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Nutraceutical Fatty Acids from Oleaginous Microalgae


Nutraceutical Fatty Acids from Oleaginous Microalgae

A Human Health Perspective
1. Aufl.

von: Alok Kumar Patel, Leonidas Matsakas

173,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 15.06.2020
ISBN/EAN: 9781119631743
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 368

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Beschreibungen

<p>Over the past several years, extensive research has been done on the microbial production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).  Regardless, research on the oleaginous microalgae used as feedstock for biofuels production and the overall story about the production of nutraceutical fatty acids from oleaginous microalgae has been very limited. This volume provides an exclusive insight on the production of nutraceutical fatty acids from oleaginous microalgae and their role on human health.</p> <p>Some saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids can be synthesized by humans, whereas long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid cannot and are deemed essential. The products of these acids, such as DHA, which is important for early visual and neurological development, are extremely important to human health. Replacing SFAs with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the diet reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and prevent Alzheimer's, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, among other benefits. </p> <p>The ever-rising global demand for omega-3 & 6 PUFAs, however, cannot be met solely by fish oil, due to diminishing fish stocks and pollution of marine ecosystems, which has led to increased interest in alternative sustainable sources. Vegetable oils from genetically engineered plant oilseeds and microorganisms are two potential alternatives to fish oil, even though omega-3 PUFAs are highest in the latter.  Although transgenic plants present numerous advantages, their production is dependent on seasonal and climatic conditions and the availability of arable land. Moreover, there are public concerns regarding the cultivation of transgenic crops in open ecosystems. These, together with regulatory issues restrict the large-scale production of genetically modified crops. Microorganisms, however, are known natural producers of microbial oils similar to those obtained from plants and animals and a possible source of nutritionally important omega-3 & 6 PUFAs.</p> <p>This groundbreaking volume presents invaluable new research on essential fatty acids, their production from various oleaginous microorganisms, biochemical and metabolic engineering to improve PUFAs content in oil, extraction and purification of omega 3 fatty acids, and the current market scenario. Whether a veteran engineer or scientist using it as a reference or a professor using it as a textbook, this outstanding new volume is a must-have for any engineer or scientist working in food science.</p>
<p><b>1 Introduction to Essential Fatty Acids 1<br /></b><i>Alok Patel, Ulrika Rova, Paul Christakopoulos and Leonidas Matsakas</i></p> <p>1.