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Novel Proteins for Food, Pharmaceuticals, and Agriculture


Novel Proteins for Food, Pharmaceuticals, and Agriculture

Sources, Applications, and Advances
1. Aufl.

von: Maria Hayes

142,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 12.09.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119385325
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 352

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Beschreibungen

A groundbreaking text that highlights the various sources, applications and advancements concerning proteins from novel and traditional sources Novel Proteins for Food, Pharmaceuticals and Agriculture offers a guide to the various sources, applications, and advancements that exist and are currently being researched concerning proteins from novel and traditional sources. The contributors—noted experts in the field—discuss sustainable protein resources and include illustrative examples of bioactive compounds isolated from several resources that have or could obtain high market value in specific markets. The text also explores a wide range of topics such as functional food formulations and pharmaceutical applications, and how they alter biological activity to provide therapeutic benefits, nutritional values and health protection. The authors also examine the techno-functional applications of proteins and looks at the screening process for identification of bioactive molecules derived from protein sources. In addition, the text provides insight into the market opportunities that exist for novel proteins such as insect, by-product derived, macroalgal and others. The authors also discuss the identification and commercialization of new proteins for various markets. This vital text: Puts the focus on the various sources, applications and advancements concerning proteins from novel and traditional sources Contains a discussion on how processing technologies currently applied to dairy could be applied to novel protein sources such as insect and macroalgal Reviews the sustainability of protein sources and restrictions that exist concerning development Offers ideas for creating an innovative and enterprising economy that is built on recent developments Details the potential to exploit key market opportunities in sports, infant and elderly nutrition and techno-functional protein applications Written for industrial researchers as well as PhD and Post-doctoral researchers, and undergraduate students studying biochemistry, food engineering and biological sciences and those interested in market developments, Novel Proteins for Food, Pharmaceuticals and Agriculture offers an essential guide to the sources, applications and most recent developments of the proteins from both innovative and traditional sources.
List of Contributors xv About the Editor xix Preface xxi 1 Biological Roles and Production Technologies Associated with Bovine Glycomacropeptide 1Shane Feeney, Lokesh Joshi, and Rita M. Hickey 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Biological Properties Associated with Glycomacropeptide 2 1.2.1 Management of Phenylketonuria 2 1.2.2 Anti?Infective Properties 4 1.2.3 Prebiotic 5 1.2.4 Immunomodulatory Activities Associated with GMP 6 1.2.4.1 Inflammation and Allergy 6 1.2.4.2 Colitis 7 1.2.5 Satiety 7 1.2.6 Anticarcinogenic 8 1.3 Glycomacropeptide Production 8 1.3.1 Thermal Treatment and Ethanol Precipitation 9 1.3.2 Complexation 9 1.3.3 Aqueous Two?Phase Systems 10 1.3.4 Ultrafiltration 11 1.3.5 Chromatography 12 1.3.5.1 Gel Filtration 12 1.3.5.2 Affinity 12 1.3.5.3 Hydrophobic Interaction 12 1.3.5.4 Ion Exchange 13 1.4 Detection of Glycomacropeptide 15 1.4.1 Chromatography 15 1.4.2 Capillary Electrophoresis 16 1.4.3 SDS?PAGE 16 1.4.4 Colorimetric 16 1.4.5 Immunological 16 1.5 Conclusion 17 References 17 2 Meat Proteins as a Potential Source of Bioactive Ingredients for Food and Pharmaceutical Use 29Carlos Alvarez Garcia and Ismael Marcet Manrique 2.1 Introduction 29 2.2 