Edited and written by renowned experts in the field, this is the first book to reflect the state of the art of nanocatalysis in ionic liquids. Divided into two core areas, the first part of the book describes the different classes of metal nanoparticles as well as their synthesis in ionic liquids, while the second focuses on such emerging issues as the application of such systems to energy and biomass conversion.
List of Contributors XI Preface XV Foreword XIX Symbols and Abbreviations XXI Part I Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of Nanocatalysts in Ionic Liquids 1 1 Fe, Ru, and Os Nanoparticles 3Madhu Kaushik, Yuting Feng, Nathaniel Boyce, and Audrey Moores 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Synthesis of Fe, Ru, and Os NPs in ILs 4 1.2.1 Synthesis via Reduction of Metal Precursors or Ligands 6 1.3 Ionic Liquid Stabilization of Metal Nanoparticles 9 1.4 Applications of Ru, Fe, and Os Nanoparticles to Catalysis 11 1.5 Conclusion 21 Acknowledgments 21 References 21 2 Co, Rh, and Ir Nanoparticles 25Jackson D. Scholten andMuhammad I. Qadir 2.1 Introduction 25 2.2 Chemical Routes for the Synthesis of Metal NPs in ILs 26 2.3 Catalytic Application of Metal NPs in ILs 31 2.4 Conclusions 37 References 37 3 Ni and Pt Nanoparticles 41Carla Weber Scheeren 3.1 Introduction 41 3.2 Synthesis and Characterization of Pt NPs in ILs 42 3.3 Catalytic Applications of Pt NPs in ILs 47 3.4 Synthesis and Characterization of Ni NPs in ILs 48 3.5 Catalytic Applications of Ni NPs in ILs 53 3.6 Summary and Conclusions 58 Symbols and Abbreviations 59 Characterization Methods 59 Ionic Liquids 59 References 59 4 Pd Nanoparticles for Coupling Reactions and Domino/Tandem Reactions 63Anna M. Trzeciak 4.1 Introduction 63 4.2 Formation of Pd NPs in ILs 65 4.3 The Heck Coupling 68 4.4 The Suzuki Reaction 74 4.5 The Stille Coupling 75 4.6 The Sonogashira Coupling 76 4.7 Summary and Conclusions 78 Acknowledgments 79 References 79 5 Soluble Pd Nanoparticles for Catalytic Hydrogenation 83Ran Zhang and Zhenshan Hou 5.1 Introduction 83 5.2 Synthesis of Pd Nanoparticles in ILs 85 5.3 Pd Nanoparticles for Hydrogenation 88 5.4 Summary and Conclusions 93 Ionic Liquid Abbreviations 93 References 94 6 Au, Ag, and Cu Nanostructures 97Abhinandan Banerjee and RobertW. J. Scott 6.1 Introduction 97 6.2 Au NPs in the Presence of ILs 98 6.3 Catalytic Applications of AuNP/IL Composites 106 6.4 Ag NPs in the Presence of ILs 108 6.5 Cu NPs in the Presence of ILs 113 6.6 Summary and Conclusions 118 Acronyms 119 References 119 7 Bimetallic Nanoparticles in Ionic Liquids: Synthesis and Catalytic Applications 125Isabelle Favier, Emmanuelle Teuma, and Montserrat Gómez 7.1 Introduction 125 7.2 Synthesis of Bimetallic Nanoparticles in Ionic Liquids 127 7.3 Applications in Catalysis 137 7.4 Summary and Outlook 143 Acknowledgments 144 References 144 8 Synthesis and Application of Metal Nanoparticle Catalysts in Ionic Liquid Media using Metal Carbonyl Complexes as Precursors 147Raquel Marcos Esteban and Christoph Janiak 8.1 Introduction 147 8.2 Metal Carbonyls – Synthesis, Structure, and Bonding 150 8.3 Metal Carbonyls for the Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles (M-NPs) 152 8.4 Catalytic Applications of Metal Nanoparticles from Metal Carbonyls in ILs 160 8.5 Conclusions 163 Acknowledgment 164 References 164 9 Top-Down Synthesis Methods for Nanoscale Catalysts 171Tsukasa Torimoto, Tatsuya Kameyama, and Susumu Kuwabata 9.1 Introduction 171 9.2 Sputter Deposition of Metals in RTILs 172 9.3 Thermal Vapor Deposition on RTILs for Preparation of Metal Nanoparticles 196 9.4 Laser-Induced