Details

Introduction to Materials Chemistry


Introduction to Materials Chemistry


1. Aufl.

von: Harry R. Allcock

82,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 20.09.2011
ISBN/EAN: 9781118210987
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 452

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

Introduction to Materials Chemistry will appeal to advanced undergraduates and graduate students in chemistry, materials science,and chemical engineering by leading them stepwise from the elementary chemistry on which materials science depends, through a discussion of the different classes of materials, and ending with a description of how materials are used in devices and general technology.
Preface xvii Part I Introduction to Material Science 1 1. What Is Materials Chemistry? 3 A. Different Types of Materials 3 B. Uses of Materials 6 C. Approaches to Producing New Materials, New Properties, and Uses 8 D. Devices and Machines 10 E. The Role of Chemistry in Materials Science 11 F. A Broader Perspective 13 G. Terminology 15 H. Example Journals Where Materials Science Publications Can be Found 15 I. Study Questions 15 2. Fundamental Principles that Underlie Materials Chemistry 17 A. Why Are Different Materials Different 17 B. The Role of Different Elements 17 C. Different Types of Chemical Bonds 19 1. Van der Waals Forces and the Lennard-Jones Potential 20 2. Covalent Bonds 21 3. Coordinate Bonds 30 4. Ionic Assemblies 30 5. Metallic Bonding 31 D. Size of Molecular Units 32 E. Different Shapes of Component Molecules and Influence of Solid-State Structure 34 F. Suggestions for Further Reading 37 G. Study Questions 38 3. Basic Synthesis and Reaction Chemistry 40 A. Underlying Principles 40 B. Starting Points for Materials Synthesis—Isolation of Elements 41 C. Principles that Underlie Materials Synthesis 44 1. Importance of Halides in Materials Synthesis 44 2. Acidic Hydroxides and Condensation Reactions 46 3. Metathetical Exchange Reactions 47 4. Nucleophilic Substitution 48 5. Electrophilic Substitution 49 6. Coordination Chemistry 50 7. Branching and Crosslinking 50 8. Polymerization–Depolymerization Equilibria 52 D. Illustrative Chemistry of Selected Nonmetallic Elements 52 1. Carbon Chemistry 52 2. Silicon Chemistry 56 3. Boron Chemistry 60 4. Phosphorus Chemistry 63 5. Interelement Compounds 66 6. Small Rings, Cages, and Short Chains 66 E. Suggestions for Further Reading 66 F. Study Questions 67 4. Structure Determination and Special Techniques for Materials Characterization 68 A. Purpose 68 B. Analysis of Bulk Materials 68 1. Elemental Microanalysis 68 2. Infrared–Raman Spectroscopy 69 3. Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 69 4. Thermal Analysis 70 5. Stress–Strain and Impact Analysis 74 6. X-Ray Diffraction 75 7. Refractive Index and Chromatic Dispersion 79 8. Magnetic Susceptibility 80 9. Electrical Conductivity 82 10. Transmission Electron Microscopy 83 C. Surface and Thin-Film Analysis Techniques 83 1. Scanning Electron Microscopy 83 2. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) 85 3. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) 88 4. Total Internal Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy 90 5. Ellipsometry 90 6. Contact Angles 91 D. Solution Analysis Techniques 92 1. General Comments 92 2. Solution NMR Spectroscopy 92 3. Solution-State Light Scattering 92 4. Gel Permeation Chromatography 92 E. Suggestions for Further Reading 93 F. Study Questions 93 Part II Different Types of Materials 95 5. Small Molecules in Solids 97 A. Importance of Small-Molecule Materials 97 B. Packing of Small Molecules in the Solid State 98 1. Shape-Fitting 98 2. Dipolar or Charged Molecules 99 3. Hydrogen Bonding 99 C. Self-Assembly by Crystallization 100 D. Spherical Molecules Such as Fullerenes in the Solid State 100 E. Disk-Shaped Molecules and Other Flat Structures 101 1. Liquid Crystallinity from Disk- or Wafer-Shaped Molecules 101 2. Electronic Phenomena from Disk-Shaped Molecules in the Solid State 102 F. Rod-Shaped Molecules 107 G. Charge Transfer Complexes 107 H. Clathrates—Molecular Inclusion Adducts 108 1. Clathrates of Water Ice 110 2. Urea and Thiourea 111 3. Perhydrotriphenylene 112 4. Cyclophosphazenes 112 5. Hofmann and Werner-Type Complexes 114 6. Cyclodextrins, Cryptates, and Crown Ethers 114 I. Suggestions for Further Reading 115 J. Study Questions 116 6. Polymers 118 A. Overview 118 B. Synthesis of Polymers 119 1. General Principles 