Natural History Collections in the Science of the 21st Century

Natural History Collections in the Science of the 21st Century

A Sustainable Resource for Open Science
1. Aufl.

von: Roseli Pellens

126,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 30.11.2021
ISBN/EAN: 9781119882220
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 416

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Natural history collections have recently acquired an unprecedented place of importance in scientific research. Originally created in the context of systematics and taxonomy, they are now proving to be fundamental for answering various scientific and societal questions that are as significant as they are current.<br /><br /><i>Natural History Collections in the Science of the 21st Century</i> presents a wide range of questions and answers raised by the study of collections. The billions of specimens that have been collected from all around the world over more than two centuries provide us with information that is vital in our quest for knowledge about the Earth, the universe, the diversity of life and the history of humankind.<br /><br />These collections also provide valuable reference points from the past to help us understand the nature and dynamics of global change today. Their physical permanence is the best guarantee we have of a return to data and to information sources in the context of open science.
<p>Foreword xvii<br /><i>Bruno DAVID</i></p> <p>Acknowledgments xxi<br /><i>Roseli PELLENS</i></p> <p><b>Chapter 1. Natural History Collections: An Essential Resource for Science in the 21st Century </b><b>1<br /></b><i>Roseli PELLENS</i></p> <p>1.1. Collections in early 21st century science 2</p> <p>1.2. New explorations because of the magnitude and diversity of the collections’ data 3</p> <p>1.3. Research using and driving the constitution of natural history collections 5</p> <p>1.3.1. Being able to return to the object: one of the major contributions of natural history collections 6</p> <p>1.3.2. Collections at the heart of highly innovative research thanks to new technologies 7</p> <p>1.3.3. A resource for global change research 8</p> <p>1.3.4. Designing the science of the future based on collections 9</p> <p>1.4. References 11</p> <p><b>Chapter 2. Natural History Collections: An Ancient Concept in a Present and Future Perspective </b><b>13<br /></b><i>Philippe GRANDCOLAS</i></p> <p>2.1. Introduction 14</p> <p>2.2. A tribute to curiosity and coupling with classifications 14</p> <p>2.3. The structuring of our thoughts and actions by an ancient concept 16</p> <p>2.4. Collections: more than species catalogues 18</p> <p>2.5. Big Data collections in space and time 19</p> <p>2.6. What future is there for the use of collections? 20</p> <p>2.7. Conclusion 22</p> <p>2.8. References 22</p> <p><b>Chapter 3. Louis XIV’s Blue Gems: Exceptional Rediscoveries at the French National Museum of Natural History </b><b>27<br /></b><i>François FARGES</i></p> <p>3.1. Introduction 29</p> <p>3.2. A scientific investigation of color 31</p> <p>3.3. The digital decoding of the creative genius of the royal gem cutter 32</p> <p>3.4. Epilogue: toward a renaissance.. 35</p> <p>3.5. References 36</p> <p><b>Chapter 4. Rediscovering Human Mummies: Unpublished data on the Chachapoya Mummy Exhibited at the <i>Musée de l’Homme </i></b><b>37<br /></b><i>Aline THOMAS, Arnaud ANSART, Christophe BOU, Jean-Bernard HUCHET, Véronique LABORDE, Samuel MERIGEAUD and Éloïse QUETEL</i></p> <p>4.1. Introduction 38</p> <p>4.1.1. The <i>Muséum</i>’s collection of human mummies 38</p> <p>4.1.2. Origin, discovery, donation and exhibition: a brief history of the mummy 40</p> <p>4.2. Materials and methods 43</p> <p>4.2.1. The MNHN-HA-30187 mummy: position of the body, measurements and external