Details

Nuclear and Radiochemistry


Nuclear and Radiochemistry

Fundamentals and Applications
4. Aufl.

von: Jens-Volker Kratz

358,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 17.09.2021
ISBN/EAN: 9783527831937
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 976

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Beschreibungen

The leading resource for anyone looking for an accessible and authoritative introduction to nuclear and radiochemistry<br> <br> In the newly revised Fourth Edition of Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications, distinguished chemist Jens-Volker Kratz delivers a two-volume handbook that has become the gold standard in teaching and learning nuclear and radiochemistry. The books cover the theory and fundamentals of the subject before moving on the technical side of nuclear chemistry, with coverage of nuclear energy, nuclear reactors, and radionuclides in the life sciences.<br> This latest edition discusses the details and impact of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear disasters, as well as new research facilities, including FAIR and HIM. It also incorporates new methods for target preparation and new processes for nuclear fuel recycling, like EURO-GANEX. Finally, the volumes extensively cover environmental technological advances and the effects of radioactivity on the environment.<br> <br> Readers will also find:<br> - An accessible and thorough introduction to the fundamental concepts of nuclear physics and chemistry, including atomic processes, classical mechanics, relativistic mechanics, and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle<br> - Comprehensive explorations of radioactivity in nature, radioelements, radioisotopes and their atomic masses, and other physical properties of nuclei<br> - Practical discussions of the nuclear force, nuclear structure, decay modes, radioactive decay kinetics, and nuclear radiation<br> - In-depth examinations of the statistical considerations relevant to radioactivity measurements<br> <br> Written for practicing nuclear chemists and atomic physicists, Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications is also an indispensable resource for nuclear physicians, power engineers, and professionals working in the nuclear industry.
*New additions<br> <br> 1 Fundamental Concepts<br> 1.1 The Atom<br> 1.2 Atomic Processes<br> 1.3 Discovery of the Atomic Nucleus<br> 1.4 Nuclear Decay Types<br> 1.5 Some Physical Concepts Needed in Nuclear Chemistry<br> 1.5.1 Fundamental Forces<br> 1.5.2 Elements from Classical Mechanics<br> 1.5.3 Relativistic Mechanics<br> 1.5.4 The de Broglie Wavelength<br> 1.5.5 Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle<br> 1.5.6 The Standard Model of Particle Physics<br> * 1.5.6 Higgs boson, Higgs field, Higgs mechanism, new Figure 1.9, Table 1.3 will be canceled and info incorporated in Figure 1.9<br> 1.5.7 Force Carriers<br> Reference<br> Further Reading<br> 2 Radioactivity in Nature<br> 2.1 Discovery of Radioactivity<br> 2.2 Radioactive Substances in Nature<br> * 2.3 Nuclear forensics, Investigation of the natural uranium fuel elements used by the Heisenberg Group to study neutron economy in the KWI test reactor<br> References<br> Further Reading<br> 3 Radioelements and Radioisotopes and Their Atomic Masses<br> 3.1 Periodic Table of the Elements<br> 3.2 Isotopes and the Chart of Nuclides<br> 3.3 Nuclide Masses and Binding Energies<br> 3.4 Evidence for Shell Structure in Nuclei<br> 3.5 Precision Mass Spectrometry<br> References<br> Further Reading<br> 4 Other Physical Properties of Nuclei<br> 4.1 Nuclear Radii<br> 4.2 Nuclear Angular Momenta<br> 4.3 Magnetic Dipole Moments<br> 4.4 Electric Quadrupole Moments<br> 4.5 Statistics and Parity<br> 4.6 Excited States<br> References<br> * References to the work of I.I. Rabi<br> Further Reading<br> 5 The Nuclear Force and Nuclear Structure<br> 5.1 Nuclear Forces<br> 5.2 Charge Independence and Isospin<br> 5.3 Nuclear Matter<br> 5.4 Fermi Gas Model<br> 5.5 Shell Model<br> 5.6 