Protein?Based Bioactive Compounds 30 2.2.1 Peptides Generated by Enzymatic Hydrolysis 30 2.2.2 Peptides Generated in Processed Meat 33 2.2.3 Naturally Occurring Biopeptides 35 2.3 Potential Applications 36 2.4 Challenges 37 2.4.1 Technical Challenges 37 2.4.2 Legal Challenges 41 2.4.3 Consumer Challenges 42 2.5 Conclusion 43 References 44 3 Human Gastrointestinal Endogenous Proteins: A Recently Discovered Source of Gut Modulatory Peptides 51Lakshmi A. Dave 3.1 Introduction 51 3.2 A Summary of Current Knowledge Regarding GEP?derived Bioactive Peptides 56 3.2.1 In Silico Evidence for the Presence and Release of Bioactive Peptide Motifs from GEP 56 3.2.2 In Silico and In Vitro Data on Novel GEP?Derived Bioactive Peptides 57 3.2.3 In Vitro Release of GEP?Derived Bioactive Peptides 57 3.2.4 Preliminary In Vivo Evidence for Bioactive Peptides from Porcine GEP 58 3.3 Implications of the Above Findings Regarding GEP as a Source of Bioactive Peptides 58 3.3.1 Classification of Bioactive Peptides 58 3.4 Bioactive Potential of GEP is Comparable to That of Dietary Proteins 59 3.5 The Site of Secretion of GEP Affects its Bioactive Potential 59 3.6 Digestion of GEP may Generate Numerous Peptides with Multiple Bioactivities 60 3.7 Novel Bioactive Peptides from GEP 61 3.7.1 Systemic Effects of Bioactive Peptides from GEP 61 3.7.2 Generation of Bioactive Peptides from GEP in In Vivo Systems 62 3.8 Important Considerations While Predicting the Behaviour of GEPin the Human GIT: Correlating In Vitro and In Vivo Studies 62 3.8.1 Gut Microbiota Influences Generation of Bioactive Peptides 62 3.8.2 Epithelial Cells as a Source of Bioactive Peptides in the GIT 63 3.8.3 Structural Aspects of Proteins/Peptides Governing Digestion and Subsequent Bioactivity 63 3.8.4 Effect of Protein–Protein Interactions and Protein Modifications 64 3.8.5 Safety and Toxicity of GEP?Derived Bioactive Peptides 64 3.8.6 Some Important Considerations in the Study of GEP? and Dietary Protein?Derived Bioactive Peptides 65 3.9 Conclusion 65 3.10 Future directions 66 References 67 4 Cereal Proteins: Potential Health Applications and Allergenicities 77Stephen Bleakley 4.1 Introduction 77 4.2 Major Cereal Grains 77 4.2.1 Maize 77 4.2.2 Wheat 79 4.2.3 Rice 79 4.2.4 Barley 79 4.2.5 Oats 80 4.3 Cereal Proteins 80 4.3.1 Cereal Storage Proteins 80 4.4 Protein Quality 82 4.4.1 Amino Acid Composition 82 4.4.2 Digestibility 83 4.5 Bioactive Peptides 84 4.5.1 Antihypertensive Peptides 84 4.5.2 Anticancer Cereal Peptides 87 4.5.3 Antioxidant Peptides 88 4.5.4 Antidiabetic Peptides 89 4.5.5 Anti?Inflammatory Cereal?Derived Peptides 90 4.6 Allergenicity 90 4.6.1 Immunoglobulin?Mediated 90 4.6.2 Coeliac Disease 91 4.7 Non?Protein Health Applications of Cereals 92 4.8 Conclusion 92 References 93 5 Meat By?Products: New Insights into Potential Technical and Health Applications 101Leticia Mora, Fidel Toldra?Reig, Milagro Reig, and Fidel Toldra 5.1 Introduction 101 5.2 Meat By?Products 102 5.3 Technical Applications of Meat By?Products 102 5.3.1 Use of Meat By?Products as Food Ingredients and Processing Aids 102 5.3.2 Use of Meat By?Products as Feed and Pet Food 104 5.3.3 Use of Meat By?Products as Fertilisers 105 5.3.4 Use of Meat By?Products as Plastics and Leather Products 105 5.3.5 Use of Meat By?Products as an Energy Source 105 5.4 Health?Related Applications of Meat By?Products 105 5.4.1 Bioactive Peptides 105 5.4.2 Biomedical Applications of Meat By?Products 110 5.5 Conclusion 110 References 110 6 Potential Applications of Plant?Derived Proteins in the Food Industry 117Tomas Lafarga 6.1 Introduction 117 6.2 Plant?Derived Proteins: Sources and Composition 118 6.3 Bioactive Peptides Generated from Fruits and Vegetables 122 6.3.1 Bioactive Peptides and Metabolic Syndrome 124 6.3.2 Fruit? and Vegetable?Derived Peptides with Antioxidant Properties 126 6.3.3 Other Bioactivities 127 6.4 Technofunctional Properties 127 6.4.1 Solubility of Plant?Derived Proteins 128 6.4.2 Gelling Properties 128 6.4.3 Emulsifying Properties 129 6.4.4 