Details

Materials for Solar Energy Conversion


Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

Materials, Methods and Applications
1. Aufl.

von: R. Rajasekar, C. Moganapriya, A. Mohankumar

173,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 22.10.2021
ISBN/EAN: 9781119752189
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 400

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Beschreibungen

<b>MATERIALS FOR SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION</b> <p><b>This book provides professionals and students with a resource on the basic principles and applications of solar energy materials and processes, as well as practicing engineers who want to understand how functional materials operate in solar energy conversion systems.</b> <p>The demand for energy is increasing daily, and the development of sustainable power generation is a critical issue. In order to overcome the energy demand, power generation through solar energy is booming. Many research works have attempted to enhance the efficiency of collection and storage of solar energy and, as a result, numerous advanced functional materials have been developed for enhancing the performance of solar cells. <p>This book has compiled and broadly explores the latest developments of materials, methods, and applications of solar energy. The book is divided into 2 parts, in which the first part deals with solar cell fundamentals and emerging categories, and the latter part deals with materials, methods, and applications in order to fill the gap between existing technologies and practical requirements. The book presents detailed chapters including organic, inorganic, coating materials, and collectors. The use of modern computer simulation techniques, conversion and storage processes are effectively covered. Topics such as nanostructured solar cells, battery materials, etc. are included in this book as well. <p><b>Audience</b> The book is aimed at researchers in materials science, chemistry, physics, electrical and mechanical engineering working in the fields of nanotechnology, photovoltaic device technology, and solar energy.
<p>Preface xv</p> <p><b>Part 1: Solar Cells - Fundamentals and Emerging Categories 1</b></p> <p><b>1 Introduction to Solar Energy Conversion 3</b></p> <p><i>Manivannan Rajendran, Moganapriya Chinnasamy, Suresh Muthusamy and Manikandan Kumaran Nair</i></p> <p>1.1 Introduction 3</p> <p>1.2 Forms of Energy 5</p> <p>1.3 Solar Radiation 6</p> <p>1.4 Heat Transfer Principles 7</p> <p>1.4.1 Conduction 7</p> <p>1.4.2 Convection 7</p> <p>1.4.3 Radiation 7</p> <p>1.5 Basic Laws of Radiation 8</p> <p>1.5.1 Stefan-Boltzmann Law 8</p> <p>1.5.2 Planck’s Law 9</p> <p>1.5.3 Wien’s Displacement Law 9</p> <p>1.6 Solar Energy Conversion 9</p> <p>1.6.1 Sources of Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy 10</p> <p>1.6.2 Differentiate Between Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources 10</p> <p>1.7 Photo-Thermal Conversion System 11</p> <p>1.7.1 Flat Plate Collector 11</p> <p>1.7.2 Evacuated Solar Collector 15</p> <p>1.8 Thermal Applications 15</p> <p>1.8.1 Solar Water Heating Systems 17</p> <p>1.8.2 Steam Generation 20</p> <p>1.9 Solar Drying 21</p> <p>1.9.1 Natural Circulation Methods 23</p> <p>COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL</p> <p>1.9.2 Forced Circulation Systems 25</p> <p>1.10 Photovoltaic