appearance 43</p> <p>4.2.2. Medical imaging protocol and technique 45</p> <p>4.2.3. Protocol for experimental reproduction of trepanation 45</p> <p>4.3. Results 46</p> <p>4.3.1. Basic biological identity 46</p> <p>4.3.2. Osteo-dental status 47</p> <p>4.3.3. Internal organs 48</p> <p>4.3.4. Archeoentomology 50</p> <p>4.3.5. Cranial trepanation: location, size and mode of operation 52</p> <p>4.4. Discussion 54</p> <p>4.4.1. Identity of the deceased and health status 54</p> <p>4.4.2. Treatment of the corpse and embalming 55</p> <p>4.4.3. Chronology of mortuary gestures 56</p> <p>4.5. Conclusion 58</p> <p>4.6. References 59</p> <p><b>Chapter 5. Reconstructing the History of Human Populations: A Challenge for Biological Anthropology </b><b>63<br /></b><i>Martin FRIESS and Manon GALLAND</i></p> <p>5.1. Introduction 63</p> <p>5.1.1. How human remains have also become scientific objects 63</p> <p>5.1.2. The MNHN biological anthropology collection 64</p> <p>5.1.3. Cranial morphology as an indication of biocultural processes 65</p> <p>5.2. Cranial morphology and settlement history 66</p> <p>5.2.1. A new look at the diversity of Native Americans 69</p> <p>5.3. Cranial morphology and adaptation to the environment 71</p> <p>5.3.1. Cranial diversity beyond randomness 73</p> <p>5.4. The importance of cranial collection for the advancement of research in biological anthropology 75</p> <p>5.5. References 76</p> <p><b>Chapter 6. The Discovery of New Metal-Hyperaccumulating Plant Species in Herbaria </b><b>79<br /></b>Vanessa R. INVERNÓN, Romane TISSERAND, Pierre JOUANNAIS, Dulce M. NAVARRETE GUTIÉRREZ, Serge MULLER, Yohan PILLON, Guillaume ECHEVARRIA and <i>Sylvain MERLOT</i></p> <p>6.1. Metal-hyperaccumulating plants 80</p> <p>6.2. The screening of herbarium collections: from atomic absorption to X-ray fluorescence 83</p> <p>6.3. The discovery of new metal-hyperaccumulating plants at the MNHN herbarium 85</p> <p>6.3.1. The interest of the MNHN herbarium for the research of metal-hyperaccumulating plants 85</p> <p>6.3.2. From the herbarium to the field: new nickel hyperaccumulators in the genus <i>Orthion </i>87</p> <p>6.3.3. <i>Rinorea multivenosa</i>, the first zinc hyperaccumulating species discovered in the Amazon basin 88</p> <p>6.3.4. A large number of manganese hyperaccumulating species to be discovered 90</p> <p>6.4. Conclusion 91</p> <p>6.5. Acknowledgments 92</p> <p>6.6. References 92</p> <p><b>Chapter 7. Fossil Crustaceans in the Light of New Technologies </b><b>95<br /></b><i>Sylvain CHARBONNIER and Marie-Béatrice FOREL</i></p> <p>7.1. Introduction 96</p> <p>7.2. Fossil crustaceans 96</p> <p>7.3. The radiation of fossil crustaceans 98</p> <p>7.3.1. Revealing characters with UV light (yellow fluorescence) 98</p> <p>7.3.2. Revealing characters with green light (green–orange fluorescence) 99</p> <p>7.3.3. X-ray radiography 100</p> <p>7.4. Exceptional preservation of fossil crustaceans 102</p> <p>7.5. Ostracods and paleogeography at the end of the Paleozoic 105</p> <p>7.6. References 105</p> <p><b>Chapter 8. The “Cyanobacteria and Microalgae” Collection in the Time of “-omics” </b><b>109<br /></b><i>Sébastien DUPERRON, Charlotte DUVAL, Sahima HAMLAOUI, Katia COMTE, Claude YÉPRÉMIAN and Cécile BERNARD</i></p> <p>8.1. Introduction 109</p> <p>8.2. A living collection supported by research 111</p> <p>8.3. New uses of the collection in basic research 114</p> <p>8.3.1. Polyphasic identification and taxonomy of cyanobacteria and microalgae 114</p> <p>8.3.2. Contribution to the evolutionary sciences 114</p> <p>8.3.3. Contribution to the study of interactions between organisms 115</p> <p>8.4. Enhancing the value of biological resources through the search for innovative bioactive molecules 116</p> <p>8.5. Expertise in environmental diagnosis 118</p> <p>8.6. The living collection of cyanobacteria and microalgae of today and tomorrow 119</p> <p>8.7. References 121</p> <p><b>Chapter 9. The Collection of Cryopreserved Cells and Tissues of Vertebrates: Methods and Application </b><b>125<br /></b><i>Michèle GERBAULT-SEUREAU and Bernard DUTRILLAUX</i></p> <p>9.1. Introduction 126</p> <p>9.2. History of the collection 126</p> <p>9.3. Can all living beings be cryopreserved? 