Foaming Properties 130 6.5 Other Applications 130 Acknowledgements 132 References 132 7 Seaweed Proteins and Applications in Animal Feed 139Marco Garcia?Vaquero 7.1 Introduction 139 7.2 Macroalgae as a Source of Proteins, Peptides, and Amino Acids 140 7.3 Seaweeds and Macroalgal?Derived Products in Animal Feed 142 7.3.1 Macroalgae in the Feed of Aquaculture Animals (Shrimp and Fish) 142 7.3.2 Macroalgae in the Feed of Monogastric Animals (Poultry, Swine,Equine, and Leporine) 146 7.3.3 Macroalgae in the Feed of Ruminants (Small and Large) 150 7.3.4 Macroalgae in Pet Food (Canine and Feline Animals) 152 7.4 Challenges Concerning the Use of Macroalgae in Animal Feed 153 7.4.1 Legislation on the Use of Macroalgal? and Seaweed?Derived Products in Animal Feed 153 7.4.2 Sustainability of Seaweed Supply for Use in Animal Feed 155 Acknowledgements 155 References 156 8 Marine By?Products as a Source of Proteins for Potential Food, Pharma,and Agricultural Feed Use 163Maria Hayes 8.1 Introduction 163 8.2 Biological Activities of Marine?Derived Proteins 164 8.2.1 Angiotensin?Converting Enzyme Inhibition (ACE?1) 164 8.2.2 Structure of Peptides Important in the Inhibition of Enzymes Related to the Development of Type 2 Diabetes 165 8.3 Fish Protein Hydrolysates 166 8.4 Fish Blood Proteins 168 8.4.1 Preparation of Fish Plasma from Salmon 168 8.4.2 Concentration of Fish Plasma from Salmon 168 8.4.3 Protease Inhibitors from Fish Blood 170 8.4.4 Clotting Agents from Fish Blood 170 8.4.5 Salmon Blood Protein Used in Clotting Bandage Manufacture 171 8.4.6 Potential Applications 171 8.5 Fish Testes 172 8.6 Fish Collagen and Gelatine 172 8.6.1 Fish Collagen Hydrolysates 173 8.7 Stickwater Proteins Recovered using Membrane Filtration 174 8.8 Functional Applications of By?Product Protein Hydrolysates 174 8.8.1 Solubility 177 8.8.2 Water Holding Capacity 177 8.8.3 Oil Absorbing Capacity 177 8.8.4 Emulsifying Properties 177 8.8.5 Bioavailability of Fish?Derived Hydrolysates and Peptides 177 8.9 Challenges and Conclusions 178 References 178 9 Bioavailability, Bioaccessibility, and Nutritional Measurement of Proteins 183Maria Hayes 9.1 Introduction 183 9.2 Measurement of Protein Content in Foods 184 9.3 Bioaccessibility, Bioavailability, and Bioactivity of Proteins 184 9.4 Protein Hydrolysates 185 9.5 In Vitro Models 186 9.6 INFOGEST Method 187 9.6.1 Multifactorial In Vitro Bioaccessibility Models: The TNO Gastrointestinal Model (TIM) 187 9.6.2 Transport Coefficient 188 9.7 Cell Culture Models 189 9.7.1 Transcytosis Assays Using Human Cerebral Microvascular Endothelial Cell Line (hCMEC/D3) 189 9.7.2 Bioactivities of Protein Breakdown Products – Bioactive Peptides 189 9.7.3 Effects on Diseases Linked to Development of Metabolic Syndrome 190 9.7.4 Anti?Inflammatory Peptides 190 9.7.5 Antioxidant Activities 190 9.7.6 Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) Method for Protein Evaluation 191 9.7.7 Digestible Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) Method for Protein Evaluation 191 9.8 Conclusion 192 References 192 10 Protein from Vegetable Sources: A Focus on Pea Protein 197Catherine Lefranc?Millot and Virginie Teichman?Dubois 10.1 Introduction 197 10.2 The Advantages of Leguminous Plants 198 10.2.1 Sustainable Vegetable Protein Crops 198 10.2.2 Cultivation of Peas and Composition of Seeds 198 10.2.3 Processing of Pea Crops and Proteins Obtained from Processing 199 10.3 Quality of Pea Protein 200 10.3.1 Global Composition of the Pea Seed 200 10.3.2 Digestibility of Pea Protein 201 10.3.3 Amino Acid Composition of Pea Protein 201 10.3.4 Antinutritional Factors and Toxicity 202 10.3.5 Allergenicity 202 10.4 Health Potential of Pea Proteins 203 10.4.1 Food Intake, Satiety, and Weight Management 203 10.4.2 Impact on Cholesterol 204 10.4.3 Blood Pressure – Preventive Impact on Hypertension 204 10.4.4 Physical Activity, Muscle Repair, and Anabolism 205 10.5 Applications of Pea Protein in the Human Food Industry 205 10.5.1 Savoury and Dairy Markets: From a ‘Hidden Use of