Collective Motion in Nuclei<br> 5.7 Nilsson Model<br> 5.8 The Pairing Force and Quasi-Particles<br> 5.9 Macroscopic?Microscopic Model<br> 5.10 Interacting Boson Approximation<br> 5.11 Further Collective Excitations: Coulomb Excitation, High-Spin States, Giant Resonances<br> References<br> Further Reading<br> 6 Decay Modes<br> 6.1 Nuclear Instability and Nuclear Spectroscopy<br> 6.2 Alpha Decay<br> 6.2.1 Hindrance Factors<br> 6.2.2 Alpha-Decay Energies<br> 6.3 Cluster Radioactivity<br> 6.4 Proton Radioactivity<br> 6.5 Spontaneous Fission<br> 6.6 Beta Decay<br> 6.6.1 Fundamental Processes<br> 6.6.2 Electron Capture-to-Positron Ratios<br> 6.6.3 Nuclear Matrix Elements<br> 6.6.4 Parity Non-conservation<br> 6.6.5 Massive Vector Bosons<br> 6.6.6 Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix<br> 6.7 Electromagnetic Transitions<br> 6.7.1 Multipole Order and Selection Rules<br> 6.7.2 Transition Probabilities<br> 6.7.3 Internal Conversion Coefficients<br> 6.7.4 Angular Correlations<br> References<br> Further Reading<br> 7 Radioactive Decay Kinetics<br> 7.1 Law and Energy of Radioactive Decay<br> 7.2 Radioactive Equilibria<br> 7.3 Secular Radioactive Equilibrium<br> 7.4 Transient Radioactive Equilibrium<br> 7.5 Half-life of Mother Nuclide Shorter than Half-life of Daughter Nuclide<br> 7.6 Similar Half-lives<br> 7.7 Branching Decay<br> 7.8 Successive Transformations<br> Reference<br> Further Reading<br> 8 Nuclear Radiation<br> 8.1 General Properties<br> 8.2 Heavy Charged Particles (A = 1)<br> 8.3 Beta Radiation<br> 8.4 Gamma Radiation<br> 8.5 Neutrons<br> 8.6 Short-lived Elementary Particles in Atoms and Molecules<br> References<br> Further Reading<br> 9 Measurement of Nuclear Radiation<br> 9.1 Activity and Counting Rate<br> 9.2 Gas-Filled Detectors<br> 9.2.1 Ionization Chambers<br> 9.2.2 Proportional Counters<br> 9.2.3 Geiger?Muller Counters<br> 9.3 Scintillation Detectors<br> 9.4 Semiconductor Detectors<br> 9.5 Choice of Detectors<br> 9.6 Spectrometry<br> 9.7 Determination of Absolute Disintegration Rates<br> 9.8 Use of Coincidence and Anticoincidence Circuits<br> 9.9 Low-Level Counting<br> 9.10 Neutron Detection and Measurement<br> 9.11 Track Detectors<br> 9.11.1 Photographic Emulsions and Autoradiography<br> 9.11.2 Dielectric Track Detectors<br> 9.11.3 Cloud Chambers<br> 9.11.4 Bubble Chambers<br> 9.11.5 Spark Chambers<br> 9.12 Detectors Used in Health Physics<br> 9.12.1 Portable Counters and Survey Meters<br> 9.12.2 Film Badges<br> 9.12.3 Pocket Ion Chambers<br> 9.12.4 Thermoluminescence Dosimeters<br> 9.12.5 Contamination Monitors<br> 9.12.6 Whole-Body Counters<br> References<br> Further Reading<br> 10 Statistical Considerations in Radioactivity Measurements<br> 10.1 Distribution of Random Variables<br> 10.2 Probability and Probability Distributions<br> 10.3 Maximum Likelihood<br> 10.4 Experimental Applications<br> 10.5 Statistics of Pulse-Height Distributions<br> 10.6 Setting Upper Limits When No Counts Are Observed<br> * 10.6 Statistical Assessment of Lifetimes in alpha-decay chains of odd-Z Elements<br> Further Reading<br> 11 Techniques in Nuclear Chemistry<br> 11.1 Special Aspects of the Chemistry of Radionuclides<br> 11.1.1 Short-Lived Radionuclides and the Role of Carriers<br> 11.1.2 Radionuclides of High Specifi c Activity<br> 11.1.3 Microamounts of Radioactive Substances<br> 11.1.4 Radiocolloids<br> 11.1.5 Tracer Techniques<br> 11.2 Target Preparation<br> * 11.2 New Techniques in Target Preparation<br> 11.3 Measuring Beam Intensity and Fluxes<br> 11.4 Neutron Spectrum in Nuclear Reactors<br> 11.4.1 Thermal Neutrons<br> 11.4.2 Epithermal Neutrons and Resonances<br> 11.4.3 Reaction Rates in Thermal Reactors<br> 11.5 Production of Radionuclides<br> 11.5.1 Production in Nuclear Reactors<br> 11.5.2 Production by Accelerators<br> 11.5.3 Separation Techniques<br> 11.5.4 Radionuclide Generators<br> *11.6 Use of Recoil Momenta, measurements of average charge states in gas-filled Separators, the gas density effect, average charge state in gas mixtures<br> 11.7 Preparation