Conversion 25</p> <p>1.10.1 Photovoltaic Effect 26</p> <p>1.10.2 Applications 27</p> <p>1.11 Photovoltaic Thermal Systems 27</p> <p>1.12 Conclusion 28</p> <p>References 28</p> <p><b>2 Development of Solar Cells 33</b></p> <p><i>Mohan Kumar Anand Raj, Rajasekar Rathanasamy and Moganapriya Chinnasamy</i></p> <p>Abbreviations 33</p> <p>2.1 Introduction 34</p> <p>2.2 First-Generation PV Cells 34</p> <p>2.2.1 Single-Crystalline PV Cells 35</p> <p>2.3 Second-Generation Solar PV Technology 36</p> <p>2.3.1 Amorphous Silicon PV Cell 36</p> <p>2.3.2 Cadmium Telluride PV Cell 37</p> <p>2.3.3 Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide PV Cells 38</p> <p>2.4 Third-Generation PV Cells 38</p> <p>2.4.1 Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide PV Cell 40</p> <p>2.4.2 Dye Sensitized PV Ccell 40</p> <p>2.4.3 Organic PV Cell 42</p> <p>2.4.4 Perovskite PV Solar Cells 43</p> <p>2.4.5 Polymer Photovoltaic Cell 43</p> <p>2.4.6 Quantum Dot Photovoltaic Cell 43</p> <p>2.5 Conclusion 44</p> <p>References 45</p> <p><b>3 Recycling of Solar Panels 47</b></p> <p><i>Sathish Kumar Palaniappan, Moganapriya Chinnasamy, Rajasekar Rathanasamy and Samir Kumar Pal</i></p> <p>Abbreviations 48</p> <p>3.1 Introduction 49</p> <p>3.2 PV and Recycling Development Worldwide 52</p> <p>3.2.1 Causes of Inability in Solar PV Panel 54</p> <p>3.3 Current Recycling and Recovery Techniques 55</p> <p>3.3.1 Methods for Recycling 55</p> <p>3.3.2 Physical Separation 55</p> <p>3.3.3 Thermal and Chemical-Based Treatment 56</p> <p>3.4 Strategies for Recycling Processes 63</p> <p>3.5 Approaches for Recycling of Solar Panel 65</p> <p>3.5.1 Component Repair 66</p> <p>3.5.2 Module Separation 66</p> <p>3.5.3 Decomposition of Silicon and Precious Industrial Minerals From Modules 68</p> <p>3.6 Global Surveys in PV Recycling Technology 71</p> <p>3.7 Ecological and Economic Impacts 76</p> <p>3.7.1 Evolutionary Factors 77</p> <p>3.7.2 Socio-Economic Concerns 77</p> <p>3.8 Conclusion 78</p> <p>References 79</p> <p><b>4 Multi-Junction Solar Cells 87</b></p> <p><i>Mohanraj Thangamuthu, Tamilvanan Ayyasamy and Santhosh Sivaraj</i></p> <p>Abbreviation 87</p> <p>4.1 Introduction 88</p> <p>4.1.1 Theory of Multi-Junction Cells 89</p> <p>4.2 Key Issues for Realizing the Efficiency of MJCs 91</p> <p>4.2.1 Preference of Top Layer Materials and Enhancing the Quality 91</p> <p>4.2.2 Low-Loss Tunneling Junction for Intercell Connection and Preventing Impurity Diffusion From Tunneling Junction 92</p> <p>4.2.3 Lattice-Matching Between Cell Materials and Substrates 92</p> <p>4.2.4 Effectiveness of Wide-Bandgap Back Surface Field (BSF) Layer 92</p> <p>4.3 Structure of Multi-Junction Cell 93</p> <p>4.3.1 Multi-Junction Cell With BSF Layer 96</p> <p>4.3.2 Optimization of BSF Layers 98</p> <p>4.4 Novel Materials for Multi-Junction Cells 98</p> <p>4.5 Applications 100</p> <p>4.6 Conclusions 102</p> <p>References 102</p> <p><b>5 Perovskite Solar Cells 107</b></p> <p><i>Santhosh Sivaraj, Rajasekar Rathanasamy, Gobinath Velu Kaliyannan and Mugilan Thanigachalam</i></p> <p>5.1 Introduction 108</p> <p>5.2 Structure and Working 112</p> <p>5.3 Fabrication of Simple Perovskite Solar Cell 115</p> <p>5.4 Fabrication Methods 117</p> <p>5.4.1 Spin Coating 122</p> <p>5.4.2 Blade Coating 122</p> <p>5.4.3 Slot-Die Coating 122</p> <p>5.4.4 Inkjet Printing 123</p> <p>5.4.5 Screen Printing 123</p> <p>5.4.6 