127</p> <p>9.3.1. Collection, culture and freezing 128</p> <p>9.4. Current applications 130</p> <p>9.5. Current composition of the bank 133</p> <p>9.6. Perspectives 136</p> <p>9.7. References 137</p> <p><b>Chapter 10. Herbaria, the Last Resort for Extinct Plant Species </b><b>139<br /></b><i>Serge MULLER, Valérie PRIOLET, Éric BADEL and Stéphane BUORD</i></p> <p>10.1. Context and objectives 140</p> <p>10.2. Proposed approach and protocol 141</p> <p>10.3. First results 142</p> <p>10.3.1. Selection of target species and identification of affine species 142</p> <p>10.3.2. Assessment of the viability of available seeds 145</p> <p>10.3.3. Cultivation experiments on affine species of the target species 149</p> <p>10.4. Discussion and conclusion 152</p> <p>10.5. Acknowledgments 154</p> <p>10.6. References 154</p> <p><b>Chapter 11. Ocean Cores, Climate Archives </b><b>159<br /></b><i>Eva MORENO and Annachiara BARTOLINI</i></p> <p>11.1. Introduction 160</p> <p>11.2. The MNHN’s oceanic collection 160</p> <p>11.3. Development of core drilling techniques 161</p> <p>11.4. Ocean cores: archives of past climate variability 163</p> <p>11.5. Climate proxies 164</p> <p>11.5.1. Temperature proxies 165</p> <p>11.5.2. Proxies of salinity 169</p> <p>11.5.3. Paleo-pH proxies and carbonate ion concentration 170</p> <p>11.6. Analytical techniques 171</p> <p>11.7. Conclusion 172</p> <p>11.8. References 173</p> <p><b>Chapter 12. Clarifying the Radiocarbon Calibration Curve for Ancient Egypt: The Wager of Herbaria </b><b>177<br /></b><i>Anita QUILES, Vanessa R. INVERNÓN, Lucile BECK, Emmanuelle DELQUE-KOLIC, Myriam GAUDEUL, Serge MULLER and Germinal ROUHAN</i></p> <p>12.1. Introduction 178</p> <p>12.2. Carbon-14 (14C) dating and Egyptian chronology 179</p> <p>12.2.1. The challenge of calibration 179</p> <p>12.2.2. Chronology of ancient Egypt: contribution of 14C and historic debates 181</p> <p>12.3. Specificities of the Egyptian landscape and the objective of the project 182</p> <p>12.4. The flora of Egypt in the MNHN Herbarium 184</p> <p>12.5. Analytical and statistical challenges 186</p> <p>12.5.1. Selection of herbarium specimens 187</p> <p>12.5.2. Preliminary results of 14C dating 187</p> <p>12.6. Conclusion 190</p> <p>12.7. References 191</p> <p><b>Chapter 13. Herbaria, a Window into the Evolutionary History of Crop Pathogens </b><b>195<br /></b><i>Lionel GAGNEVIN, Adrien RIEUX, Jean-Michel LETT, Philippe ROUMAGNAC, Boris SZUREK, Paola CAMPOS, Claudia BAIDER, Myriam GAUDEUL and Nathalie BECKER</i></p> <p>13.1. Epidemics, emergences and re-emergences 196</p> <p>13.2. Development of agriculture, domestication of cultivated plants and their diseases 197</p> <p>13.3. Molecular biology and genomics as a tool for studying phytopathogenic micro-organisms 199</p> <p>13.4. Contributions of the herbarium samples 199</p> <p>13.4.1. Direct evidence 200</p> <p>13.4.2. Molecular analyses 201</p> <p>13.5. How to explore a herbarium 203</p> <p>13.6. Characteristics of old nucleic acids and their treatment 205</p> <p>13.6.1. The particular case of viral nucleic acids 206</p> <p>13.7. Xanthomonas <i>citri </i>pv. <i>citri </i>and its emergence in the Indian Ocean 208</p> <p>13.8. Emergence and evolutionary history of plant pathogenic viruses: the geminivirus model 209</p> <p>13.8.1. Case of a species complex responsible for an emerging disease 210</p> <p>13.8.2. Case of a