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Optical and Wireless Convergence for 5G Networks


Optical and Wireless Convergence for 5G Networks


1. Aufl.

von: Abdelgader M. Abdalla, Jonathan Rodriguez, Issa Elfergani, Antonio Teixeira

106,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 05.08.2019
ISBN/EAN: 9781119491606
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 352

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Beschreibungen

The mobile market has experienced unprecedented growth over the last few decades. Consumer trends have shifted towards mobile internet services supported by 3G and 4G networks worldwide. Inherent to existing networks are problems such as lack of spectrum, high energy consumption, and inter-cell interference. These limitations have led to the emergence of 5G technology. It is clear that any 5G system will integrate optical communications, which is already a mainstay of wide area networks. Using an optical core to route 5G data raises significant questions of how wireless and optical can coexist in synergy to provide smooth, end-to-end communication pathways. Optical and Wireless Convergence for 5G Networks explores new emerging technologies, concepts, and approaches for seamlessly integrating optical-wireless for 5G and beyond. Considering both fronthaul and backhaul perspectives, this timely book provides insights on managing an ecosystem of mixed and multiple access network communications focused on optical-wireless convergence. Topics include Fiber–Wireless (FiWi), Hybrid Fiber-Wireless (HFW), Visible Light Communication (VLC), 5G optical sensing technologies, approaches to real-time IoT applications, Tactile Internet, Fog Computing (FC), Network Functions Virtualization (NFV), Software-De?ned Networking (SDN), and many others. This book aims to provide an inclusive survey of 5G optical-wireless requirements, architecture developments, and technological solutions.
About the Editors ii Contributors v Preface xxvii Acknowledgments i Introduction iii 1 Towards a Converged Optical-Wireless Fronthaul/Backhaul Solution for 5G Networks and Beyond 1Isiaka Ajewale Alimi, Nelson Jesus Muga, Abdelgader M. Abdalla, Catia Pinho, Jonathan Rodriguez, Paulo Pereira Monteiro, Antonio Lucios Teixeira 1.1 Introduction 2 1.2 Cellular Network Interface and Solution 3 1.2.1 MBH/MFH Architecture 3 1.2.2 Integrated MBH/MFH Transport Network 5 1.3 5G Enabling Technologies 5 1.3.1 Ultra-Densication 6 1.3.2 C-RAN and RAN Virtualization 6 1.3.3 Advanced radio coordination 8 1.3.4 Millimeter-Wave Small Cells 9 1.3.5 Massive MIMO 10 1.3.6 New Multicarrier Modulations for 5G 10 1.4 Fiber-Wireless Network Convergence 11 1.5 Radio-over-Fiber Transmission Scheme 12 1.5.1 Digital Radio-over-Fiber (D-RoF) Transmission 12 1.5.2 Analog Radio-over-Fiber (A-RoF) Transmission 13 1.6 Optical MBH/MFH Transport Network Multiplexing Schemes 14 1.6.1 Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM) based Schemes 14 1.6.2 Spatial-Division Multiplexing (SDM) based Schemes 15 1.7 Wireless based MFH/MBH 18 1.7.1 FSO Communication Systems 18 1.7.2 Hybrid RF/FSO Technology 21 1.7.3 Relay-Assisted FSO Transmission 22 1.8 Experimental Channel measurement and characterization 23 1.9 Results and Discussions 24 1.10 Conclusion 24 Acknowledgments 24 Bibliography 25 2 Hybrid Fiber Wireless (HFW) Extension for GPON Toward 5G 31Rattana Chuenchom, Andreas Ste_an, Robert G. Walker, Stephen J. Clements, Yigal Leiba, Andrzej Banach, Mateusz Lech, Andreas Stohr 2.1 Passive Optical Network 32 2.1.1 GPON and EPON standard 33 2.2 Transparent Wireless Extension of Optical Links 34 2.2.1 Transparent wireless extension of optical links using CRoF 34 2.3 Key Enabling Photonic and Electronic Technologies 36 2.3.1 Coherent Photonic Mixer 36 2.3.2 Single side band Mach-Zehnder modulator 38 2.3.3 