5 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Conduction 84 3.3.6 Quantum Wells 88 3.3.7 Disordered Semiconductors 89 3.3.8 Conductivity in Low?Dimensional Solids 90 3.4 Organic Compounds 91 3.4.1 Band Structure 91 3.4.2 Doping 100 3.4.3 Solitons, Polarons, and Bipolarons 102 3.4.4 Superconductivity 103 3.5 Low?Frequency Conductivity 105 3.5.1 Electronic Versus Ionic Conductivity 105 3.5.2 Quantum Mechanical Tunnelling 106 3.5.3 Variable Range Hopping 107 3.5.4 Fluctuation?induced Tunnelling 109 3.5.5 Space?Charge Injection 110 3.5.6 Schottky and Poole?Frenkel Effects 111 3.6 Conductivity at High Frequencies 113 3.6.1 Complex Permittivity 113 3.6.2 Impedance Spectroscopy 116 Problems 118 References 118 Further Reading 120 4 Optical Phenomena 121 4.1 Introduction 121 4.2 Electromagnetic Radiation 122 4.3 Refractive Index 123 4.3.1 Permittivity Tensor 124 4.3.2 Linear and Nonlinear Optics 125 4.4 Interaction of EM Waves with Organic Molecules 127 4.4.1 Absorption Processes 127 4.4.2 Aggregate Formation 131 4.4.3 Excitons 132 4.4.4 Effect of Electric Fields on Absorption 133 4.4.5 Emission Processes 134 4.4.6 Energy Transfer 138 4.5 Transmission and Reflection from Interfaces 140 4.5.1 Laws of Reflection and Refraction 140 4.5.2 Fresnel Equations 140 4.5.3 Ellipsometry 142 4.5.4 Thin Films 142 4.5.5 Transmission through Conductive Thin Films 144 4.6 Waveguiding 145 4.7 Surface Plasmons 146 4.7.1 The Evanescent Field 147 4.7.2 Surface Plasmon Resonance 148 4.8 Photonic Crystals 151 4.8.1 Subwavelength Optics 153 Problems 155 References 155 Further Reading 156 5 Electroactive Organic Compounds 157 5.1 Introduction 157 5.2 Selected Topics in Chemistry 158 5.2.1 Moles and Molecules 158 5.2.2 Acids and Bases 158 5.2.3 Ions 160 5.2.4 Solvents 160 5.2.5 Functional Groups 163 5.2.6 Aromatic Compounds 163 5.2.7 Material Purity 165 5.3 Conductive Polymers 166 5.4 Charge?Transfer Complexes 170 5.5 Graphene,Fullerenes, and Nanotubes 173 5.5.1 Graphene 173 5.5.2 Fullerenes 175 5.5.3 Carbon Nanotubes 177 5.6 Piezoelectricity,Pyroelectricity, and Ferroelectricity 180 5.6.1 Basic Principles 180 5.6.2 Organic Piezoelectric, Pyroelectric, and Ferroelectric Compounds 182 5.7 Magnetic Materials 185 5.7.1 Basic Principles 185 5.7.2 Organic Magnets 192 Problems 194 References 194 Further Reading 196 6 Tools for Molecular Electronics 197 6.1 Introduction 197 6.2 Direct Imaging 198 6.2.1 Optical Microscopy 198 6.2.2 Electron Microscopy 200 6.3 X?Ray Reflection 202 6.3.1 Electron Density Profile 205 6.3.2 Kiessig Fringes 205 6.3.3 In?plane Measurements 205 6.4 Neutron Reflection 206 6.5 Electron Diffraction 206 6.6 Infrared Spectroscopy 208 6.6.1 Raman Scattering 212 6.7 Surface Analytical Techniques 213 6.8 Scanning Probe Microscopies 214 6.9 Film Thickness Measurements 217 Problems 218 References 219 Further Reading 220 7 Thin Film Processing and Device Fabrication 221 7.1 Introduction 221 7.2 Established Deposition Methods 222 7.2.1 Spin?coating 222 7.2.2 Physical Vapour Deposition 224 7.2.3 Chemical Vapour Deposition 231 7.2.4 Electrochemical Methods 232 7.2.5 Inkjet Printing 233 7.2.6 Spray-coating 235 7.2.7 Sol–Gel Processing 236 7.2.8 Other Techniques 238 7.3 Molecular Architectures 239 7.3.1 Langmuir–Blodgett Technique 239 7.3.2 Chemical Self?Assembly 248 7.3.3 Electrostatic