Electrodeposition 123</p> <p>5.4.7 Vapor-Phase Deposition 123</p> <p>5.5 Stability of Perovskite Solar Cell 124</p> <p>5.6 Losses in Solar Cells 124</p> <p>5.7 Conclusion 126</p> <p>References 127</p> <p><b>6 Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 133</b></p> <p><i>Viswapriya Shanmugam, Rajasekar Rathanasamy, Saratha Raman and Abbas Ganesan</i></p> <p>Abbreviations 134</p> <p>6.1 Introduction 134</p> <p>6.2 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) 135</p> <p>6.2.1 The Structure and Operation Principle 136</p> <p>6.2.2 Performance Parameters of DSSCs 137</p> <p>6.2.2.1 Open Circuit Voltage 138</p> <p>6.2.2.2 Short Circuit Current 138</p> <p>6.2.2.3 Fill Factor 138</p> <p>6.2.2.4 Efficiency 138</p> <p>6.3 Dye (Photosensitizer) 138</p> <p>6.3.1 Natural Dyes 139</p> <p>6.3.2 Plant Pigments 146</p> <p>6.3.2.1 Anthocyanin 146</p> <p>6.3.2.2 Chlorophylls 147</p> <p>6.3.2.3 Betalain 147</p> <p>6.3.2.4 Carotenoids 147</p> <p>6.3.3 Photoconversion Efficiency of Natural Dyes Employed as Dye Sensitizers—Notable Studies 148</p> <p>6.4 Conclusion 162</p> <p>References 162</p> <p><b>Part 2: Materials, Methods and Applications 169</b></p> <p><b>7 Organic Materials and Their Processing Techniques 171</b></p> <p><i>Raja Gunasekaran, Gobinath Velu Kaliyannan, Saravanakumar Jaganathan and Harikrishnakumar Mohan Kumar</i></p> <p>7.1 Introduction 172</p> <p>7.2 Organic Materials 173</p> <p>7.2.1 Organic Solar Cell 174</p> <p>7.2.2 Challenges in Organic Solar Cells 174</p> <p>7.2.3 Focus Area to Overcome the Challenges 174</p> <p>7.2.4 Operation of Organic Solar Cells 174</p> <p>7.2.5 Organic Solar Cell Device Architecture 176</p> <p>7.2.5.1 Single Active-Layer Device 176</p> <p>7.2.5.2 Double Active-Layer Device 176</p> <p>7.2.5.3 Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cell 177</p> <p>7.3 Electrical Characteristics of OPVs 178</p> <p>7.3.1 Open-Circuit Voltage 178</p> <p>7.3.2 Short-Circuit Current 179</p> <p>7.3.3 Maximum Power Point 179</p> <p>7.3.4 Fill Factor 179</p> <p>7.3.5 Power Conversion Efficiency 179</p> <p>7.3.6 Quantum Efficiency 180</p> <p>7.4 Potential Materials for OPV Applications 180</p> <p>7.4.1 Electron-Donor Materials 180</p> <p>7.4.2 Electron-Acceptor Materials 183</p> <p>7.5 Conclusion 184</p> <p>References 185</p> <p><b>8 Inorganic Materials and Their Processing Techniques 189</b></p> <p><i>Manivasakan Palanisamy, Gobinath Velu Kaliyannan and Harikrishnakumar Mohan Kumar</i></p> <p>8.1 Introduction 190</p> <p>8.2 Functional Inorganic Materials 191</p> <p>8.3 Comprehensive Processing Strategy 192</p> <p>8.4 Solid-Phase Processing 194</p> <p>8.4.1 Ceramic Method 194</p> <p>8.4.2 Microwave Technique 195</p> <p>8.4.3 Combustion Synthesis 196</p> <p>8.4.4 Mechanochemical Synthesis 197</p> <p>8.4.5 Carbothermal Reduction 198</p> <p>8.4.6 Friction Consolidation 199</p> <p>8.4.7 3D Printing Technique 200</p> <p>8.4.8 Nanolithography Technique 201</p> <p>8.5 Solution-Phase Processing 202</p> <p>8.5.1 Sol-Gel Process 202</p> <p>8.5.2 Hydrothermal and Solvothermal Process 203</p> <p>8.5.3 Sonochemical Synthesis 204</p> <p>8.5.4 Surface Coating Technique 206</p> <p>8.5.5 Spray Pyrolysis Technique 207</p> <p>8.5.6 Electroplating and Electrodeposition Process 208</p> <p>8.5.7 Liquid Printing Technique 209</p> <p>8.5.8 Liquid-Phase Laser Ablation Technique 210</p> <p>8.5.9 Electrospinning and Electrospraying Technique 212</p> <p>8.6 Gas-Phase Processing 213</p> <p>8.6.1 Physical Vapor Deposition Technique 213</p> <p>8.6.