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>1.2 Biosynthesis of PUFAs 4</p> <p>1.3 Sources of Essential Fatty Acids and Daily Intake Requirement 5</p> <p>1.4 Biological Role of Essential Fatty Acids 7</p> <p>1.4.1 Effect on Cell Membrane Structure 7</p> <p>1.4.2 Impact on Vision 9</p> <p>1.4.3 Brain Function 9</p> <p>1.4.4 Biosynthesis of Lipid Mediators 10</p> <p>1.4.5 Effect of Omega Fatty Acids on the Regulation of Gene Expression 10</p> <p>1.5 Effect of Essential Fatty Acid on Human Health (Disease Prevention and Treatment) 10</p> <p>1.5.1 Neonatal Development 10</p> <p>1.5.2 Gestation and Pregnancy 11</p> <p>1.5.3 Cardiovascular Disease 11</p> <p>1.5.4 Cancer Inhibition 12</p> <p>1.5.5 Rheumatoid Arthritis 12</p> <p>1.5.6 Effect on Suicide Risk in Mood Disorders 12</p> <p>1.6 Concluding Remarks 12</p> <p>References 13</p> <p><b>2 Nutraceutical Fatty Acid Production in Marine Microalgae and Cyanobacteria 23<br /></b><i>Anders K. Nilsson, Carlos Jiménez and Angela Wulff</i></p> <p>2.1 Introduction 24</p> <p>2.2 Fatty Acid Synthesis 26</p> <p>2.3 Glycerolipid Synthesis and Lipid Accumulation 30</p> <p>2.4 Current LC-PUFA Sources and the Potential Benefits of Using Marine Microalgae 32</p> <p>2.5 Nutraceutical Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae and Species of Interest 35</p> <p>2.5.1 α-Linolenic Acid (18:3 <i>n</i>-3, Δ9,12,15) 37</p> <p>2.5.2 Stearidonic Acid (18:4 <i>n</i>-3, Δ6,9,12,15) 38</p> <p>2.5.3 Eicosanoid Acid (EPA, 20:5 <i>n</i>-3, Δ5,8,11,14,17) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA, 22:6 <i>n</i>-3, Δ4,7,10,13,16,19) 38</p> <p>2.5.4 Docosapentaenoic Acid (22:5 <i>n</i>-3, Δ7,10,13,16,19) 39</p> <p>2.5.5 γ-Linolenic Acid (18:3 <i>n</i>-6, Δ6,9,12) 40</p> <p>2.5.6 Arachidonic Acid (20:4 <i>n</i>-6, Δ5,8,11,14) 41</p> <p>2.6 Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Cultivation 42</p> <p>2.7 Cultivation from Laboratory to Industrial Scale 43</p> <p>2.8 Optimizing Growth Condition to Promote Lipid Accumulation and Desired FA Profiles 48</p> <p>2.8.1 Temperature Effect 49</p> <p>2.8.2 Irradiance 50</p> <p>2.8.3 Growth Rate 52</p> <p>2.8.4 Nitrogen and Phosphorous 52</p> <p>2.8.5 Co<sub>2</sub> 53</p> <p>2.8.6 Salinity 54</p> <p>2.9 Genetic Engineering to Promote Lipid Accumulation and Tailoring of Fatty Acid Profiles 54</p> <p>2.10 Conclusions 56</p> <p>2.11 Acknowledgements 57</p> <p>References 57</p> <p><b>3 Production of PUFAs as Dietary and Health Supplements from Oleaginous Microalgae Utilizing Inexpensive Renewable Substrates 77<br /></b><i>Dimitra Karageorgou, Georgios Bakratsas and Petros Katapodis</i></p> <p>3.1 Introduction 78</p> <p>3.2 PUFAs as Dietary and Health Supplements 79</p> <p>3.3 Microalgae as Source of PUFAs 82</p> <p>3.4 Systems for Microalgal Cultivation 89</p> <p>3.5 Use of Alternative Substrates for Microalgal Growth 90</p> <p>3.6 Factors that Affect the Heterotrophic and/or Mixotrophic Cultures 97</p> <p>3.7 Conclusions 101</p> <p>3.8 Future Perspectives 101</p> <p>3.9 Acknowledgements 102</p> <p>References 102</p> <p><b>4 Lipid and Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acid Production by Oleaginous Microorganisms Cultivated on Hydrophobic Substrates 115<br /></b><i>Markella Tzirita, Bríd Quilty and Seraphim Papanikolaou</i></p> <p>4.1 Lipid Production (Single Cell Oil) 116</p> <p>4.2 Lipid Biodegradation and Synthesis 118</p> <p>4.3 Hydrophobic Substrates 122</p> <p>4.3.1 Waste Fats, Oils and Grease (FOG) 122</p> <p>4.3.2 Olive-Mill Wastewater (OMW) 123</p> <p>4.4 Oleaginous Microorganisms 124</p> <p>4.5 Conclusions 127</p> <p>References 136</p> <p><b>5 Overview of Microbial Production of Omega-3-Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid 145<br /></b><i>Farha Deeba, Kukkala Kiran Kumar and Naseem A. Gaur</i></p> <p>5.1 Introduction 145</p> <p>5.2 Microbial Sources of ω-3 PUFA 146</p> <p>5.3 ω-3 PUFA Biosynthesis in Microbial Cells 149</p> <p>5.3.1 Aerobic Desaturase and Elongase Pathway 151</p> <p>5.3.2 Anaerobic Polyketide Synthase (PKS) Pathway 153</p> <p>5.4 Factors Affecting ω-3 PUFA Production 154</p> <p>5.4.1 Temperature 154</p> <p>5.4.2 pH 155</p> <p>5.4.3 Aeration 155</p> <p>5.4.4 Media Composition 155</p> <p>5.4.5 Incubation Time 156</p> <p>5.5 Stabilization of ω-3 PUFA 156</p> <p>5.6 Conclusions 