Details

Microwaves in Organic Synthesis


Microwaves in Organic Synthesis


3. Aufl.

von: Antonio de la Hoz, André Loupy

376,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 19.03.2013
ISBN/EAN: 9783527651344
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 1303

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Beschreibungen

The third edition of the bestselling two-volume reference covers everything you need to know about microwave technology for synthesis - from the best equipment to nonthermal effects, from solid-support reactions to catalysis. Completely revised and updated with half of the authors completely new to the project, this comprehensive work is clearly divided into two parts on the fundamentals of microwave irradiation, and application of microwaves and synergies with other enabling techniques. Also new to this edition are chapters on on-line monitoring, flow chemistry, combination with ultrasounds and natural products, including multicomponent reactions. An indispensable source for organic, catalytic, physical, and medicinal chemists.
Contents to Volume 1 PREFACE PART I: Fundamental Aspects of Microwave Irradiation in Organic Chemistry MICROWAVE - MATERIALS INTERACTIONS AND DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES: FROM MOLECULES AND MACROMOLECULES TO SOLIDS AND COLLOIDAL SUSPENSIONS Fundamentals of Microwave - Matter Interactions Dielectric Properties and Molecular Behavior Conclusion DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN OF REACTORS IN MICROWAVE-ASSISTED CHEMISTRY Introduction Basic Concepts for Reactions and Reactors in Organic Synthesis Methods for Enhancing the Rates of Organic Reactions Microwave-Assisted Organic Syntheses Commercial Microwave Reactors Selected Equipment and Applications Qualification and Validation of Reactors and Results Conclusion and the Future KEY INGREDIENTS FOR MASTERY OF CHEMICAL MICROWAVE PROCESSES The Systemic Approach Thermal Dependence of Dielectric Loss Electric Field Effects Loop Modes or Strange Solutions of Maxwell's Equations Hydrodynamic Aspects Thermodynamic and Other Effects of Electric Fields Athermal and Specific Effects of Electric Field The Thermal Path Effect: Anisothermal Conditions Hot Spots and Heterogeneous Kinetics Conclusion NONTHERMAL EFFECTS OF MICROWAVES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS Introduction Origin of Microwave Effects Specific Nonthermal Microwave Effects Effects of the Medium Effects Depending on Reaction Mechanisms Effects Depending on the Position of the Transition State Along the Reaction coordinate Effects on Selectivity Some Illustrative Examples Concerning the Absence of Microwave Effects Conclusion: Suitable Conditions for Observation of Specific MW Effects SELECTIVITY MODIFICATIONS UNDER MICROWAVE IRRADIATION Introduction Selective Heating Modification of Chemoselectivity and Regioselectivity Modification of Stereo- and Enantioselectivity Conclusion ELUCIDATION OF MICROWAVE EFFECTS: METHODS, THEORIES, AND PREDICTIVE MODELS Introduction Thermal Effects Non-Thermal Effects Conclusion MICROWAVE SUSCEPTORS Introduction Graphite as a Sensitizer Graphite as Sensitizer and Catalyst The Use of Silicon Carbide Susceptors in Microwave Chemistry TOOLS FOR MONITORING REACTIONS PERFORMED USING MICROWAVE HEATING Introduction Watching Microwave-Heated Reactions in Real Time Monitoring Microwave-Heated Reactions Using InSitu Spectroscopic Tools Conclusion MICROWAVE FREQUENCY EFFECTS IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS Introduction Historical Review of Microwave Frequency Effects in Chemical Reactions Microwave Chemical Reaction Apparatus Operating at Various Frequencies Frequency Effects and Heating Efficiency in Various Solutions Examples of Chemical Reactions Impacted by Microwave Frequency Effects Conclusion PART II: Applications of Microwave Irradiation ORGANIC SYNTHESIS USING MICROWAVES AND SUPPORTED REAGENTS Introduction Microwave-Accelerated Solvent-Free Organic Reactions Protection - Deprotection Reactions Condensation Reactions Isomerization and Rearrangement Reactions Diels - Alder Cycloaddition of a Triazole Ring Addition Reactions Oxidation Reactions - Oxidation of Alcohols and Sulfides Reduction Reactions Synthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds Miscellaneous Reactions Conclusion GASEOUS REACTANTS IN MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS Introduction Liquid-Phase Synthesis Wet Air Oxidation Gas-Phase Synthesis Waste Gas Treatment Conclusion and Outlook MICROWAVES AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY Introduction to Microwave Assisted Electrode Processes Macroelectrode Processes in the Presence of Microwaves Microelectrode Processes in the Presence of Microwaves Junction-Electrode Processes in the Presence of Microwaves Electrochemical Flow Reactor Processes in the Presence of Microwaves Future Trends THE COMBINED USE OF MICROWAVES AND ULTRASOUND: METHODS AND PRACTICE Introduction The Search for the Best Coupling Microwave- and Ultrasound-Enhanced Synthesis and Catalysis Formation of Advanced Materials Conclusion and Future Trends MICROWAVES IN PHOTOCHEMISTRY AND PHOTOCATALYSIS Introduction UV/Vis Discharges in Electrodeless Lamps Microwave Photochemical and Photocatalytic Reactors Interactions of UV/Vis and Microwave Radiation with Matter Microwave Photochemistry and Photocatalysis Applications Future Trends Contents to Volume 2 PREFACE MICROWAVE-HEATED TRANSITION METAL-CATALYZED COUPLING REACTIONS Introduction Cross-Coupling Reactions Arylation of C, N, O, S, P and Halogen Nucleophiles The Heck Reaction Carbonylative Coupling Reactions Conclusion MICROWAVES IN HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY Introduction Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Four- and Five-Membered Systems with One and More Than Two Heteroatoms Six-Membered Systems with One Heteroatom Six-Membered Systems with More Than One Heteroatom Bicyclic Systems (Six Atoms + Five Atoms) with One, Two, and More Heteroatoms Bicyclic Systems (Six Atoms + Six Atoms) with One, Two, and More Heteroatoms Seven Membered Heterocycles with Two Heteroatoms: Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Benzodiazepines and Related Compounds Microwave-Assisted Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution (SNAr) Microwaves in Total Synthesis of Bioactive Heterocycles Conclusion MICROWAVE-ASSISTED CYCLOADDITION REACTIONS Introduction Microwave-Assisted [3 + 2]-Cycloaddition Reactions Microwave-Assisted [4 + 2]-Cycloaddition Reactions Microwave-Assisted [2 + 2]-Cycloaddition Reactions Other Microwave-Assisted Cycloaddition Reactions Conclusion MICROWAVE-ASSISTED HETEROGENEOUSLY CATALYZED PROCESSES Introduction Acid-Catalyzed Reactions Based-Catalyzed Reactions Redox Reactions Coupling Reactions Other Reactions Conclusion and Outlook MICROWAVES IN THE SYNTHESIS OF NATURAL PRODUCTS Introduction Total Synthesis of Various Classes of Natural Products Total Synthesis of Various Classes of Alkaloids Synthesis of Analogs of Natural Products Synthesis of Building Blocks (Subunits) for Natural Product Conclusion and Overview MICROWAVE-ENHANCED SYNTHESIS OF PEPTIDES, PROTEINS, AND PEPTIDOMIMETICS Introduction Synthesis Approaches Microwave Theory for Peptide Synthesis Na-Amino Protection Strategies Amide Bond Formation Modified Peptides Non-Natural Peptidomimetics Resin Cleavage Recommended Protocols Conclusion Abbreviations A JOURNEY INTO RECENT MICROWAVE-ASSISTED CARBOHYDRATE CHEMISTRY Introduction Acylation Glycosylation Halogenation-Dehalogenation Sulfation Anomerization Synthesis of Sugar Derivatives Synthesis of Biologically and Pharmacological Active Compounds Synthesis of Heterocycles Synthesis of Phosphorus Compounds Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials Conclusion POLYMER CHEMISTRY UNDER MICROWAVE IRRADIATION Introduction Synthesis of Polymers Under Microwave Irradiation Conclusion APPLICATION OF MICROWAVE IRRADIATION IN CARBON NANOSTRUCTURES Fullerenes Under Microwave Irradiation Microwave Irradiation in Carbon Nanotubes Microwave Irradiation in Other Carbon Nanoforms Conclusion MICROWAVE-ASSISTED MULTICOMPONENT REACTIONS IN THE SYNTHESIS OF HETEROCYCLES Introduction Nitrogen Heterocycles Oxygen-Containing Rings Sulfur-Containing Rings Oxygen- and Nitrogen-Containing Rings Carbacycles Multiple Ring Systems Conclusion Abbreviations MICROWAVE-ASSISTED CONTINUOUS FLOW ORGANIC SYNTHESIS (MACOS) Introduction Equipment MACOS in Homogeneous System MACOS in Heterogeneous System Conclusion and Outlook INDEX
Andre Loupy received his PhD in 1975 from Paris-South University under the direction of Dr. Jacqueline Seyden-Penne in the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifi que (CNRS) in Thiais. He joined the Laboratory of Selective Reactions in Centre of Orsay from Paris-South University (director : Pr. Georges Bram). He became the first class director of research at CNRS, where he led this lab until the end of 2005 when he retired. He was co-author of roughly 300 publications and 10 chapters in several books. Together with Pr. Georges Bram, Dr. Loupy was concerned with microwave activation since 1987, especially when coupled with safe and economical solvent-free conditions ('green chemistry') and the non-alimentary valorization of products from agriculture. His most recent research was focused on medium effects in organic synthesis including solvent and salt effects, solvent-free conditions with a special interest in supported reactions and phase transfer catalysis and activation by microwaves. Antonio de la Hoz is Professor in Organic Chemistry in the University of Castilla-La Mancha. He obtained his PhD from the Universidad Complutense in Madrid in 1986 under the supervision of Prof. Jose Elguero and Carmen Pardo. After postdoctoral research in 1987 with Prof. Mikael Begtrup at the Danmarks Tekniske H?skole, Denmark, he joined the Faculty of Chemistry of the Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha in Ciudad Real in 1988 as an Assistant Professor. In 1993 he worked under the supervision Prof. Andre Loupy in the Universite de Paris-Sud in Microwave Assisted Organic Chemistry. Prof. de la Hoz has authored over 170 scientific publications - 100 of them related to Microwaves in Organic Synthesis. Dr. de la Hoz is a founding member of the Spanish Green Chemistry Network. His current research interests focus on Green methodologies, microwave activation, mechanochemistry, flow methodologies and solvent-free reactions, and the applications of heterocyclic compounds in material and supramolecular chemistry.
The third edition of the bestselling two-volume reference covers everything you need to know about microwave technology for synthesis - from the best equipment to nonthermal effects, from solid-support reactions to catalysis. Completely revised and updated with half of the authors completely new to the project, this comprehensive work is clearly divided into two parts on the fundamentals of microwave irradiation, and application of microwaves and synergies with other enabling techniques. Also new to this edition are chapters on on-line monitoring, flow chemistry, combination with ultrasounds and natural products, including multicomponent reactions. An indispensable source for organic, catalytic, physical, and medicinal chemists.

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