High power amplifier in E-band for GPON extension 40 2.3.4 Integrated radio access units 42 2.4 Field Trial for 2.5 Gbit/s GPON over Wireless 43 2.4.1 RX Throughput and packet loss 48 2.4.2 Latency 48 2.4.3 Jitter 49 2.5 Conclusions 49 Bibliography 50 3 Software Defened Networking and Network Function Virtualisation for Converged Accessmetro Networks 53Marco Rumi , Frank Slyne 3.1 Introduction 53 3.2 The 5G requirements driving network convergence and virtualisation 54 3.3 Access and metro convergence 57 3.3.1 Long-Reach Passive Optical Network 58 3.3.2 New architectures in support of 5G networks, network virtualisation and mobile functional split 59 3.4 Functional convergence and virtualisation of the central offices 62 3.4.1 Infrastructure 63 3.4.2 Management and Control 66 3.4.3 Cross-Layer Components 70 3.5 Conclusions 70 Bibliography 70 4 Multicore Fibres for 5G Fronthaul Evolution 77Ivana Gasulla, José Capmany 4.1 Why 5G communications demand for optical Space-Division Multiplexing 77 4.2 Multicore Fibre Transmission Review 79 4.2.1 Homogeneous MCFs 80 4.2.2 Heterogeneous MCFs 81 4.3 Radio Access Networks using Multicore Fibre Links 82 4.3.1 Basic MCF link between Central O_ce and Base Station 84 4.3.2 MCF-based Radio over Fibre C-RAN 85 4.3.3 MCF-based Digital Radio over Fibre C-RAN 87 4.4 Microwave signal processing enabled by multicore fibres 88 4.4.1 Signal Processing over a Heterogeneous MCF link 90 4.4.2 RF Signal Processing over a Homogeneous MCF Multicavity device 92 4.5 Final Remarks 94 Bibliography 95 5 Enabling VLC and Wi-Fi Network Technologies and Architectures Towards 5G 99Isiaka Ajewale Alimi, Abdelgader M. Abdalla, Jonathan Rodriguez, Paulo Pereira Monteiro, Antonio Lu__s Teixeira, Stanislav Zv_anovec, Zabih Ghassemlooy 5.1 Introduction 100 5.2 Optical Wireless Systems 102 5.3 Visible Light Communication (VLC) System Fundamentals 104 5.4 VLC Current and Anticipated Future Applications 107 5.4.1 Underwater Wireless Communications 109 5.4.2 Airlines and Aviation 109 5.4.3 Hospitals 110 5.4.4 Vehicular Communication Systems 110 5.4.5 Sensitive Areas 111 5.4.6 Manufacturing and Industrial Applications 111 5.4.7 Retail Stores 112 5.4.8 Consumer Electronics 112 5.4.9 Internet of Things 112 5.4.10 Other Application Areas 113 5.5 Hybrid VLC and RF Networks 113 5.6 Challenges and Open-Ended Issues 114 5.6.1 Flicker and Dimming 115 5.6.2 Data Rate Improvement 115 5.7 Conclusions 116 Acknowledgments 116 Bibliography 117 6 5G RAN: Key Radio Technologies and Hardware Implementation Challenges 123Hassan Hamdoun, Mohamed Hamid, Shoaib Amin, Hind Dafallah 6.1 Introduction 123 6.2 5G NR-enabled Use Cases 124 6.2.1 eMBB and uRLLC 125 6.2.2 Migration to 5G 126 6.3 5G RAN Radio-enabling Technologies 126 6.3.1 Massive MIMO (M-MIMO) 127 6.3.2 Carrier Aggregation and Licensed Assisted Access to unlicensed spectrum 130 6.3.3 Dual Connectivity 131 6.3.4 Device-to-Device (D2D) communication 132 6.4 Hardware Impairments 132 6.4.1 Hardware Impairments-Transmitters 133 6.4.2 Hardware Impairments - Receivers 135 6.4.3 Hardware Impairments - Transceivers 135 6.5 Technology and Fabrication challenges 136 6.6 Conclusion 137 Bibliography 137 7 Millimeter Wave Antenna Design for 5G Applications 143Issa Elfergani, Abubakar Sadiq Hussaini, Abdelgader Abdalla, Jonathan Rodriguez, Raed Abd-Alhameed 7.1 Introduction 144 7.2 Antenna Design and Procedure 146 7.3 Antenna Optimisation and Analysis 147 7.3.1 The inuence of ground plane length (GL) 148 7.3.2 The effect of feeding strip position (Fp) 148 7.3.3 The inuences of the substrate type 149 7.4 MMwave Antenna Design with notched frequency band 150 7.5 MMwave Antenna Design with Loaded Capacitor 153 7.6 Conclusion 156 Acknowledgement 156 Bibliography 156 8 Wireless Signal Encapsulation on Seamless Fiber{mmWave System 161Pham Tien Dat, Atsushi Kanno, Naokatsu