157</p> <p>References 157</p> <p><b>6 Autotrophic Cultivation of Microalgae for the Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid 165<br /></b><i>Pallavi Saxena, Mukesh Kumar and Harish</i></p> <p>6.1 Introduction 165</p> <p>6.2 Importance of PUFAs 170</p> <p>6.3 Biosynthesis of PUFA in Autotrophic Algae 171</p> <p>6.4 Harvesting of Algae and Extraction of Fatty Acids 173</p> <p>6.5 Metabolic Engineering Towards Increasing Production of PUFA’s by Algae 175</p> <p>6.6 Conclusion 178</p> <p>6.7 Acknowledgement 178</p> <p>References 178</p> <p><b>7 Production of Omega-3 and Omega-6 PUFA from Food Crops and Fishes 187<br /></b><i>Km Sartaj and R. Prasad</i></p> <p>7.1 Introduction 188</p> <p>7.2 PUFA as a Dietary Supplement 189</p> <p>7.2.1 Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids 189</p> <p>7.2.2 Omega-6 (n-6) Fatty Acids 190</p> <p>7.2.3 Health Aspects and Physiological Functions of PUFA 190</p> <p>7.3 Biosynthesis and Metabolism of PUFA 191</p> <p>7.4 Potential Commodities for PUFA Production 193</p> <p>7.4.1 Food Crops 193</p> <p>7.4.1.1 Soybean Seeds 197</p> <p>7.4.1.2 Rapeseed 197</p> <p>7.4.1.3 Safflower 198</p> <p>7.4.1.4 Sesame and Linseed 198</p> <p>7.4.1.5 Sunflower 198</p> <p>7.4.2 Transgenic Plants 198</p> <p>7.4.3 Fishes 198</p> <p>7.4.3.1 Fish Bioecology and Lipid Content 199</p> <p>7.5 Alternate Sources of PUFA 200</p> <p>7.6 Future Avenues 200</p> <p>7.7 Conclusion 203</p> <p>References 203</p> <p><b>8 The Role of Metabolic Engineering for Enhancing PUFA Production in Microalgae 209<br /></b><i>Neha Arora</i></p> <p>8.1 Introduction 209</p> <p>8.2 LC-PUFA Biosynthesis in Microalgae 212</p> <p>8.2.1 Conventional Aerobic Pathway 212</p> <p>8.2.2 Anaerobic Pathway 214</p> <p>8.3 Identification and Characterization of Enzymes Involved in PUFA Synthesis 214</p> <p>8.4 Metabolic Engineering for Enhancing the LC-PUFA</p> <p>Production in Microalgae 215</p> <p>8.5 Conclusion and Future Perspective 222</p> <p>References 223</p> <p><b>9 Health Perspective of Nutraceutical Fatty Acids; (Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids) 227<br /></b><i>Sneha Sawant Desai and Varsha Kelkar Mane</i></p> <p>9.1 Introduction 228</p> <p>9.1.1 Biochemistry of Fatty Acids 228</p> <p>9.1.2 Overview of Fatty Acid Synthesis 231</p> <p>9.1.3 Strategies for PUFA Accumulation in Microalgae 232</p> <p>9.2 Health Benefits of PUFA 234</p> <p>9.2.1 Omega-6 Fatty Acids 234</p> <p>9.2.1.1 Linoleic Acid (LA) 234</p> <p>9.2.1.2 γ-Linolenic Acid (GLA) 234</p> <p>9.2.1.3 Arachidonic Acid (ARA) 235</p> <p>9.2.2 Omega-3 Fatty Acids 236</p> <p>9.2.2.1 Alpha-Linolenic Acid (ALA) 236</p> <p>9.2.2.2 Stearidonic Acid (SDA) 237</p> <p>9.2.2.3 Docosahexanoic Acid (DHA) 237</p> <p>9.2.2.4 Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) 239</p> <p>9.3 Conclusion 240</p> <p>References 241</p> <p><b>10 Extraction and Purification of PUFA from Microbial Biomass 249<br /></b><i>Amit Kumar Sharma, Venkateswarlu Chintala, Praveen Ghodke, Parteek Prasher and Alok Patel</i></p> <p>10.1 Introduction 250</p> <p>10.2 Biochemical Composition of Microalgae 251</p> <p>10.2.1 Carbohydrates 251</p> <p>10.2.2 Proteins 252</p> <p>10.2.3 Lipids 252</p> <p>10.3 Microalgae as a Source of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids 253</p> <p>10.4 Composition of PUFAs in Microbial Biomass 254</p> <p>10.5 Methods of Lipid Extraction from Microbial Biomass 255</p> <p>10.5.1 Microalgae Cell Disruption Methods 256</p> <p>10.5.1.1 Mechanical Cell Disruption Methods 257</p> <p>10.5.1.2 Non-Mechanical Cell Disruption Methods 260</p> <p>10.5.2 Lipid Extraction Methods 260</p> <p>10.5.2.1 Mechanical Extraction Method 261</p> <p>10.5.2.2 Solvent Extraction Methods 261</p> <p>10.5.2.3 