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique 215</p> <p>8.6.3 Inert Gas Condensation Technique 216</p> <p>8.6.4 Molecular Beam Epitaxy Technique 218</p> <p>8.6.5 Gas-Phase Flame Spray Pyrolysis 219</p> <p>8.7 Challenges in Nanomaterial Production and Processing 221</p> <p>8.8 Conclusion and Perspectives 222</p> <p>References 222</p> <p><b>9 2D Materials for Solar Cell Applications 227</b></p> <p><i>Shrabani De, Sourav Acharya, Sumanta Sahoo, Ashok Kumar Das and Ganesh Chandra Nayak</i></p> <p>9.1 Introduction 228</p> <p>9.2 Fundamental Principles of Solar Cell 231</p> <p>9.3 Fabrication Methods for the Generation of Solar Cell 234</p> <p>9.3.1 Spin Coating 234</p> <p>9.3.2 Spray Coating 237</p> <p>9.3.3 Doctor Blading 238</p> <p>9.3.4 Slot-Die Coating 238</p> <p>9.3.5 Vacuum Deposition/Chemical Vapor Deposition 240</p> <p>9.3.6 Screen Printing 241</p> <p>9.4 Introduction to 2D Materials 242</p> <p>9.4.1 Graphene 242</p> <p>9.4.2 Boron Nitride 244</p> <p>9.4.3 Molybdenum Disulfide 244</p> <p>9.4.4 MXenes 245</p> <p>9.4.5 Other 2D Materials 246</p> <p>9.5 Solar Cell Application of 2D Materials 246</p> <p>9.5.1 2D Materials for Organic Solar Cells 246</p> <p>9.5.2 2D Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells 249</p> <p>9.5.3 2D Materials for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) 251</p> <p>9.5.4 2D Materials for Other Solar Cell 255</p> <p>9.6 Conclusions 256</p> <p>References 257</p> <p><b>10 Nanostructured Materials and Their Processing Techniques 269</b></p> <p><i>Tamilvanan Ayyasamy, Abubakkar Abdul Jaffar, Selvakumar Pandiyaraj, Mohanraj Thangamuthu</i></p> <p><i>and Thangavel Palaniappan</i></p> <p>10.1 Introduction 269</p> <p>10.2 The Need for Solar Energy 270</p> <p>10.2.1 Solar Photovoltaic Cell 271</p> <p>10.2.2 Solar Thermal Heating 272</p> <p>10.3 Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 273</p> <p>10.4 Nanotechnology in Solar Energy 273</p> <p>10.4.1 Nanomaterials 274</p> <p>10.4.2 Properties of Nanomaterials 275</p> <p>10.4.3 Nanofluids 275</p> <p>10.5 The Outlook of Nanomaterials in the Performance of Solar Cells 276</p> <p>10.6 Photovoltaic-Based Nanomaterials and Synthesis Techniques 277</p> <p>10.6.1 Sol-Gel Method 278</p> <p>10.6.2 Hydrothermal Method 280</p> <p>10.6.3 Solvothermal Technique 281</p> <p>10.6.4 Co-Precipitation Technique 283</p> <p>10.6.5 Magnetron Sputtering 284</p> <p>10.6.6 Spin Coating 286</p> <p>10.6.7 Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique 287</p> <p>10.6.7.1 Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Method 289</p> <p>10.6.7.2 Plasma-Enhanced Vapor Deposition Method 290</p> <p>10.7 Nanofluids in Solar Collectors 290</p> <p>10.8 Nanofluids in Solar Stills 292</p> <p>10.9 Conclusion 293</p> <p>References 293</p> <p><b>11 Coating Materials, Methods, and Techniques 299</b></p> <p><i>Gobinath Velu Kaliyannan, Raja Gunasekaran, Manju Sri Anbupalani and Sathish Kumar Palaniappan</i></p> <p>11.1 Introduction 300</p> <p>11.2 Thin Film Deposition Techniques 301</p> <p>11.2.1 Advantages of Thin Films 301</p> <p>11.3 Anti-Reflection Thin Films 302</p> <p>11.4 Methods of Thin Film Growth 303</p> <p>11.4.1 Physical Vapor Deposition 304</p> <p>11.4.2 Thermal Evaporation Process 304</p> <p>11.4.3 Pulsed