Layer?by?Layer Deposition 248 7.4 Micro?and Nanofabrication 253 7.4.1 Photolithography 253 7.4.2 Nanometre Pattern Definition 254 7.4.3 Nanoimprint Lithography 255 7.4.4 Scanning Probe Manipulation 256 7.4.5 Dip?Pen Nanolithography 258 7.4.6 Gravure Printing 259 7.4.7 Other Methods 259 Problems 260 References 260 Further Reading 263 8 Liquid Crystals and Devices 265 8.1 Introduction 265 8.2 Liquid Crystal Phases 266 8.2.1 Thermotropic Liquid Crystals 266 8.2.2 Lyotropic Liquid Crystals 269 8.3 Liquid Crystal Polymers 271 8.4 Display Devices 273 8.4.1 Birefringence 273 8.4.2 Freedericksz Transition 274 8.4.3 Twisted Nematic Display 275 8.4.4 Passive and Active Addressing 277 8.4.5 Full?colour Displays 278 8.4.6 Super?twisted Nematic Display 278 8.5 Ferroelectric +Liquid Crystals 279 8.6 Polymer?dispersed Liquid Crystals 281 8.7 Liquid Crystal Lenses 282 8.8 Other Application Areas 283 Problems 284 References 285 Further Reading 286 9 Plastic Electronics 287 9.1 Introduction 288 9.2 Organic Diodes 288 9.2.1 Schottky Diode 288 9.2.2 Ohmic Contacts 292 9.3 Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor Structures 292 9.3.1 Idealized MIS Devices 292 9.3.2 Effect of Real Surfaces 294 9.3.3 Organic MIS Structures 294 9.4 Organic Field Effect Transistors 295 9.5 OrganicIntegrated Circuits 301 9.5.1 Radiofrequency Identification Tags 302 9.6 Transparent Conducting Films 303 9.7 Organic Light?emitting Devices 304 9.7.1 Device Efficiency 308 9.7.2 Device Architectures 310 9.7.3 Increasing the Light Output 314 9.7.4 Full?colour Displays 317 9.7.5 OLED Lighting 318 9.7.6 Light?emitting Electrochemical Cells 319 9.7.7 Organic Light?emitting Transistors 319 9.7.8 Electronic Paper 321 9.8 Organic Photovoltaic Devices 321 9.8.1 Photovoltaic Principles 322 9.8.2 Bulk Heterojunctions 323 9.8.3 Dye?sensitized Solar Cell 326 9.8.4 Luminescent Concentrator 327 9.9 Other Application Areas 328 9.9.1 Conductive Coatings 328 9.9.2 Batteries, Supercapacitors, and Fuel Cells 329 Problems 331 References 332 Further Reading 336 10 Chemical Sensors and Physical Actuators 337 10.1 Introduction 337 10.2 Sensing Systems 338 10.3 Definitions 339 10.4 Chemical Sensors 341 10.4.1 Electrochemical Cells 342 10.4.2 Resistive Gas Sensors 345 10.4.3 Dielectric Sensors 351 10.4.4 Acoustic Devices 353 10.4.5 Optical Sensors 356 10.5 Biological Olfaction 360 10.6 Electronic Noses 362 10.7 Physical Sensors and Actuators 363 10.7.1 Touch Sensors 363 10.7.2 Polymer Actuators 364 10.7.3 Lab?on?a?Chip 366 10.8 Wearable Electronics 369 Problems 369 References 370 Further Reading 371 11 Molecular and Nanoscale Electronics 373 11.1 Introduction 374 11.2 Nanosystems 374 11.2.1 Scaling Laws 374 11.2.2 Interatomic Forces 375 11.3 Engineering Materials at the Molecular Level 376 11.3.1 Polar Materials 376 11.3.2 Nonlinear Optical Materials 378 11.3.3 Photonic Crystals 380 11.4 Molecular Device Architectures 381 11.4.1 Break Junctions 384 11.5 Molecular Rectification 385 11.6 Electronic Switching and Memory Phenomena 387 11.6.1 Resistive Bistable Devices 388 11.6.2 Flash Memories 390 11.6.3 Ferroelectric RAMs 391 11.6.4 Spintronics 393 11.6.5 Three?dimensional Architectures 394 11.7 Single?electron Devices 395 11.8 Optical and Chemical Switches 397 11.8.1 Fluorescence Switching 398 11.8.2 Photochromic Systems 398 11.8.3 