Details

Optical WDM Networks


Optical WDM Networks

From Static to Elastic Networks
1. Aufl.

von: Devi Chadha

92,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 08.05.2019
ISBN/EAN: 9781119393344
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 392

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Beschreibungen

Provides a comprehensive and updated account of WDM optical network systems Optical networking has advanced considerably since 2010. A host of new technologies and applications has brought a significant change in optical networks, migrating it towards an all-optical network. This book places great emphasis on the network concepts, technology, and methodologies that will stand the test of time and also help in understanding and developing advanced optical network systems. The first part of Optical WDM Networks: From Static to Elastic Networks provides a qualitative foundation for what follows—presenting an overview of optical networking, the different network architectures, basic concepts, and a high-level view of the different network structures considered in subsequent chapters. It offers a survey of enabling technologies and the hardware devices in the physical layer, followed by a more detailed picture of the network in the remaining chapters. The next sections give an in-depth study of the three basic network structures: the static broadcast networks, wavelength routed networks, and the electronic/optical logically routed networks, covering the characteristics of the optical networks in the access, metropolitan area, and long-haul reach. It discusses the networking picture; network control and management, impairment management and survivability. The last section of the book covers the upcoming technologies of flex-grid and software defined optical networking. Provides concise, updated, and comprehensive coverage of WDM optical networks Features numerous examples and exercise problems for the student to practice Covers, in detail, important topics, such as, access, local area, metropolitan, wide area all-optical and elastic networks Includes protocols, design, and analysis along with the control and management of the networks Offers exclusive chapters on advance topics to cover the present and future technological trends, such as, software defined optical networking and the flexible grid optical networks Optical WDM Networks: From Static to Elastic Networks is an excellent book for under and post graduate students in electrical/communication engineering. It will also be very useful to practicing professionals in communications, networking, and optical systems.
Preface xiii Acknowledgments xvii 1 Introduction to Optical Networks 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.1.1 Trends in Optical Networking 2 1.1.2 Classification of Optical Networks 3 1.2 Optical Networks: A Brief Picture 7 1.2.1 Multiplexing in Optical Networks 8 1.2.2 Services Supported by Optical Networks 9 1.2.3 WDM Optical Network Architectures 10 1.2.3.1 Broadcast?and?Select Networks 10 1.2.3.2 Wavelength Routed Networks 11 1.2.3.3 Linear Lightwave Networks 13 1.2.4 Services Types 13 1.2.5 Types of Traffic 14 1.2.6 Switching Granularities 14 1.2.6.1 Optical Circuit Switching 15 1.2.6.2 Packet Switching for Bursty Traffic 15 1.3 Optical Network Layered Architecture 16 1.3.1 Layers and Sub?layers 19 1.4 Organization of the Book 23 1.5 Summary 24 Problems 24 References 25 2 Network Elements 27 2.1 Introduction 27 2.2 Optical Fiber 29 2.2.1 Loss and Bandwidth Windows 30 2.2.2 Linear and Nonlinear Effects 32 2.3 Laser Transmitters 33 2.3.1 Laser Characteristics 34 2.3.2 Tunable Lasers 34 2.3.3 Modulation Techniques 35 2.4 Optical Receivers 36 2.5 Optical Amplifiers 37 2.5.1 Types of Optical Amplifiers 38 2.5.1.1 Semiconductor Optical Amplifier 38 2.5.1.2 Fiber Amplifiers 39 2.6 Optical Network Components 40 2.6.1 Passive Coupler Devices 40 2.6.1.1 Coupler Parameters 41 2.6.1.2 Scattering Matrix Formulation of the 2 × 2 Coupler 42 2.6.2 Switching Elements 44 2.6.2.1 Directive Switches 46 2.6.2.2 Gate Switches 46 2.6.2.3 Micro?Electro Mechanical Switches 47 2.6.2.4 Liquid Crystal Optical Switch 48 2.6.3 N × N Star Coupler 49 2.6.4 Gratings 52 2.6.4.1 Fiber Bragg Gratings 53 2.6.4.2 Arrayed Waveguide Grating 54 2.6.5 Optical Filters 55 2.6.5.1 Fabry?Perot Filter 56 2.6.5.2 Multi?Layer Dielectric Thin?Film Filter 58 2.6.5.3 Acousto?Optic Filter 58 2.7 Optical Multiplexer and De?Multiplexer 58 2.7.1 Mach?Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) Multiplexer 59 2.8 Routers 62 2.8.1 Static Wavelength Router 62 2.8.2 Reconfigurable Wavelength Router 62 2.8.3 Optical Packet Routing Switches 64 2.9 Optical Switching Fabrics 64 2.9.1 Classification of Switching Fabrics 65 2.9.1.1 Permutation Switching Fabric 65 2.9.1.2 Generalized Switching Fabric 65 2.9.1.3 Linear Divider and Combiner Switching Fabric 65 2.9.2 Classification According to Blocking Characteristics 66 2.9.3 Types of Space Switching Fabrics 67 2.9.3.1 Cross?Bar Switching Fabric 67 2.9.3.2 Clos Switch Fabric 69 2.9.3.3 Spanke Switch Fabric 70 2.9.3.4 Benes Switch Fabric 71 2.9.3.5 Spanke?Benes Switch Fabric 72 2.10 Wavelength Converter 72 2.10.1 Opto?Electronic Wavelength Converters 73 2.10.2 All?Optical Wavelength Converters 74 2.10.2.1 Transparent All?Optical Wavelength Converters 74 2.10.2.2 Opaque All?Optical Wavelength Converter 74 2.11 Optical Network Functional Blocks 76 2.11.1 Network Access Terminal 76 2.11.2 Optical Network Node 78 2.11.2.1 Optical Add?Drop Multiplexers 79 2.11.2.2 Optical Cross?Connect 82 2.12 Summary 85 Problems 86 References 88 3 Broadcast?and?Select Local Area Networks 91 3.1 Introduction 91 3.2 Physical Topologies of Single?Hop Networks 92 3.2.1 Star Topology 92 3.2.2 Folded Bus Topology 93 3.2.3 Tree Topology 93 3.3 Multiplexing and Multiple Access in B&S Networks 95 3.4 Network Traffic 95 3.4.1 Circuit?Switched Traffic 97 3.4.1.1 Streamed Synchronous Traffic on Dedicated Connections 97 3.4.1.2 Packet Traffic with Fixed Frame on Dedicated Connections 98 3.4.1.3 Traffic with Demand?Assigned Circuit?Switched Connections 102 3.4.2 Optical Packet Switching 105 3.5 Network Resource Sharing in Optical Networks 106 3.5.1 Capacity Increase with Number of ??Channels 107 3.5.2 Capacity Increase with Number of Time Slots 107 3.6 Capacity of the B&S Network 108 3.6.1 Scheduling Efficiency 109 3.7 Packet Switching in the Optical Layer in B&S Networks 110 3.8 Medium Access Protocols 111 3.8.1 Non?pre?transmission Coordination 112 3.8.2 Pre?transmission Coordinated MAC Protocol 113 3.8.2.1 Slotted Aloha/Slotted Aloha Protocols 114 3.8.2.2 DT?WDMA Scheduling Protocol 118 3.8.2.3 MAC Scheduling Protocols 121 3.9 Summary 122 Problems 122 References 124 4 Optical Access Networks 127 4.1 Introduction 127 4.2 Available Access Technologies 128 4.2.1 Access Network Classification 129 4.2.1.1 Digital Subscriber Line 130 4.2.1.2 Cable Television 130 4.2.1.3 Hybrid Fiber Coaxial Network 130 4.2.1.4 Fixed Wireless Access Networks 131 4.2.1.5 Satellite Wireless Access Networks 132 4.3 Optical Fiber Access Networks 132 4.3.1 Passive Optical Network Topology 134 4.4 PON Architectures in Access Networks 135 4.4.1 Broadcast?and?Select Passive Optical Networks 135 4.5 TDM/TDMA EPON Operation 138 4.5.1 Upstream Communication in PON 138 4.5.2 Multi?Point Control Protocol 139 4.5.2.1 Auto?Discovery and Registration 140 4.5.2.2 Ranging and Clock Synchronization 141 4.5.2.3 Signaling Messages Used for Arbitration 142 4.5.3 Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithms 143 4.5.3.1 Service Disciplines 144 4.5.3.2 Interleaved Polling with Adaptive Cycle Time DBA Protocol 145 4.6 WDM PON Network Architecture 146 4.6.1 WDM PON with TPON Architecture 146 4.6.2 Wavelength Routing WDM PON 147 4.7 Next?Generation PONs 147 4.7.1 NG?PON1 148 4.7.2 Long?Term Evolution – NG?PON2 150 4.8 Free Space Optical Access and WOBAN 151 4.8.1 Optical Wireless Access System 152 4.8.2 Hybrid Wireless?Optical Broadband Access Network 153 4.9 Summary 153 Problems 154 References 155 5 Optical Metropolitan Area Networks 159 5.1 Introduction 159 5.2 Synchronous Optical Network/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy 161 5.2.1 SONET Networks 161 5.2.2 SONET Multiplexing 163 5.2.2.1 Virtual Tributaries 164 5.2.3 SONET Frame 165 5.2.4 SONET/SDH Devices 166 5.2.4.1 Terminal Multiplexer/De?multiplexer 166 5.2.4.2 Regenerator 167 5.2.4.3 Add/Drop Multiplexer 167 5.2.4.4 Digital Cross?Connect 167 5.2.5 SONET Protocol Hierarchy 167 5.2.6 SONET Network Configurations 169 5.2.6.1 SONET Ring Architecture 169 5.2.7 Traffic Grooming in SONET/SDH Networks 172 5.2.8 Scalability of SONET/SDH Networks 173 5.3 Optical Transport Network 174 5.3.1 Layered Hierarchy of OTN 175 5.3.2 Lines Rates of OTN 177 5.3.3 OTN Frame Structure 179 5.3.3.1 OTN Frame Structure Overheads 180 5.3.4 OTN Switching 181 5.3.4.1 OTN Switch 182 5.3.5 Tandem Connection Monitoring 183 5.4 Summary 186 Problems 186 References 188 6 Wavelength Routed Wide Area Networks 189 6.1 Introduction 189 6.2 The Hybrid Wavelength Routed Network Architecture 192 6.3 The Optical Layer in Wavelength Routing Networks 196 6.4 Design of Wavelength Routed Network with Logical Routing Network Overlay 197 6.5 Analysis of WDM Wavelength Routing Networks 199 6.5.1 Optimization Problem Formulation of the WRN 200 6.6 Heuristic Solutions for WDM Wavelength Routing Networks 205 6.6.1 Design Parameters, Performance Metrics, and QoS Issues 206 6.6.2 Route Selection Algorithms 207 6.6.2.1 Breadth?First?Search Algorithm 208 6.6.2.2 Dijkstra Algorithm 210 6.6.3 Heuristic Wavelength Routing Algorithms 211 6.6.3.1 Fixed Routing 211 6.6.3.2 Fixed?Alternate Routing 212 6.6.3.3 Adaptive Routing 212 6.6.3.4 Least Congested Path Routing 213 6.6.4 Wavelength Assignment Algorithms 213 6.6.4.1 Fixed Order First Fit 214 6.6.4.2 Random Assignment 214 6.6.4.3 Least Used Wavelength Assignment 214 6.6.4.4 Most Used Wavelength Assignment 215 6.6.5 Joint Routing?Wavelength Assignment Algorithm 218 6.7 Logical Topology Design Heuristics 218 6.7.1 Logical Topology Design Algorithm with Congestion Minimization 219 6.7.2 Logical Topology Design Algorithm with Delay Minimization 220 6.7.3 Logical Topology Design Algorithm with Link Elimination and Matching 220 6.7.4 Simulated Annealing?Based LT Heuristics 221 6.8 Summary 222 Problems 222 References 225 7 Network Control and Management 229 7.1 Introduction 229 7.2 NMS Architecture of Optical Transport Network 232 7.3 Logical Architecture of Automatic Switched Optical Network 234 7.3.1 Interaction Between the Client Control Layer and the Optical Control Layer 236 7.4 Functions of Management and Control Plane 238 7.4.1 Discovery or State Information 238 7.4.2 Routing 240 7.4.3 Signaling 240 7.4.3.1 Signaling Network 241 7.4.3.2 Alarm Management System 242 7.4.3.3 Resource Reservation Signaling Protocol 242 7.4.4 Performance Monitoring 244 7.4.5 Fault Management 245 7.4.6 Security, Accounting Management, and Policing 246 7.5 Generalized Multi?Protocol Label Switching 246 7.5.1 Interfaces in GMPLS 248 7.5.2 GMPLS Control Plane Functions and Services 248 7.5.3 GMPLS Protocol Suite 251 7.5.4 Path Computation Element 254 7.6 Summary 256 Problems 256 References 257 8 Impairment Management and Survivability 261 8.1 Introduction 261 8.2 Impairments in Optical Networks 262 8.2.1 Impairments in Transparent Optical Networks 263 8.2.2 Evaluation Criteria of Signal Quality 264 8.2.3 Optical System Impairments 266 8.2.3.1 Linear Impairments 267 8.2.3.2 Impairments Due to Nonlinearities 272 8.2.4 Impairment Awareness and Compensation in Optical Networks 276 8.3 Survivability in Optical Networks 279 8.4 Protection and Restoration 280 8.4.1 Protection and Restoration Schemes 280 8.4.2 Restoration Schemes 283 8.5 Survivability in Multilayer WDM Optical Networks 284 8.5.1 Survivability in the Electronic Logical Layer 285 8.5.2 Optical Layer Protection/Restoration 287 8.6 Summary 291 Problems 292 References 295 9 Flexible Optical Networks 297 9.1 Introduction 297 9.2 Coherent Modulation Schemes 298 9.2.1 Dual Polarization?Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DP?QPSK) 299 9.2.2 M?Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (M?QAM) 301 9.3 Multi?Carrier Modulation Schemes 301 9.3.1 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 303 9.3.1.1 Cyclic Prefix in OFDM 305 9.3.1.2 Peak?to?Average Power Ratio for OFDM 306 9.3.2 Optical OFDM 307 9.3.2.1 Direct?Detection Optical OFDM 309 9.3.2.2 Coherent?Detection Optical OFDM 310 9.3.2.3 All?Optical OFDM 311 9.4 Elastic Optical Network 312 9.5 Elastic Optical Network Elements 314 9.5.1 Flexible?Grid Fiber 314 9.5.2 Bandwidth Variable Transponder 317 9.5.3 Flexible Spectrum Selective Switches 319 9.5.4 Reconfigurable Optical Add Drop Multiplexers 320 9.6 Routing and Spectrum Assignment Algorithms 321 9.6.1 Static and Dynamic RSA 322 9.6.1.1 Static ILP and Heuristic RSA Solutions 322 9.6.1.2 RSA for Time?Varying Traffic 324 9.6.1.3 Network Defragmentation RSA 325 9.7 Network Control and Management 325 9.8 Summary 326 References 326 10 Software?Defined Optical Networks 331 10.1 Introduction 331 10.2 Software?Defined Networking 333 10.2.1 Functions of SDN Layers 335 10.2.1.1 Infrastructure Layer 336 10.2.1.2 South Bound Interface 336 10.2.1.3 Network Hypervisors 338 10.2.1.4 Network Operating System 339 10.2.1.5 North Bound Interfaces Layer 342 10.2.1.6 Network Application Layer 342 10.3 Software?Defined Optical Networking 343 10.3.1 SDON Architecture 344 10.3.1.1 SDON Data Plane 345 10.3.1.2 SDON Control Plane 349 10.3.1.3 SDON Application Layer 354 10.4 Summary 355 References 355 Index 359
DEVI CHADHA, PHD, is Professor Emeritus at IIT, Delhi in India. She has over 40 years of teaching and research experience in the areas of electromagnetics, microwaves, optical fiber communication, optical wireless communications, and photonics and switching networks. In addition, Professor Chadha is a Senior Member of IEEE, a Member of OSA, and a Fellow of IE (India).
Provides a comprehensive and updated account of WDM optical network systems Optical networking has advanced considerably since 2010. A host of new technologies and applications has brought a significant change in optical networks, migrating it towards an all-optical network. This book places great emphasis on the network concepts, technology, and methodologies that will stand the test of time and also help in understanding and developing advanced optical network systems. The first part of Optical WDM Networks: From Static to Elastic Networks provides a qualitative foundation for what follows-presenting an overview of optical networking, the different network architectures, basic concepts, and a high-level view of the different network structures considered in subsequent chapters. It offers a survey of enabling technologies and the hardware devices in the physical layer, followed by a more detailed picture of the network in the remaining chapters. The next sections give an in-depth study of the three basic network structures: the static broadcast networks, wavelength routed networks, and the electronic/optical logically routed networks, covering the characteristics of the optical networks in the access, metropolitan area, and long-haul reach. It discusses the networking picture; network control and management, impairment management and survivability. The last section of the book covers the upcoming technologies of flex-grid and software defined optical networking. Provides concise, updated, and comprehensive coverage of WDM optical networks Features numerous examples and exercise problems for the student to practice Covers, in detail, important topics, such as access, local area, metropolitan, wide area all-optical and elastic networks Includes protocols, design, and analysis along with the control and management of the networks Offers exclusive chapters on advance topics to cover the present and future technological trends, such as software defined optical networking and the flexible grid optical networks Optical WDM Networks: From Static to Elastic Networks is an excellent book for under and post graduate students in electrical/communication engineering. It will also be very useful to practicing professionals in communications, networking, and optical systems.

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