Micro- and Nano-Structured Interpenetrating Polymer NetworksFrom Design to Applications
This book examines the current state of the art, new challenges, opportunities, and applications of IPNs. With contributions from experts across the globe, this survey is an outstanding resource reference for anyone involved in the field of polymer materials design for advanced technologies. • Comprehensively summarizes many of the recent technical research accomplishments in the area of micro and nanostructured Interpenetrating Polymer Networks• Discusses various aspects of synthesis, characterization, structure, morphology, modelling, properties, and applications of IPNs• Describes how nano-structured IPNs correlate their multiscale structure to their properties and morphologies• Serves as a one-stop reference resource for important research accomplishments in the area of IPNs and nano-structured polymer systems• Includes chapters from leading researchers in the IPN field from industry, academy, government and private research institutions
List of Contributors xiii 1 Micro? and Nano-structured Interpenetrating Polymer Networks: State of the Art, New Challenges, and Opportunities 1 Jose James, George V. Thomas, Akhina H. and Sabu Thomas 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Types of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 2 1.3 Synthesis of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 5 1.4 Characterization of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 8 1.5 Applications of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 23 1.6 Future Trends 23 Acknowledgement 25 References 25 2 Miscibility, Morphology, and Phase Behavior of IPNs 29 Xuemei Wu, Gaohong He, Xiaoming Yan, Xiangcun Li, Wu Xiao and Xiaobin Jiang 2.1 Introduction 29 2.2 Miscibility of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 30 2.3 Phase Diagram 35 2.4 Morphology of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 43 Acknowledgments 62 References 62 3 Synthetic Rubber?Based IPNs 69 Qihua Wang, Shoubing Chen and Tingmei Wang 3.1 Introduction 69 3.2 Synthetic Rubber?Based IPNs 71 3.3 Summary and Conclusions 101 Acknowledgments 102 References 102 4 Micro? and Nanostructured IPNs Based on Thermosetting Resins 109 Sanja Marinovi?, Ivanka Popovi? and Branko Dunji? 4.1 Introduction 109 4.2 Experimental Details 110 4.3 Influence of HBP(A) Contents in IPNs on IPN Mechanical Properties 115 4.4 Influence of Reactive Diluent in Interpenetrating Polymer Networks on their Properties 119 4.5 Conclusions 124 Acknowledgment 125 References 125 5 Macro?, Meso?, and Nanoporous Systems Designed from IPNs 127 Daniel Grande 5.1 Introduction 127 5.2 Porous Systems Derived from Semi?Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 130 5.3 (Nano)Porous Systems Derived from Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 135 5.4 Conclusions 139 Acknowledgments 140 References 140 6 Natural Rubber?Based Micro? and Nanostructured IPNs 145 Sa?Ad Riyajan 6.1 Introduction 145 6.2 Natural Rubber 146 6.3 Synthesis of Polymer IPN 148 6.4 Properties of IPN Made from NR and Plastics 155 6.5 Conclusions 174 Acknowledgments 174 References 174 7 The Synthesis and the Applications of IPNs Based on Smart Polymers 179 Guillermina Burillo, Emilio Bucio and Lorena Garcia?Uriostegui 7.1 Introduction 179 7.2 Stimuli?Responsive Polymers 180 7.3 Interpenetrating Polymer Networks and Semi?Interpenetrating Networks 181 7.4 The Synthesis and the Applications of Semi?Interpenetrating Networks and Interpenetrating Networks 181 7.5 Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 184 7.6 Interpenetrating Polymer Networks and Semi?Interpenetrating Networks Synthesized by Ionizing Radiation 186 7.7 Semi?Interpenetrating Networks and Interpenetrating Networks in the Heavy Ions Immobilization 188 7.8 The Novel Architectures of IPNs Developed by Ionizing Radiation Polymerization 189 7.9 Conclusions 192 Acknowledgments 192 References 193 8 Microscopy of IPNs 199 Rameshwar Adhikari 8.1 Introduction and Overview 199 8.2 Sample Preparation Techniques for Microscopic Analysis 200 8.3 Microscopy of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks: An Overview 202 8.4 Morphological Characterization of Polymer Networks 206 8.5 Concluding Notes 220 Acknowledgments 220 References 220 9 Viscoelastic Properties of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 229 Sudipta Goswami 9.1 Introduction 229 9.2 Viscoelastic Properties of Simultaneous IPNs 234 9.3 Viscoelastic Properties of Sequential IPNs 241 9.4 Overall Summary and Future Scope 252 9.5 Conclusion 255 References 256 10 Interpenetrating and Semi?Interpenetrating Polymer Networks of Polyurethane 259 Chepuri R.K. Rao, Ramanuj Narayan and K.V.S.N. Raju 10.1 Introduction 259 References 278 11 Solid?State NMR and ESR Studies of IPNs 283 Sre?ko Vali?, Mladen Andreis and Damir Klepac 11.1 Introduction 283 11.2 Theoretical Background 284 11.3 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks and Semi?Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 290 11.4 Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks and Semi?Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 302 11.5 Conclusion 313 References 313 12 Diffusion, Transport, and Barrier Properties of IPNs 319 Runcy Wilson, S. Anil Kumar, Miran Mozeti?, Uroš Cvelbar and Sabu Thomas 12.1 Introduction 319 12.2 Background of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 320 12.3 Transport Properties: Theoretical and Practical Aspects 321 12.4 Transport Mechanism 324 12.5 Sorption and Diffusion of Solvents 326 12.6 Gas Barrier Properties of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 331 12.7 Pervaporation Characteristics of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 332 12.8 Principles of Pervaporation 333 12.9 Vapor Sorption 334 12.10 Conclusion 335 12.11 Applications, Challenges, Difficulties, and Future Directions 335 References 336 13 Aging of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 341 Selvin P. Thomas and Mohammed N. Alghamdi 13.1 Introduction 341 13.2 Aging of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 342 13.3 Conclusion 361 References 362 14 Theoretical Modeling and Simulation of IPNs 365 Prathab Baskar 14.1 Introduction 365 14.2 Theoretical Simulations 366 14.3 Molecular Dynamics Methods and Theory 368 14.4 Molecular Dynamic Study of Surface/Interface Properties of Thermoplastic Apparent Interpenetrating Polymer Networks and Organic–Inorganic Composite Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 375 14.5 Conclusions 380 References 380 15 Applications of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 383 Radhika Raveendran and Chandra P. Sharma 15.1 Introduction 383 15.2 What are Interpenetrating Polymer Networks? 384 15.3 Properties of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 385 15.4 Applications of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 385 15.5 Conclusion 393 References 394 Index 399
Prof. Dr. Sabu Thomas teaches at Mahatma Gandhi University's School of Chemical Sciences and International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology.Dr. Daniel Grande is a CNRS senior researcher based at the East-Paris Institute of Chemistry and Materials Science belonging to both CNRS and the "Université Paris-Est Créteil."Dr. Uros Cvelbar is a researcher at Slovenia's Jozef Stefan Institute.Dr. K.V.S.N. Raju and Dr. Ramanuj Narayan are scientists working with the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology's Polymers and Functional Materials Division.Dr. Selvin P. Thomas iis an assistant professor in Chemical Engineering in the Yanbu Research Center of the Royal Commission for Yanbu Colleges and Institutes (RCYCI).Akhina H is a senior research fellow(CSIR) at International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology at Mahatma Gandhi University.
Among the various multiphase systems, Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (IPNs) have a unique position since the different polymer chains of the components interpenetrate on different length scales, i.e., micro- or nanoscales. Because of this molecular level interpenetration of the different polymer chains, very often IPNs exhibit outstanding properties and stable morphologies. Polymer scientists have shown strong interest in developing nanostructured functional materials, which have enhanced properties as compared to conventional polymeric systems. IPNs, therefore, have garnered much attention due to their unique morphology and physical properties. Responding to the resulting need for information on IPNs; this book examines their challenges, opportunities and applications. It focuses on the preparation, characterization and properties of IPN systems and emphasizes nano-structured IPN materials. The book carefully examines the preparation of semi-IPNs, full IPNs, porous networks, and various manufacturing techniques. Micro- and Nano-structured Interpenetrating Polymer Networks covers all types of IPNs – including those based on exclusively natural polymers (eco-friendly green IPNs), IPNs based on natural and synthetic polymers, and IPNs based on fully synthetic polymers. The book reviews techniques for characterizing IPNs, including microscopy, spectroscopy, and scattering. There is a separate section on the preparation of micro-, meso- and nano-porous networks from IPN systems and the applications of IPNs are discussed in detail. With contributions from experts across the globe, this survey is an outstanding resource reference for anyone involved in the field of polymer materials design for advanced technologies.
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