Laser Deposition 304</p> <p>11.4.4 Sputter Deposition 304</p> <p>11.4.5 Chemical Vapor Deposition 305</p> <p>11.4.6 Plasma-Enhanced CVD Method 305</p> <p>11.4.7 Electrochemical Deposition 305</p> <p>11.4.8 Sol-Gel Thin Film Formation 306</p> <p>11.5 Thin Film Characterization 308</p> <p>11.5.1 X-ray Diffraction 308</p> <p>11.5.2 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy 309</p> <p>11.5.3 Thermogravimetry and Differential Thermal Analysis 310</p> <p>11.5.4 UV-Visible Spectroscopy 311</p> <p>11.5.5 Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope 312</p> <p>11.5.6 High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope 314</p> <p>11.5.7 Atomic Force Microscopy 314</p> <p>11.5.8 Four-Probe Technique 317</p> <p>11.6 Performance Analysis of ARC Coated Solar Cells 317</p> <p>11.7 Conclusion 320</p> <p>References 320</p> <p><b>12 Anti-Reflection Coating 323</b></p> <p><i>Ragavendran Asokan, Rajasekar Rathanasamy, Saravanakumar Jaganathan and Mohan Kumar Anand Raj</i></p> <p>12.1 Introduction 324</p> <p>12.2 Anti-Reflection Coating 326</p> <p>12.2.1 Types of Anti-Reflection Coating 329</p> <p>12.2.2 Textured Coating 330</p> <p>12.2.3 Anti-Reflection Coating With Self-Cleaning 331</p> <p>12.3 Perspectives on ARC Materials 331</p> <p>12.3.1 Silicon-Based Material 332</p> <p>12.3.2 TiO2-Based Material 332</p> <p>12.3.3 Carbon-Based Material 333</p> <p>12.3.4 Gallium-Based Material 333</p> <p>12.3.5 Polymer-Based Material 333</p> <p>12.3.6 Organic-Based Material 334</p> <p>12.4 Techniques for Coating ARC 334</p> <p>12.4.1 Sol-Gel Technique 334</p> <p>12.4.1.1 Spin Coating Technique 334</p> <p>12.4.1.2 Dip Coating Technique 335</p> <p>12.4.1.3 Meniscus Coating Technique 336</p> <p>12.4.2 Physical Vapor Deposition 337</p> <p>12.4.2.1 Thermal Evaporation Technique 337</p> <p>12.4.2.2 Electron Beam Technique 338</p> <p>12.4.3 RF and DC Magnetron Sputtering Technique 338</p> <p>12.4.4 Chemical Vapor Deposition 339</p> <p>12.4.5 Electrospinning Technique 339</p> <p>12.4.6 Spray Pyrolysis Technique 341</p> <p>12.4.7 Lithography 341</p> <p>12.4.8 Comparison of Coating Techniques 342</p> <p>12.5 Literature Studies: Impact of ARC on Performance of Solar Cell 343</p> <p>12.6 Conclusion 345</p> <p>References 346</p> <p><b>13 Thermal Energy Storage and Its Applications 353</b></p> <p><i>Veerakumar Chinnasamy, Sathish Kumar Palaniappan, Mohan Kumar Anand Raj, Manivannan Rajendran and Honghyun Cho</i></p> <p>13.1 Introduction 354</p> <p>13.2 Types of ES 354</p> <p>13.2.1 Mechanical ES 354</p> <p>13.2.1.1 Flywheel Storage 355</p> <p>13.2.1.2 Pumped Water Storage 355</p> <p>13.2.1.3 Compressed Air Storage 355</p> <p>13.2.2 Electrochemical ES 355</p> <p>13.2.3 Thermal Energy Storage 356</p> <p>13.2.4 Advantages of TES 356</p> <p>13.3 Methods of TES 357</p> <p>13.3.1 Sensible Heat Storage 357</p> <p>13.3.1.1 Properties of SHS Materials 357</p> <p>13.3.2 Latent Heat Storage 358</p> <p>13.3.2.1 Properties of LHS Materials or PCMs 359</p> <p>13.3.2.2 Classification of PCMs 359</p> <p>13.3.3 Thermochemical ES 362</p> <p>13.4 Applications of TES 362</p> <p>13.4.1 SHS Applications 362</p> <p>13.4.1.1 Solar Pond 362</p> <p>13.4.1.2 Solar Water Heating 363</p> <p>13.4.1.3 Packed Rock Bed Storage 363</p> <p>13.4.2 Latent Heat Storage Applications 365</p> <p>13.4.2.1 Encapsulation of PCM 365</p> <p>13.4.2.2 Solar Water Heater With LHS 367</p> <p>13.4.2.3 TES for Building Application 367</p> <p>13.4.2.4 Numerical Studies on TES 370</p> <p>13.5 Conclusion 374</p> <p>References 375</p> <p>Index 379</p>
