Details

Nuclear and Radiochemistry


Nuclear and Radiochemistry

Fundamentals and Applications
4. Aufl.

von: Jens-Volker Kratz

358,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 17.09.2021
ISBN/EAN: 9783527831937
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 976

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Beschreibungen

<b>Nuclear and Radiochemistry</b> <p><b>The leading resource for anyone looking for an accessible and authoritative introduction to nuclear and radiochemistry</b> <p>In the newly revised Fourth Edition of <i>Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications</i>, distinguished chemist Jens-Volker Kratz delivers a two-volume handbook that has become the gold standard in teaching and learning nuclear and radiochemistry. The books cover the theory and fundamentals of the subject before moving on the technical side of nuclear chemistry, with coverage of nuclear energy, nuclear reactors, and radionuclides in the life sciences. <p>This latest edition discusses the details and impact of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear disasters, as well as new research facilities, including FAIR and HIM. It also incorporates new methods for target preparation and new processes for nuclear fuel recycling, like EURO-GANEX. Finally, the volumes extensively cover environmental technological advances and the effects of radioactivity on the environment. <p>Readers will also find: <ul><li> An accessible and thorough introduction to the fundamental concepts of nuclear physics and chemistry, including atomic processes, classical mechanics, relativistic mechanics, and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle</li> <li>Comprehensive explorations of radioactivity in nature, radioelements, radioisotopes and their atomic masses, and other physical properties of nuclei</li> <li>Practical discussions of the nuclear force, nuclear structure, decay modes, radioactive decay kinetics, and nuclear radiation</li> <li>In-depth examinations of the statistical considerations relevant to radioactivity measurements</li></ul> <p>Written for practicing nuclear chemists and atomic physicists, <i>Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications </i>is also an indispensable resource for nuclear physicians, power engineers, and professionals working in the nuclear industry.
<p><b>Volume 1</b></p> <p>Preface vii</p> <p><b>1 Fundamental Concepts </b><b>1</b></p> <p>1.1 The Atom 1</p> <p>1.2 Atomic Processes 2</p> <p>1.3 Discovery of the Atomic Nucleus 4</p> <p>1.4 Nuclear Decay Types 6</p> <p>1.5 Some Physical Concepts Needed in Nuclear Chemistry 10</p> <p>1.5.1 Fundamental Forces 10</p> <p>1.5.2 Elements from Classical Mechanics 11</p> <p>1.5.3 Relativistic Mechanics 11</p> <p>1.5.4 The de BroglieWavelength 13</p> <p>1.5.5 Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 14</p> <p>1.5.6 The Standard Model of Particle Physics 15</p> <p>1.5.7 Force Carriers 19</p> <p>Reference 20</p> <p>Further Reading 21</p> <p><b>2 Radioactivity in Nature </b><b>23</b></p> <p>2.1 Discovery of Radioactivity 23</p> <p>2.2 Radioactive Substances in Nature 26</p> <p>2.3 Nuclear Forensics 30</p> <p>References 33</p> <p>Further Reading 33</p> <p><b>3 Radioelements and Radioisotopes and Their Atomic Masses </b><b>35</b></p> <p>3.1 Periodic Table of the Elements 35</p> <p>3.2 Isotopes and the Chart of Nuclides 36</p> <p>3.3 Nuclide Masses and Binding Energies 40</p> <p>3.4 Evidence for Shell Structure in Nuclei 48</p> <p>3.5 Precision Mass Spectrometry 51</p> <p>References 56</p> <p>Further Reading 56</p> <p><b>4 Other Physical Properties of Nuclei </b><b>59</b></p> <p>4.1 Nuclear Radii 59</p> <p>4.2 Nuclear Angular Momenta 64</p> <p>4.3 Magnetic Dipole Moments 66</p> <p>4.4 Electric Quadrupole Moments 69</p> <p>4.5 Statistics and Parity 70</p> <p>4.6 Excited States 71</p> <p>References 72</p> <p>Further Reading 72</p> <p><b>5 The Nuclear Force and Nuclear Structure </b><b>75</b></p> <p>5.1 Nuclear Forces 75</p> <p>5.2 Charge Independence and Isospin 78</p> <p>5.3 Nuclear Matter 82</p> <p>5.4 Fermi Gas Model 84</p> <p>5.5 Shell Model 86</p> <p>5.6 Collective