Chemical Control 401 11.9 Nanomagnetics 402 11.10 Nanotube and Graphene Electronics 404 11.11 Molecular Actuation 407 11.11.1 Dynamically Controllable Surfaces 407 11.11.2 Rotaxanes 408 11.11.3 Optical Tweezers 409 11.12 Molecular Logic Circuits 410 11.13 Computing Architectures 412 11.14 Quantum Computing 414 11.15 Evolvable Electronics 415 Problems 416 References 416 Further Reading 420 12 Bioelectronics 421 12.1 Introduction 422 12.2 Biological Building Blocks 422 12.2.1 Amino Acids and Peptides 422 12.2.2 Proteins 423 12.2.3 Enzymes 426 12.2.4 Carbohydrates 426 12.2.5 Lipids 428 12.3 Nucleotides 429 12.3.1 Bases 430 12.3.2 DNA 430 12.3.3 RNA 432 12.3.4 ATP, ADP 432 12.4 Cells 433 12.5 Genetic Coding 434 12.5.1 Replication, Transcription, and Translation 434 12.6 The Biological Membrane 438 12.6.1 Transport across the Membrane 439 12.7 Neurons 443 12.8 Biosensors 445 12.8.1 Biocatalytic Sensors 446 12.8.2 Bioaffinity Sensors 447 12.9 DNA Electronics 449 12.10 Photobiology 450 12.10.1 Bacteriorhodopsin 450 12.10.2 Photosynthesis 452 12.11 Molecular Motors 458 12.11.1 Nature’s Motors 458 12.11.2 Artificial Motors 459 Problems 461 References 461 Further Reading 463 Appendix 465 Index 469
MICHAEL C. PETTY, Emeritus Professor of Engineering, University of Durham, UK. Professor Petty has published extensively in the areas of organic electronics and molecular electronics and has lectured worldwide in these subjects. He was formerly President of the International Society for Molecular Electronics and BioComputing, and was a previous Chairman of the School of Engineering at Durham University.
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE INTERDISCIPLINARY SUBJECT OF MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS, REVISED AND UPDATED The second edition of Organic and Molecular Electronics offers a guide to the fabrication and application of a wide range of electronic devices based around organic materials and low-cost technologies. Since the publication of the first edition, organic electronics has greatly progressed, as evidenced by the myriad of companies that have been established to explore the new possibilities. The text contains an introduction into the physics and chemistry of organic materials, and includes a discussion of the means to process the materials into a form (in most cases, a thin film) where they can be exploited in electronic and optoelectronic devices. It covers the areas of application and potential application that range from chemical and biochemical sensors to plastic light emitting displays. This second edition reflects the recent progress in both organic and molecular electronics and: Offers an accessible resource for a wide range of readers Covers topics including electrical conductivity, optical phenomena, electroactive organic compounds, tools for molecular electronics and much more Includes illustrative examples based on the most recent research Presents problems at the end of each chapter to help reinforce key points Written mainly for engineering students, Organic and Molecular Electronics: From Principles to Practice provides an updated introduction to the interdisciplinary subjects of organic electronics and molecular electronics with detailed examples of applications.

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