Plant Proteins’to ‘Plant Proteins in the Spotlight’ 205 10.5.1.1 Partial Substitution of Animal Proteins in Food Products 205 10.5.1.2 Higher Value Markets: Animal Protein Alternatives 206 10.5.2 Baking: Driven by the Hunt for Protein Fortification and Gluten?Free Ingredients 208 10.5.2.1 Protein Fortification: Pea Protein as a Nutritional and Technical Substitute Complement for Wheat Protein 208 10.5.2.2 Gluten?Free Products 210 10.5.3 Specialised Nutrition 210 10.5.3.1 Partial Substitution of Dairy Proteins 210 10.5.3.2 Higher Value Plant-Based Protein Markets (Weight Management and Sports Nutrition) 211 10.5.3.3 Future of Plant?Based Specialised Nutrition Products:Senior Nutrition 212 10.6 Conclusion 212 Conflict of interest 212 Acknowledgements 212 References 213 11 Seaweeds as a Source of Proteins for Use in Pharmaceuticals and High?Value Applications 217Chigozie Louis Okolie, Beth Mason, and Alan T. Critchley 11.1 Introduction 217 11.2 Macroalgal Proteins, Peptides, and Amino Acids 218 11.2.1 Macroalgal Proteins 218 11.2.2 Macroalgal Peptides 222 11.2.3 Macroalgal Amino Acids 222 11.3 Extraction of Macroalgal Proteins, Peptides, and Amino Acids 223 11.4 Bioactivities of Macroalgal Proteins, Peptides,and Amino Acids 226 11.4.1 Antioxidant Properties of Macroalgal Proteins, Peptides,and Amino Acids 226 11.4.2 Antihypertensive Properties of Macroalgal Proteins, Peptides,and Amino Acids 227 11.4.3 Antiproliferative Properties of Macroalgal Proteins, Peptides and Amino Acids 228 11.4.4 Antimicrobial Properties of Macroalgal Proteins, Peptides,and Amino Acids 229 11.4.5 Antidiabetic Properties of Macroalgal Proteins, Peptides,and Amino Acids 229 11.5 Industrial Applications of Macroalgal Proteins, Peptides,and Amino Acids 229 11.6 Future Directions 233 Acknowledgements 233 References 233 12 Microalgal Bioactive Compounds Including Protein, Peptides,and Pigments: Applications, Opportunities, and Challenges During Biorefinery Processes 239Maria Hayes, Leen Bastiaens, Luisa Gouveia, Spyros Gkelis, Hanne Skomedal,Kari Skjanes, Patrick Murray, Marco Garcia-Vaquero, Muge Isleten Hosoglu, John Dodd,Despoina Konstantinou, Ivo Safarik, Graziella Chini Zittelli, Vytas Rimkus, Vict?ria del Pino, Koenraad Muylaert, Christine Edwards, Morten Laake, Joana Gabriela Laranjeira da Silva, Hugo Pereira, and Joana Abelho 12.1 Introduction 239 12.2 Cultivation of Microalgae 240 12.3 Biorefinery of Microalgae 241 12.4 Microalgae as a Source of Protein 244 12.5 Microalgae as a Source of Pigments 244 12.6 Legislation Governing Use of Microalgae in Europe 245 12.6.1 Nutrition Claims 246 12.6.2 Health Claims 246 12.6.3 Additive Claims 247 12.6.3.1 Feed 247 12.6.3.2 Food 247 12.6.4 Novel Food Claims 248 12.7 Advantages of Microalgal Use 248 12.7.1 Potential Applications and Uses in the Vegetarian and Vegan Foods Arena 249 12.7.2 Microalgal Products on the Market 250 12.8 Conclusion 252 References 253 13 Current and Future Trends in Protein Use and Consumption 257Maria Hayes 13.1 Introduction 257 13.2 Land?Based Plant Proteins 257 13.3 Cereal Proteins 258 13.4 Rice, Corn, and Sorghum Proteins 259 13.5 Soy Protein 259 13.6 Pulses 260 13.7 Nut and Tuber Proteins 260 13.8 Insect Protein 261 13.9 Fungal and Microbial Protein 261 13.10 Algal Proteins 261 13.10.1 Microalgae Protein 261 13.10.2 Macroalgae (Seaweed) Protein 262 13.11 Proteins from Animals and Animal By?Products 263 13.12 Future Protein Demands 264 13.13 Conclusion 265 References 265 14 Allergenicity of Food Proteins 269Maria Hayes 14.1 Introduction 269 14.2 What is Human Allergy to Protein? 