Motion in Nuclei 95</p> <p>5.7 Nilsson Model 100</p> <p>5.8 The Pairing Force and Quasi-Particles 104</p> <p>5.9 Macroscopic–Microscopic Model 106</p> <p>5.10 Interacting Boson Approximation 108</p> <p>5.11 Further Collective Excitations: Coulomb Excitation, High-Spin States, Giant Resonances 110</p> <p>References 116</p> <p>Further Reading 116</p> <p><b>6 Decay Modes </b><b>119</b></p> <p>6.1 Nuclear Instability and Nuclear Spectroscopy 119</p> <p>6.2 Alpha Decay 119</p> <p>6.2.1 Hindrance Factors 124</p> <p>6.2.2 Alpha-Decay Energies 125</p> <p>6.3 Cluster Radioactivity 127</p> <p>6.4 Proton Radioactivity 129</p> <p>6.5 Spontaneous Fission 132</p> <p>6.6 Beta Decay 146</p> <p>6.6.1 Fundamental Processes 146</p> <p>6.6.2 Electron Capture-to-Positron Ratios 156</p> <p>6.6.3 Nuclear Matrix Elements 157</p> <p>6.6.4 Parity Non-Conservation 160</p> <p>6.6.5 Massive Vector Bosons 162</p> <p>6.6.6 Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa Matrix 163</p> <p>6.7 Electromagnetic Transitions 168</p> <p>6.7.1 Multipole Order and Selection Rules 169</p> <p>6.7.2 Transition Probabilities 171</p> <p>6.7.3 Internal Conversion Coefficients 176</p> <p>6.7.4 Angular Correlations 180</p> <p>References 183</p> <p>Further Reading 184</p> <p><b>7 Radioactive Decay Kinetics </b><b>187</b></p> <p>7.1 Law and Energy of Radioactive Decay 187</p> <p>7.2 Radioactive Equilibria 189</p> <p>7.3 Secular Radioactive Equilibrium 191</p> <p>7.4 Transient Radioactive Equilibrium 193</p> <p>7.5 Half-Life of Mother Nuclide Shorter than Half-Life of Daughter Nuclide 194</p> <p>7.6 Similar Half-Lives 194</p> <p>7.7 Branching Decay 196</p> <p>7.8 Successive Transformations 197</p> <p>Reference 199</p> <p>Further Reading 199</p> <p><b>8 Nuclear Radiation </b><b>201</b></p> <p>8.1 General Properties 201</p> <p>8.2 Heavy Charged Particles (<i>A </i>≥1) 203</p> <p>8.3 Beta Radiation 210</p> <p>8.4 Gamma Radiation 215</p> <p>8.5 Neutrons 221</p> <p>8.6 Short-Lived Elementary Particles in Atoms and Molecules 226</p> <p>References 228</p> <p>Further Reading 228</p> <p><b>9 Measurement of Nuclear Radiation </b><b>231</b></p> <p>9.1 Activity and Counting Rate 231</p> <p>9.2 Gas-Filled Detectors 235</p> <p>9.2.1 Ionization Chambers 238</p> <p>9.2.2 Proportional Counters 239</p> <p>9.2.3 Geiger–Müller Counters 241</p> <p>9.3 Scintillation Detectors 242</p> <p>9.4 Semiconductor Detectors 245</p> <p>9.5 Choice of Detectors 251</p> <p>9.6 Spectrometry 253</p> <p>9.7 Determination of Absolute Disintegration Rates 255</p> <p>9.8 Use of Coincidence and Anticoincidence Circuits 258</p> <p>9.9 Low-Level Counting 258</p> <p>9.10 Neutron Detection and Measurement 259</p> <p>9.11 Track Detectors 260</p> <p>9.11.1 Photographic Emulsions and Autoradiography 260</p> <p>9.11.2 Dielectric Track Detectors 262</p> <p>9.11.3 Cloud Chambers 263</p> <p>9.11.4 Bubble Chambers 263</p> <p>9.11.5 Spark Chambers 263</p> <p>9.12 Detectors Used in Health Physics 263</p> <p>9.12.1 Portable Counters and Survey Meters 264</p> <p>9.12.2 Film Badges 264</p> <p>9.12.3 Pocket Ion Chambers 264</p> <p>9.12.4 Thermoluminescence Dosimeters 264</p> <p>9.12.5 Contamination Monitors 265</p> <p>9.12.6 Whole-Body Counters 265</p> <p>Reference 265</p> <p>Further Reading 265</p> <p><b>10 Statistical Considerations in Radioactivity Measurements </b><b>269</b></p> <p>10.1 Distribution of Random Variables 269</p> <p>10.2 Probability and Probability Distributions 271</p> <p>10.3 Maximum Likelihood 277</p> <p>10.4 Experimental Applications 278</p> <p>10.5 Statistics of Pulse-Height Distributions 280</p> <p>10.6 Statistical Assessments of Lifetimes in α-Decay Chains of Odd-<i>Z </i>Heavy Elements 282</p> <p>10.7 Setting Upper Limits when no Counts Are Observed 285</p> <p>References 285</p> <p>Further Reading 285</p> <p><b>11 Techniques in Nuclear Chemistry </b><b>287</b></p> <p>11.1 Special Aspects of the Chemistry of Radionuclides 287</p> <p>11.1.1 Short-Lived Radionuclides and the Role of Carriers 287</p> <p>11.1.2 Radionuclides of High Specific Activity 289</p> <p>11.1.3 Microamounts of Radioactive Substances 290</p> <p>11.1.4 Radiocolloids 294</p> <p>11.1.5 Tracer Techniques 