cryptic geminivirus 211</p> <p>13.9. Discussion 212</p> <p>13.10. Acknowledgments and funding 213</p> <p>13.11. References 213</p> <p><b>Chapter 14. The Yellow-Legged Asian Hornet: Prediction of the Risk of Invasion and the Study of its Color Variations </b><b>219<br /></b><i>Claire VILLEMANT, Quentin ROME and Adrien PERRARD</i></p> <p>14.1. Introduction 220</p> <p>14.2. <i>Vespa velutina</i>: some elements of taxonomy and biology 222</p> <p>14.2.1. A species: 13 colored forms 222</p> <p>14.2.2. One nest per year 223</p> <p>14.2.3. Insectivore, but not exclusively 223</p> <p>14.3. Sampling of specimens 224</p> <p>14.4. The origin of invasive lineages of <i>V. velutina </i>in France and Korea 225</p> <p>14.4.1. The history of the invasion explained by genetics 225</p> <p>14.4.2. A single queen at the origin of the invasive lineage in France 226</p> <p>14.5. Expansion risks in Europe and worldwide 226</p> <p>14.5.1. Data and methods for inferring range and predicting invasion risk 226</p> <p>14.5.2. Strong expansion in Europe and the Northern Hemisphere 227</p> <p>14.6. Origin of color and shape variations 229</p> <p>14.6.1. The importance of collection specimens 229</p> <p>14.6.2. Discordance between genetic lineages and colored forms 231</p> <p>14.7. Conclusion 232</p> <p>14.8. References 233</p> <p><b>Chapter 15. Exploring Temporal Changes in the Composition of Macroalgal Communities by Using Collections </b><b>235<br /></b><i>Marine ROBUCHON, Éric FEUNTEUN, Romain JULLIARD, Florence ROUSSEAU and Line Le GALL</i></p> <p>15.1. On the constitution of macroalgal collections 236</p> <p>15.1.1. Large seaweeds 236</p> <p>15.1.2. Algal herbaria 236</p> <p>15.1.3. Data associated with the herbaria 237</p> <p>15.1.4. Specimens and scientific evidence 237</p> <p>15.1.5. The herbarium of the Dinard maritime laboratory 239</p> <p>15.2. Exploring temporal changes in species distribution 239</p> <p>15.2.1. Perspectives for exploring temporal changes in species distribution 245</p> <p>15.3. Exploring temporal changes in community composition 246</p> <p>15.3.1. Example of the study of the Dinard Herbarium 246</p> <p>15.3.2. Perspectives for exploring temporal changes in community composition 247</p> <p>15.4. Conclusion: sampling and analysis strategies for the future 248</p> <p>15.5. References 249</p> <p><b>Chapter 16. Herbaria, Witnesses of the Stakes of Biodiversity Conservation and the Impacts of Global Changes </b><b>251<br /></b><i>Serge MULLER, Vanessa R. INVERNÓN and Germinal ROUHAN</i></p> <p>16.1. Introduction 252</p> <p>16.2. Evaluation of the floristic richness and conservation issues of territories 254</p> <p>16.3. Studies of introduction pathways and colonization of invasive exotic plants and pathogens 257</p> <p>16.4. Analysis of the impact of pollution and changes in air quality 259</p> <p>16.5. Study of phenological changes in flora as a result of climate change 260</p> <p>16.6. Conclusion 262</p> <p>16.7. References 263</p> <p><b>Chapter 17. Digital Photography <i>In Natura </i>in Zoology: More Biology in Natural History Collections? </b><b>271<br /></b>Romain GARROUSTE</p> <p>17.1. Images and collections... for comparative biology 272</p> <p>17.2. Accelerating the process of the incomplete inventory of life 274</p> <p>17.3. Why more biology in natural history collections? 277</p> <p>17.4. Images in the natural sciences: a collection like any other? 