Green Solvents Extraction Methods 264</p> <p>10.5.2.4 Supercritical Extraction Method 265</p> <p>10.6 Purification and Enrichment of PUFAs 266</p> <p>10.6.1 Low-Temperature Crystallization Enrichment 270</p> <p>10.6.2 Urea Complexation 270</p> <p>10.6.3 Distillation Method 271</p> <p>10.6.4 Enzymatic Purification 271</p> <p>10.6.5 Chromatographic Separation 272</p> <p>10.6.6 Supercritical Fluid Fractionation (SFF) 273</p> <p>10.7 Concluding Remarks 273</p> <p>References 274</p> <p><b>11 Market Perspective of EPA and DHA Production from Microalgae 281<br /></b><i>Jyoti Sharma, Pampi Sarmah and Narsi R Bishnoi</i></p> <p>11.1 Introduction 281</p> <p>11.2 Categories of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Their Health Benefits 283</p> <p>11.3 Brain Development 284</p> <p>11.4 Cardiovascular Diseases 285</p> <p>11.5 Present Sources of Omega-3 PUFAs 286</p> <p>11.6 Why Microalgae? 287</p> <p>11.7 Factors Affecting Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of Microalgae 289</p> <p>11.8 Algal Oil Extraction, Purification and Its Refining Techniques 291</p> <p>11.9 Microalgae as a Boon for Long-Chain Omega-3 PUFAs 292</p> <p>References 294</p> <p><b>12 Oleaginous Microalgae – A Potential Tool for Biorefinery-Based Industry 299<br /></b><i>Riti Thapar Kapoor</i></p> <p>12.1 Introduction 299</p> <p>12.2 Industrial Applications of Microalgae 302</p> <p>12.3 Use of Microalgae as Biofertilizer 302</p> <p>12.4 Microalgae as a Food Component 303</p> <p>12.5 Microalgae as a Nutraceutical 303</p> <p>12.6 Pigments and Carotenoids 304</p> <p>12.7 Phycobilins 305</p> <p>12.8 Fatty Acids 305</p> <p>12.9 Animal Nutrition 306</p> <p>12.10 Safety Related Issues Related to Microalgal Nutraceuticals 307</p> <p>12.11 Application in Pharmaceutical Industry 307</p> <p>12.12 Utilization of Microalgae in Cosmetics Production 308</p> <p>12.13 Microalgal Application in Wastewater Treatment 308</p> <p>12.14 Factors Affecting Lipid Production in Microalgae 309</p> <p>12.14.1 Light Intensity 309</p> <p>12.14.2 Temperature 309</p> <p>12.14.3 Nutrient Availability 310</p> <p>12.14.4 Salinity Stress 310</p> <p>12.14.5 Metal Stress 313</p> <p>12.15 Application of Microalgae in Biofuel Production 313</p> <p>12.15.1 Advantages of Using Microalgae for Biofuel Production 313</p> <p>12.16 Biodiesel 315</p> <p>12.17 Biogas 315</p> <p>12.18 Hydrogen 315</p> <p>12.19 Biosyngas 316</p> <p>12.20 Ethanol 316</p> <p>12.21 Cultivation of Microalgae for Biofuel Production 316</p> <p>12.21.1 Open Microalgal System 316</p> <p>12.21.2 Closed Microalgal System 317</p> <p>12.21.3 Hybrid Microalgal System 317</p> <p>12.22 Current Research Status in India 317</p> <p>12.23 Concluding Remarks and Future Prospectives 318</p> <p>12.24 Acknowledgements 318</p> <p>References 318</p> <p>Index 331</p>
<p><b>Alok Kumar Patel,</b> PhD, is working as a senior researcher in Biochemical Process Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden to produce nutraceuticals from oleaginous microalgae. He finished his master's degree in biotechnology in 2011 and joined as a research assistant in Food Borne Infection Surveillance Unit, (Global Disease Detection India Center) CDC, USA in collaboration with National Center for Disease Control, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India. He got his PhD in Biotechnology from IIT Roorkee in 2017. His research interest is mainly focused on the development of biotechnological processes for conversion of organic matter to bioenergy, biofuels and biochemicals, process optimization, pretreatment of biomass, nutraceuticals and value-added products from microorganisms, and biorefineries. <p><b>Leonidas Matsakas,</b> PhD, is working as an assistant professor in the Biochemical