297</p> <p>11.2 Target Preparation 298</p> <p>11.3 Measuring Beam Intensity and Fluxes 304</p> <p>11.4 Neutron Spectrum in Nuclear Reactors 306</p> <p>11.4.1 Thermal Neutrons 306</p> <p>11.4.2 Epithermal Neutrons and Resonances 308</p> <p>11.4.3 Reaction Rates in Thermal Reactors 309</p> <p>11.5 Production of Radionuclides 309</p> <p>11.5.1 Production in Nuclear Reactors 309</p> <p>11.5.2 Production by Accelerators 314</p> <p>11.5.3 Separation Techniques 322</p> <p>11.5.4 Radionuclide Generators 326</p> <p>11.6 Use of Recoil Momenta 329</p> <p>11.7 Preparation of Samples for Activity Measurements 337</p> <p>11.8 Determination of Half-Lives 338</p> <p>11.9 Decay-Scheme Studies 340</p> <p>11.10 In-Beam Nuclear Reaction Studies 342</p> <p>References 356</p> <p>Further Reading 357</p> <p><b>Volume 2</b></p> <p>Preface ix</p> <p>12 Nuclear Reactions 361</p> <p>13 Chemical Effects of Nuclear Transmutations 489</p> <p>14 Influence of Chemical Bonding on Nuclear Properties 511</p> <p>15 Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Reactors, Nuclear Fuel, and Fuel Cycles 531</p> <p>16 Sources of Nuclear Bombarding Particles 585</p> <p>17 Radioelements 609</p> <p>18 Radionuclides in Geo- and Cosmochemistry 735</p> <p>19 Dating by Nuclear Methods 775</p> <p>20 Radioanalysis 793</p> <p>21 Radionuclides in the Life Sciences 837</p> <p>22 Radionuclides in the Geosphere and the Biosphere 855</p> <p>23 Dosimetry and Radiation Protection 909</p> <p>Index 941</p>
<p><b><i>Jens-Volker Kratz</b> is a retired Professor of Nuclear Chemistry at Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany. He obtained his degrees in Chemistry at this university, followed by postdoctoral research with Glenn T. Seaborg at Berkeley. Before moving back to Mainz, he worked as a group leader between 1974 and 1982 at GSI in Darmstadt. He has published 350 scientific articles and two editions of this textbook. For 24 years, he served as editor of Radiochimica Acta. He was nominated Fellow of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and has received numerous prizes, including the Otto Hahn Award.</i></p>
<p><b>The leading resource for anyone looking for an accessible and authoritative introduction to nuclear and radiochemistry</b></p> <p>In the newly revised Fourth Edition of <i>Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications</i>, distinguished chemist Jens-Volker Kratz delivers a two-volume handbook that has become the gold standard in teaching and learning nuclear and radiochemistry. The books cover the theory and fundamentals of the subject before moving on the technical side of nuclear chemistry, with coverage of nuclear energy, nuclear reactors, and radionuclides in the life sciences. <p>This latest edition discusses the details and impact of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear disasters, as well as new research facilities, including FAIR and HIM. It also incorporates new methods for target preparation and new processes for nuclear fuel recycling, like EURO-GANEX. Finally, the volumes extensively cover environmental technological advances and the effects of radioactivity on the environment. <p>Readers will also find: <ul><li> An accessible and thorough introduction to the fundamental concepts of nuclear physics and chemistry, including atomic processes, classical mechanics, relativistic mechanics, and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle</li> <li>Comprehensive explorations of radioactivity in nature, radioelements, radioisotopes and their atomic masses, and other physical properties of nuclei</li> <li>Practical discussions of the nuclear force, nuclear structure, decay modes, radioactive decay kinetics, and nuclear radiation</li> <li>In-depth examinations of the statistical considerations relevant to radioactivity measurements</li></ul> <p>Written for practicing nuclear chemists and atomic physicists, <i>Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications </i>is also an indispensable resource for nuclear physicians, power engineers, and professionals working in the nuclear industry.

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