280</p> <p>17.5. The Hemiptera of France: an exemplary iconography 282</p> <p>17.6. Trait databases, query automation and bio-inspiration 282</p> <p>17.7. Conclusion: a new challenge for natural history 284</p> <p>17.8. References 285</p> <p><b>Chapter 18. The Use of Large Natural History Datasets to Respond to Current Scientific and Societal Issues </b><b>289<br /></b><i>Anne-Christine MONNET, Thomas HAEVERMANS, Anne-Sophie ARCHAMBEAU, Philippe GRANDCOLAS and Roseli PELLENS</i></p> <p>18.1. Introduction 289</p> <p>18.2. Making data available: a revolution 290</p> <p>18.3. Challenges for data providers 293</p> <p>18.3.1. Reading labels or directories 293</p> <p>18.3.2. Structure of the information related to the specimens 294</p> <p>18.3.3. The taxonomic framework: moving information 295</p> <p>18.3.4. The importance of tracing the source of data 296</p> <p>18.4. The role of access portals 296</p> <p>18.4.1. The provision standards 297</p> <p>18.5. The importance of scientific analysis design in appropriating the specificities of data from collections 299</p> <p>18.5.1. Detecting the biases in collection data: advantages and opportunities for scientific analyses 299</p> <p>18.5.2. Toward a good balance between the question and the available data 300</p> <p>18.5.3. Playing the advantage of multiple spatial scales 301</p> <p>18.6. Moving from raw data to sorted data that can be used for scientific analyses 301</p> <p>18.6.1. From open data to open science, a responsibility for the traceability of data and operations 303</p> <p>18.6.2. Toward a necessary reorganization of collaborative work 304</p> <p>18.7. Conclusion 306</p> <p>18.8. References 307</p> <p><b>Chapter 19. Is There a Need for Biocultural Collections? State of the Art and Perspectives </b><b>311<br /></b><i>Serge BAHUCHET</i></p> <p>19.1. Introduction 311</p> <p>19.2. Origin of these collections 312</p> <p>19.2.1. Ethnobotany 312</p> <p>19.2.2. Ethnology 313</p> <p>19.3. Collection principles and the function of collections 313</p> <p>19.3.1. The role of objects in “Maussian” ethnology 313</p> <p>19.3.2. Ethnobotanical collections 315</p> <p>19.3.3. Biocultural collections 317</p> <p>19.4. Principles for the articulation of sets 319</p> <p>19.5. Description of the collections 324</p> <p>19.5.1. Ethnobiological specimens 325</p> <p>19.5.2. Objects and artifacts 329</p> <p>19.6. What changes? 332</p> <p>19.7. References 334</p> <p><b>Chapter 20. Why Preserve? </b><b>337<br /></b><i>Véronique ROUCHON</i></p> <p>20.1. The museum’s collections: between study and heritage 338</p> <p>20.2. Disrupting the equilibrium 339</p> <p>20.3. Preparation and storage 342</p> <p>20.4. The main principles of conservation 346</p> <p>20.5. The main principles of conservation being undermined 347</p> <p>20.6. Multiple values 349</p> <p>20.7. The scientific value of the collections 351</p> <p>20.8. Conclusion 357</p> <p>20.9. References 357</p> <p><b>Chapter 21. Collections for Scientific Research in the 21st Century and Beyond </b><b>359<br /></b><i>Roseli PELLENS</i></p> <p>21.1. Collections in the quest for knowledge 359</p> <p>21.2. Three main kinds of new uses for collections 360</p> <p>21.2.1. Enriching the life sciences, human sciences and the sciences of the universe with new technologies 360</p> <p>21.2.2. A pool of information on the environment 360</p> <p>21.2.3. The era of digital data 362</p> <p>21.3. Lessons from these new uses 362</p> <p>21.3.1. The importance of richness and diversity 363</p> <p>21.3.2. Information at the heart of new research 363</p> <p>21.3.3. Good conservation and good practices 365</p> <p>21.3.4. The importance of sets 366</p> <p>21.4. Collections in 21st century science and beyond 367</p> <p>21.5. Conclusion 367</p> <p>21.6. References 369</p> <p>List of Authors 373</p> <p>Index 381</p>
<b>Roseli Pellens</b> is a researcher in macroecology and systematics for conservation at the Institute of Systematics, Evolution and Biodiversity, France. Her research interests include openness and sharing in science, and the contribution of natural history collections as a sustainable source of data and inspiration.

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