Yamamoto, Testuya Kawanishi 8.1 Introduction 161 8.2 Principle of signal encapsulation 163 8.2.1 Downlink system 163 8.2.2 Uplink system 165 8.3 Examples of signal encapsulation 166 8.3.1 Downlink transmission 166 8.3.2 Uplink transmission 170 8.3.3 MmWave link distance 173 8.3.4 Conclusion 175 Bibliography 176 9 5G Optical Sensing Technologies 179Seedahmed S. Mahmoud , Bernhard Koziol, Jusak Jusak 9.1 Introduction 179 9.2 Optical Fibre Communication Network: Intrusion Methods 182 9.3 Physical Protection of Optical Fibre Communication Cables 183 9.3.1 Location-Based Optical Fibre Sensors 185 9.3.2 Point-Based Optical Fibre Sensors 187 9.3.3 Zone-Based Optical Fibre Sensors 189 9.4 Design Consideration and Performance Characteristics 190 9.4.1 Performance Parameters 190 9.4.2 The Needs for Robust Signal Processing Methods 191 9.4.3 System Installation and Technology Suitability 192 9.5 Conclusions 193 Bibliography 193 10 The Tactile Internet over 5G FiWi Architectures 197Amin Ebrahimzadeh, Mahfuzulhoq Chowdhury, Martin Maier 10.1 Introduction 197 10.2 The Tactile Internet: State of the Art and Open Challenges 203 10.3 Related Work 206 10.4 HITL-Centric Teleoperation over AI Enhanced FiWi Networks 207 10.5 HART-Centric Task Allocation over Multi-Robot FiWi based Tactile Internet Infrastructures 212 10.6 Conclusions 217 Bibliography 218 11 Energy Efficiency in Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) for 5G Mobile Networks: Opportunities and Challenges 223Isiaka Ajewale Alimi, Abdelgader M. Abdalla, Akeem Olapade Mufutau, Fernando Pereira Guiomar, Ifiok Otung, Jonathan Rodriguez, Paulo Pereira Monteiro, Ant_onio Lu__s Teixeira 11.1 Introduction 224 11.1.1 Environmental effects 225 11.1.2 Economic benefits 225 11.2 Standardized Energy Efficiency Metric (Green metric) 228 11.2.1 Power per subscriber, tra_c and distance/area 229 11.2.2 Energy consumption rating (ECR) measured in Watt/Gbps 229 11.2.3 Telecommunications energy efficiency ratio (TEER) 230 11.2.4 Telecommunication Equipment Energy Efficiency Rating (TEEER) 230 11.3 Green Design for Energy Crunch Prevention in 5G networks 230 11.3.1 Hardware solutions 231 11.3.2 Network planning and deployment 232 11.3.3 Resource allocation 233 11.3.4 Energy harvesting (EH) and transfer 233 11.4 Fiber-based Energy Efficient Network 235 11.4.1 Zero Power RAU PoF Network 236 11.4.2 Battery Powered RRH PoF Network 236 11.5 System and Power Consumption Model 237 11.5.1 Remote unit power consumption 239 11.5.2 Centralized unit power consumption 239 11.5.3 Fronthaul power consumption 239 11.5.4 Massive MIMO energy efficiency 240 11.6 Simulation Results and Discussions 242 11.7 Conclusion 242 Acknowledgments 243 Bibliography 243 12 Fog Computing Enhanced Fiber-Wireless Access Networks in the 5G Era 247Bhaskar Prasad Rimal, Martin Maier 12.1 Background and Motivation 247 12.1.1 Next-Generation PON and Beyond 247 12.1.2 FiWi Broadband Access Networks 250 12.1.3 Role of Fog Computing 251 12.1.4 Computation Offloading 251 12.1.5 Key Issues and Contributions 253 12.2 Fog Computing Enhanced FiWi Networks 255 12.2.1 Network Architecture 255 12.2.2 Protocol Description 255 12.3 Analysis 256 12.3.1 Survivability Analysis 256 12.3.2 End-to-End Delay Analysis 258 12.4 Implementation and Validation 259 12.4.1 Experimental Testbed 259 12.4.2 Results 260 12.5 Conclusions and Outlook 262 12.5.1 Conclusions 262 12.5.2 Outlook 262 Bibliography 263 13 Techno-economic and Business Feasibility Analysis of 5G Transport Networks 267Forough Yaghoubi, Mozhgan Mahloo, Lena Wosinska, Paolo Monti, Fabricio S. Farias, Joao C. W. A. Costa, Jiajia Chen 13.1 Introduction 268 13.2 Mobile Backhaul Technologies 270 13.3 Techno-economic Framework 272 13.3.1 Architecture Module 274 13.3.2 Topology Module 274 13.3.3 Market Module 274 13.3.4 Network Dimensioning Tool 274 13.3.5 Cost Module 275 13.3.6 Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Module 275 13.3.7 Business Models and Scenarios 277 13.3.8 Techno-economic Module 278 13.4 Case Study 278 13.4.1 Application of Methodology/Scenarios 279 13.4.2 Techno-economic Evaluation Results 282 13.4.3 Sensitivity Analysis 284 13.5 Conclusion 286 Bibliography