of Samples for Activity Measurements<br> 11.8 Determination of Half-Lives<br> 11.9 Decay-Scheme Studies<br> 11.10 In-Beam Nuclear Reaction Studies<br> References<br> Further Reading<br> 12 Nuclear Reactions<br> 12.1 Collision Kinematics<br> 12.2 Coulomb Trajectories<br> 12.3 Cross-sections<br> 12.4 Elastic Scattering<br> 12.5 Elastic Scattering and Reaction Cross-section<br> 12.6 Optical Model<br> 12.7 Nuclear Reactions and Models<br> 12.7.1 Investigation of Nuclear Reactions<br> 12.7.2 Compound-Nucleus Model<br> 12.7.3 Precompound Decay<br> 12.7.4 Direct Reactions<br> 12.7.5 Photonuclear Reactions<br> 12.7.6 Fission<br> 12.7.7 High-Energy Reactions<br> 12.8 Nuclear Reactions Revisited with Heavy Ions<br> 12.8.1 Heavy-Ion Fusion Reactions<br> 12.8.2 Quasi-fission<br> * 12.8.2 Excitation-energy sharing in quasi-fission reactions, dependence on bombarding energy<br> * 12.8.3 Deep inelastic collisions, the U+U reaction, isotope distributions below Z=92, bombarding-energy dependence, isotope distributions above Z=92, the U+Cm reaction, Comparison of element yields with Diffusion-model predictions<br> 12.8.4 Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions, the Phases of Nuclear Matter<br> * 12.8.4 "Simple" (quasi-elastic) reactions at the barrier<br> * 12.8.5 "Complex" Transfer Reactions, new References, new Figures, Figure Captions<br> References<br> Further Reading<br> 13 Chemical Effects of Nuclear Transmutations<br> 13.1 General Aspects<br> 13.2 Recoil Effects<br> 13.3 Excitation Effects<br> 13.4 Gases and Liquids<br> 13.5 Solids<br> 13.6 Szilard?Chalmers Reactions<br> 13.7 Recoil Labeling and Self-labeling<br> References<br> Further Reading<br> 14 Influence of Chemical Bonding on Nuclear Properties<br> 14.1 Survey<br> 14.2 Dependence of Half-Lives on Chemical Bonding<br> 14.3 Dependence of Radiation Emission on the Chemical<br> Environment<br> 14.4 Mossbauer Spectrometry<br> References<br> Further Reading<br> 15 Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Reactors, Nuclear Fuel, and Fuel Cycles<br> 15.1 Energy Production by Nuclear Fission<br> 15.2 Nuclear Fuel and Fuel Cycles<br> 15.3 Production of Uranium and Uranium Compounds<br> 15.4 Fuel Elements<br> 15.5 Nuclear Reactors, Moderators, and Coolants<br> 15.6 The Chernobyl Accident<br> * 15. More about Fukushima<br> 15.7 Reprocessing<br> * 15.7 EURO-GANEX<br> 15.8 Radioactive Waste<br> * 15.8 Nuclear Waste<br> 15.9 The Natural Reactors at Oklo<br> 15.10 Controlled Thermonuclear Reactors<br> 15.11 Nuclear Explosives<br> References<br> Further Reading<br> 16 Sources of Nuclear Bombarding Particles<br> 16.1 Neutron Sources<br> 16.2 Neutron Generators<br> 16.3 Research Reactors<br> 16.4 Charged-Particle Accelerators<br> 16.4.1 Direct Voltage Accelerators<br> 16.4.2 Linear Accelerators<br> 16.4.3 Cyclotrons<br> 16.4.4 Synchrocyclotrons, Synchrotrons<br> 16.4.5 Radioactive Ion Beams<br> 16.4.6 Photon Sources<br> * 16. HIM and the FAIR Project<br> References<br> Further Reading<br> 17 Radioelements<br> * New Elements, the alleged link between elements 115 and 117,Ionization Potentials, Chemical Properties, Relativity in the electroniccstructure of the heaviest elements and ist influence on periodicities ofcchemical properties and on the Periodic Table, New References, Encyclopedia, New Accelerators<br> 17.1 Natural and Artifi cial Radioelements<br> 17.2 Technetium and Promethium<br> 17.3 Production of Transuranic Elements<br> 17.3.1 Hot-Fusion Reactions<br> 17.3.2 Cold-Fusion Reactions<br> 17.3.3 48Ca-Induced Fusion Reactions<br> 17.4 Cross-sections<br> 17.5 Nuclear Structure of Superheavy Elements<br> 17.6 Spectroscopy of Actinides and Transactinides<br> 17.7 Properties of the Actinides<br> 17.8 Chemical Properties of the Transactinides<br> 17.8.1 Prediction of Electron Confi gurations and the Architecture of the Periodic Table of the Elements<br> 17.8.2 Methods to Investigate the Chemistry of the Transactinides<br> 17.8.3 Selected Experimental Results<br> References<br> Further Reading<br> 18 Radionuclides in