<p><b>R. Rajasekar PhD,</b> Professor and Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College (an Autonomous Institution under Anna University), Tamilnadu, India. He obtained his PhD from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, and specializes in materials science and engineering, renewable energy, surface coating on solar cells, and tribological performance of carbide inserts. He has published more than 100 research articles in reputed international journals, as well as more than 30 book chapters.</p> <p><b>C. Moganapriya PhD,</b> is an associate professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College (An Autonomous Institution under Anna University), Tamilnadu, India. She completed her PhD in 2019, and her current research area includes surface engineering of solar cells for performance enhancement of power conversion efficiency and tribological performance of cutting tool insert by adopting several hard coating materials. She has published 13 research articles and 15 book chapters with international publishers. <p><b>A. Mohan Kumar PhD,</b> is an associate professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College (An Autonomous Institution under Anna University), Tamil Nadu. He completed his postgraduate degree at Government College of Engineering, Salem. His research areas are the characterization of reinforced composite materials, composite machining polymer coatings, and nanocomposite coatings. He has published 13 research articles and book chapters.
<p><b>This book provides professionals and students with a resource on the basic principles and applications of solar energy materials and processes, as well as practicing engineers who want to understand how functional materials operate in solar energy conversion systems.</b></p> <p>The demand for energy is increasing daily, and the development of sustainable power generation is a critical issue. In order to overcome the energy demand, power generation through solar energy is booming. Many research works have attempted to enhance the efficiency of collection and storage of solar energy and, as a result, numerous advanced functional materials have been developed for enhancing the performance of solar cells. <p>This book has compiled and broadly explores the latest developments of materials, methods, and applications of solar energy. The book is divided into 2 parts, in which the first part deals with solar cell fundamentals and emerging categories, and the latter part deals with materials, methods, and applications in order to fill the gap between existing technologies and practical requirements. The book presents detailed chapters including organic, inorganic, coating materials, and collectors. The use of modern computer simulation techniques, conversion and storage processes are effectively covered. Topics such as nanostructured solar cells, battery materials, etc. are included in this book as well. <p><b>Audience</b> The book is aimed at researchers in materials science, chemistry, physics, electrical and mechanical engineering working in the fields of nanotechnology, photovoltaic device technology, and solar energy.

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