ABDELGADER M. ABDALLA, PHD, is a Senior Researcher at the Instituto de Telecomunicações, Aveiro, Portugal. He is acting as a work package leader/task leader for two ECSEL Innovation Actions European projects. He is also playing a leading international role on optical-wireless convergence research. JONATHAN RODRIGUEZ, PHD, is a Principal Investigator and founder of the Mobile Systems Research Lab at the Instituto de Telecomunicações, Aveiro, Portugal. He is also a full Professor at the University of South Wales, UK. ISSA ELFERGANI, PHD, is a Senior Researcher at the Instituto de Telecomunicações, Aveiro, Portugal, working as technical manager and work package leader on several national and international projects. He is an expert on Radio Communication. ANTONIO TEIXEIRA, PHD, is a Professor at the University of Aveiro and Principal Investigator at the Instituto de Telecomunicações, Portugal. He was with Nokia Siemens Networks and Coriant as a standardization expert in the field of optical access. He holds an EC in management and leadership from MIT Sloan School.
A complete guide to optical-wireless from 5G and beyond The mobile market has experienced unprecedented growth over the last few decades. Consumer trends have shifted towards mobile internet services supported by 3G and 4G networks worldwide. Inherent to existing networks are problems such as lack of spectrum, high energy consumption, and inter-cell interference. These limitations have led to the emergence of 5G technology. It is clear that any 5G system will integrate optical communications, which is already a mainstay of wide area networks. Using an optical core to route 5G data raises significant questions of how wireless and optical can coexist in synergy to provide smooth, end-to-end communication pathways. Optical and Wireless Convergence for 5G Networks explores new emerging technologies, concepts, and approaches for seamlessly integrating optical-wireless for 5G and beyond. Considering both fronthaul and backhaul perspectives, this timely book provides insights on managing an ecosystem of mixed and multiple access network communications focused on optical-wireless convergence. Topics include Fiber–Wireless (FiWi), Hybrid Fiber-Wireless (HFW), Visible Light Communication (VLC), 5G optical sensing technologies, approaches to real-time IoT applications, Tactile Internet, Fog Computing (FC), Network Functions Virtualization (NFV), Software-De???ned Networking (SDN), and many others. This book aims to provide an inclusive survey of 5G optical-wireless requirements, architecture developments, and technological solutions; in particular, this book: Offers new insights on the highly relevant topic of 5G optical-wireless convergence Guides early-stage researchers by providing a solid platform on which to build future research Helps mobile/optical stakeholders to construct new project proposals that meet challenges associated with 5G and beyond at the international level Includes contributions from international experts at the forefront of 5G research representing industrial and academia stakeholders Presents background information suitable for a range of optical and wireless courses Optical and Wireless Convergence for 5G Networks is an indispensable resource for fixed and mobile stakeholders, wireless industry professionals, graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, and those in related areas of telecommunications and electronic engineering.

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