Geo- and Cosmochemistry<br> 18.1 Natural Abundances of the Elements and Isotope Variations<br> 18.2 General Aspects of Cosmochemistry<br> 18.3 Early Stages of the Universe<br> * 18.4 Syntheses of Nuclei in Astrophysical Burning Processes, News on Giant-Novae, gravitational waves, r-process, Solar Neutrino Problem, SNO and Borexino Experiments, Absolute Neutrino Masses, KATRIN<br> 18.4.1 Evolution of Stars<br> 18.4.2 Evolution of the Earth<br> 18.4.3 Thermonuclear Reaction Rates<br> 18.4.4 Hydrogen Burning<br> 18.4.5 Helium Burning<br> 18.4.6 Synthesis of Nuclei with A < 60<br> 18.4.7 Synthesis of Nuclei with A > 60<br> 18.5 The Solar Neutrino Problem<br> 18.6 Interstellar Matter and Cosmic Radiation<br> 18.6.1 Interstellar Matter<br> 18.6.2 Cosmic Radiation<br> 18.6.3 Radionuclides from Cosmic Rays<br> 18.6.4 Cosmic-Ray Effects in Meteorites<br> 18.6.5 Abundance of Li, Be, and B<br> References<br> Further Reading<br> 19 Dating by Nuclear Methods<br> 19.1 General Aspect<br> 19.2 Cosmogenic Radionuclides<br> 19.3 Terrestrial Mother/Daughter Nuclide Pairs<br> 19.4 Natural Decay Series<br> 19.5 Ratios of Stable Isotopes<br> 19.6 Radioactive Disequilibria<br> 19.7 Fission Tracks<br> References<br> Further Reading<br> 20 Radioanalysis<br> 20. New Techniques in Measurements of Ionization Potentials and Nuclear Masses<br> 20.1 General Aspects<br> 20.2 Analysis on the Basis of Inh
<b>Jens-Volker Kratz</b> is a retired Professor of Nuclear Chemistry at Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany. He obtained his degrees in Chemistry at this university, followed by postdoctoral research with Glenn T. Seaborg at Berkeley. Before moving back to Mainz, he worked as a group leader between 1974 and 1982 at GSI in Darmstadt. He has published 350 scientific articles and two editions of this textbook. For 24 years, he served as editor of Radiochimica Acta. He was nominated Fellow of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and has received numerous prizes, including the Otto Hahn Award.
<b>The leading resource for anyone looking for an accessible and authoritative introduction to nuclear and radiochemistry</b><br> In the newly revised Fourth Edition of <i>Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications</i>, distinguished chemist Jens-Volker Kratz delivers a two-volume handbook that has become the gold standard in teaching and learning nuclear and radiochemistry. The books cover the theory and fundamentals of the subject before moving on the technical side of nuclear chemistry, with coverage of nuclear energy, nuclear reactors, and radionuclides in the life sciences.<br> This latest edition discusses the details and impact of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear disasters, as well as new research facilities, including FAIR and HIM. It also incorporates new methods for target preparation and new processes for nuclear fuel recycling, like EURO-GANEX. Finally, the volumes extensively cover environmental technological advances and the effects of radioactivity on the environment.<br><br> Readers will also find:<br> ? An accessible and thorough introduction to the fundamental concepts of nuclear physics and chemistry, including atomic processes, classical mechanics, relativistic mechanics, and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle <br> ? Comprehensive explorations of radioactivity in nature, radioelements, radioisotopes and their atomic masses, and other physical properties of nuclei<br> ? Practical discussions of the nuclear force, nuclear structure, decay modes, radioactive decay kinetics, and nuclear radiation<br> ? In-depth examinations of the statistical considerations relevant to radioactivity measurements<br><br> Written for practicing nuclear chemists and atomic physicists, <i>Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications</i> is also an indispensable resource for nuclear physicians, power engineers, and professionals working in the nuclear industry.<br>

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