269 14.3 Types of Food Protein Allergens 271 14.3.1 Plant Food Allergens 274 14.3.2 Milk Protein Allergic Reactions 274 14.3.3 Shellfish Allergy 275 14.3.4 Fish Allergy 275 14.3.5 Peanut Allergy 275 14.4 Protein Processing and Allergy 276 14.5 Management of Protein Allergy 277 14.6 Conclusion 277 References 277 15 Industrial Processing of Proteins 281Maria Hayes 15.1 Introduction 281 15.2 Processing of Dairy Proteins 281 15.3 Membrane Technologies 282 15.4 Pressure?Driven Membrane Processes 282 15.5 Ultrafiltration and Diafiltration in the Production of Pharmaceutical Proteins 283 15.6 Extraction of Proteins from Algae 283 15.7 Enzyme Use for Protein Extraction from Algae 284 15.8 Novel Extraction Methods 284 15.8.1 Pulsed Electric Field 284 15.8.2 Microwave?Assisted Extraction 285 15.8.3 Ultrasound Treatment 285 15.8.4 Application of Membrane Technologies to Macroalgae 285 15.8.5 Application of Membrane Technologies in the Dairy Industry 285 15.9 Novel Proteins 286 15.9.1 Extraction of Proteins from Insects 286 15.9.2 Fish Wastewater Proteins 286 15.9.3 Characterisation of Fish Processing Wastewater Proteins – Methods 287 15.10 Conclusion 288 References 288 16 The Role of Immunoglobulins from Bovine Colostrum and Milk in Human Health Promotion 291Shane Feeney, Sinead T. Morrin, Lokesh Joshi, and Rita M. Hickey 16.1 Introduction 291 16.2 Digestion of Immunoglobulins 293 16.3 Applications and Functionality of Immunoglobulins 294 16.3.1 Protection against Infections 294 16.3.1.1 Escherichia coli 294 16.3.1.2 Helicobacter pylori 295 16.3.1.3 Clostridium difficile 296 16.3.1.4 Shigella 297 16.3.1.5 Cryptosporidium 297 16.3.1.6 Streptococci 298 16.3.1.7 Rotavirus 298 16.3.1.8 Respiratory Syncytial Virus 299 16.3.1.9 Human Herpes Virus 299 16.3.2 Other Health Benefits 299 16.4 Isolation of Immunoglobulins 300 16.5 Detection of Immunoglobulins 302 16.6 Effect of Processing on Immunoglobulins 303 16.7 Conclusion 304 References 304 Index 315
DR MARIA HAYES, Food BioSciences Department, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Dublin, Ireland.
A groundbreaking text that highlights the various sources, applications, and advancements concerning proteins from novel and traditional sources Novel Proteins for Food, Pharmaceuticals, and Agriculture offers a guide to the various sources, applications, and advancements that exist and are currently being researched concerning proteins from novel and traditional sources. The contributors—noted experts in the field—discuss sustainable protein resources and include illustrative examples of bioactive compounds isolated from several resources that have or could obtain high market value in specific markets. The text also explores a wide range of topics such as functional food formulations and pharmaceutical applications, and how they alter biological activity to provide therapeutic benefits, nutritional values and health protection. The authors also examine the techno-functional applications of proteins and looks at the screening process for identification of bioactive molecules derived from protein sources. In addition, the text provides insight into the market opportunities that exist for novel proteins such as insect, by-product derived, macroalgal, and others. The authors also discuss the identification and commercialization of new proteins for various markets. This vital text: Puts the focus on the various sources, applications, and advancements concerning proteins from novel and traditional sources Contains a discussion on how processing technologies currently applied to dairy could be applied to novel protein sources such as insect and macroalgal Reviews the sustainability of protein sources and restrictions that exist concerning development Offers ideas for creating an innovative and enterprising economy that is built on recent developments Details the potential to exploit key market opportunities in sports, infant and elderly nutrition, and techno-functional protein applications. Written for industrial researchers as well as PhD and Post-doctoral researchers, and undergraduate students studying biochemistry, food engineering and biological sciences and those interested in market developments, Novel Proteins for Food, Pharmaceuticals, and Agriculture offers an essential guide to the sources, applications, and most recent developments of the proteins from both innovative and traditional sources.

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