Process Engineering group at Luleå University of Technology. He received his PhD in Biotechnology from the school of Chemical Engineering at National Technical University of Athens in 2015. After that, he joined the Biochemical Process Engineering group of LTU as postdoc fellow and later became senior lecturer at the same group. His research interest is focused on developing biomass biorefinery processes, inclusing establishing novel pretreatment and fractionation technologies for the fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin and the conversion of these streams to biofuels, biobased chemicals and biomaterials via biochemical and thermochemical routes.
<p><b>A critical text designed for microbiologists, biotechnologists, entrepreneurs, nutritionists, dietitians, clinicians and health-related professionals, Nutraceutical Fatty Acids from Oleaginous Microalgae presents an inclusive assessment of the current knowledge about the lab-scale and large-scale production of essential nutraceuticals from microalgae and their nutritional effects on human health.</b> <p>Over the past several years, extensive research has been done on the microbial production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Regardless, research on the oleaginous microalgae used as feedstock for biofuels production and the overall story about the production of nutraceutical fatty acids from oleaginous microalgae has been very limited. This volume provides an exclusive insight on the production of nutraceutical fatty acids from oleaginous microalgae and their role on human health. <p>Some saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids can be synthesized by humans, whereas long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as ??-linolenic acid and linoleic acid cannot and are deemed essential. The products of these acids, such as DHA, which is important for early visual and neurological development, are extremely important to human health. Replacing SFAs with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the diet reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and prevent Alzheimer's, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, among other benefits. The ever-rising global demand for omega-3 & -6 PUFAs, however, cannot be met solely by fish oil, due to diminishing fish stocks and pollution of marine ecosystems, which has led to increased interest in alternative sustainable sources. <p>This groundbreaking volume presents invaluable new research on essential fatty acids, their production from various oleaginous microorganisms, biochemical and metabolic engineering to improve PUFAs content in oil, extraction and purification of omega 3 fatty acids, and the current market scenario. Whether a veteran engineer or scientist using it as a reference or a professor using it as a textbook, this outstanding new volume is a must-have for any engineer or scientist working in food science. <p><b>This groundbreaking new volume:</b> <ul> <li>Provides state-of-the-art information on synthetic biology approaches for oleaginous microalgae to produce nutraceutical fatty acids that allows scientists and researchers to study the dietary effects of individual trans fatty acids on human health</li> <li>Describes the cultivation techniques of microalgae to support the synthesis of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids inside the cellular compartment</li> <li>Discusses methods for the extraction and purification of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid from microalgae</li> <li>Provides an overview of the renewable substrate for the cultivation of microalgae at the industrial level</li> </ul>

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