Downsizing and Ablation of Materials 197 9.5 Preparation of Single Crystals by Vapor Deposition onto RTILs 199 9.6 Conclusion 202 References 203 10 Electrochemical Preparation of Metal Nanoparticles in Ionic Liquids 207Yasushi Katayama 10.1 Introduction 207 10.2 Basics of Electrodeposition 208 10.3 Electrodeposition of Silver and Formation of Silver Nanoparticles in Ionic Liquids 210 10.4 Electrochemical Formation of the Nanoparticles of Various Metals 215 10.5 Summary and Conclusions 225 References 227 Part II Perspectives for Application of Nanocatalysts in Ionic Liquids 231 11 Tailoring Biomass Conversions using Ionic Liquid Immobilized Metal Nanoparticles 233Srinidhi Narayanan, Jiaguang Zhang, and Ning Yan 11.1 Introduction 233 11.2 Cellulose 234 11.3 Lignin 238 11.4 Fatty Acid and Its Derivatives 241 11.5 Other Biomass Substrates 243 11.6 Conclusion 245 References 245 12 Nanoparticles on Supported Ionic Liquid Phases – Opportunities for Application in Catalysis 249Pedro Migowski, Kylie L. Luska, and Walter Leitner 12.1 Introduction 249 12.2 Synthesis of Supported Ionic Liquid Phases (SILPs) 250 12.3 Nanoparticles Immobilized onto Supported Ionic Liquid Phases (NPs@SILPs) 252 12.4 Catalytic Applications of NPs@SILPs 256 12.5 Summary and Conclusions 268 Acknowledgments 269 References 269 13 Photovoltaic, Photocatalytic Application, andWater Splitting 275Adriano F. Feil, Heberton Wender, and Renato V. Gonçalves 13.1 Introduction 275 13.2 Photovoltaic Cells 276 13.3 Photocatalytic Processes 281 13.4 Water Splitting 285 13.5 Summary and Conclusions 291 References 292 Index 295
Martin Prechtl received the valuable Scientist NRW-Returnee Award 2009 and accepted an offer of the University of Cologne in Germany in 2010, where he also became Privatdozent and Heisenberg-Fellow in 2015. His research interest covers hydrogen storage and selective hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions with molecular and nanoscale catalysts in multiphase systems based on water or ionic liquids. Before moving to Cologne, he studied at the University of Wuppertal (Germany) and the Universidade de S?o Paulo (Brazil). In S?o Paulo he did research studies together with Jo?o Valdir Comasseto (catalysis) and Omar El Seoud (cellulose chemistry), and in Wuppertal he worked on his diploma thesis about ligand design and catalysis under Hans-Josef Altenbach. Martin Prechtl performed his PhD studies in the field of organometallic chemistry and catalysis at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Kohlenforschung in Mulheim/Ruhr in Germany under guidance of Walter Leitner and David Milstein on metal hydride complexes and received the doctoral degree from RWTH Aachen in 2007. Afterwards he worked as Feodor-Lynen-Fellow of the Alexander-von-Humboldt Foundation at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul in Porto Alegre (Brazil) with Jairton Dupont and at the Humboldt University Berlin (Germany) with Thomas Braun and Erhard Kemnitz in the fields of nanoparticle synthesis and catalysis.
Written by renowned experts in the field, this is the first book to reflect the state of the art of nanocatalysis in ionic liquids. Nanoscale catalysts embedded in ionic liquids are a promising tool to establish environmentally friendly and efficient catalytic processes. Divided into two core areas, the first part of the book describes the different classes of metal nanoparticles as well as their synthesis in ionic liquids, while the second focuses on such emerging issues as the application of such systems to energy and biomass conversion.
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