119 2. Addition Polymerization 119 3. Condensation Polymerization 130 4. Ring-Opening Polymerization 132 5. Electrochemical Polymerization 133 6. Secondary Reactions 133 C. Structure–Property Relationships and Polymer Design 135 1. Influence of Molecular Architecture 135 2. Molecular Weights and Distributions 137 3. Chain Flexibility 138 4. Influence of Different Skeletal Elements and Backbone Bonding 139 5. Specific Influence of Different Side Groups 139 6. Effects of Crosslinking 140 D. Polymers in the Solid State 140 1. Chain Entanglement 140 2. Crystallinity 141 3. Liquid Crystallinity 141 E. Fabrication of Polymers 143 1. Solution Casting of Films 143 2. Melt-Fabrication of Films 144 3. Fabrication of Fibers 144 4. Injection Molding 144 5. Thermoforming 145 6. Blow Molding 145 7. Sintering 145 8. Polymerization Combined with Fabrication 145 F. Example Polymeric Materials 146 1. Polymers Produced by Addition Reactions 146 2. Polyurethanes 147 3. Polymers Produced by Condensation Reactions 148 4. Polymers Produced by Ring-Opening Polymerizations 150 G. Future Challenges in Polymeric Materials Science 154 H. Suggestions for Further Reading 154 I. Study Questions 155 7. Glasses and Ceramics 157 A. Overview 157 B. Oxide Ceramics and Glasses Obtained or Produced Directly from Mineralogical Materials 159 1. General Observations 159 2. Silica, Silicates, and Aluminosilicates—General Characteristics 160 3. Aluminosilicate Clays and Related Minerals—Properties and Structure 164 4. Chrysotile and Other Forms of Asbestos 169 5. Glasses 170 C. Oxide Ceramics from Small-Molecule Inorganic and Organometallic Precursors 173 1. Optical Waveguides (Optical Fibers) 174 2. The Sol–Gel Process for Low-Temperature Ceramic Formation 174 3. Zeolites 178 4. Calcium Hydroxyapatite 179 D. Nonoxide Ceramics 180 1. General Aspects 180 2. Carbon Fiber 181 3. Silicon Carbide 185 4. Silicon Nitride 186 5. Boron Nitride and Other Boron-Containing Ceramics 188 6. Aluminum Nitride 189 7. Other Ceramics Formed by the Preceramic Polymer Process 190 E. Fabrication of Ceramics and Glasses 190 1. General Comments 190 2. Sculpting 191 3. Melting, Extrusion, and Molding 191 4. Powder Sintering 191 5. Sol–Gel Fabrication 192 F. Future Challenges in Ceramics and Glass Science 192 G. Suggestions for Further Reading 193 H. Study Questions 194 8. Metals 195 A. Important Aspects of Metal Science and Technology 195 1. Background 195 2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Metals as Materials 196 3. Scope of This Chapter 196 B. Isolation of Specific Metals from Their Ores 197 1. Iron and Steel 197 2. Nickel 199 3. Chromium 200 4. Aluminum 200 5. Magnesium 201 6. Titanium 201 7. Tin 201 8. Copper 202 9. Silver 202 10. Gold 203 C. Corrosion 203 D. Solid-State Structure of Metals and Alloys 205 1. Packing of Spheres 206 2. Alloys 207 E. Electrical Conductivity 208 F. The Color of Metals 211 G. Thermal Conductivity of Metals 212 H. Magnetic Properties of Metals 213 I. Mechanical Properties of Metals 214 J. Fabrication of Metals 214 K. Future Challenges in Metallic Materials 215 L. Suggestion for Further Reading 215 M. Study Questions 215 9. Alloys, Composites, and Defects 217 A. Overview 217 1. Important Mechanical Properties 217 2. Homogeneous versus Heterogeneous Solids 218 3. Different Types of Composite Materials 219 4. Defects in Solids 219 B. Pure Materials and Homogeneous Solid Solutions 221 1. Slip Planes, Dislocations, and Grain Boundaries in Metals 221 2. Homogeneous Metallic Alloys 224 3. Polymer Alloys—Blends 224 4. Interpenetrating Polymer Networks 225 5. Ceramic–Polymer “Alloys” (Ceramers) 226 C. Heterophase Materials 227 1. General Observations 227 2. Reasons for Phase Segregation 228 3. Phase-Separated Metals 229 4. Heterophase Mineralogical Materials 229 5. Microcrystalline Polymers 229 6. Heterogeneous Ceramic–Polymer Composites 230 7. Phase-Separated Polymer–Polymer Composites 230 8. Phase-Separated Block Copolymers 231 9. Laminates 233 10. Filled Thermoplastics and Thermosetting Materials 234 D. Suggestion for Further Reading 234 E. Study Questions 234 Part III Materials in Advanced Technology 237 10. Semiconductors and Related Materials 239 A. Importance of Semiconductors 239 B. Semiconductor Theory 240 C. Preparation of Semiconductor-Grade Silicon and Compound Semiconductors 242 1. Semiconductor-Grade Silicon 242 2. Amorphous Semiconductor Silicon 243 3. Preparation of Compound Semiconductors 244 D. Organic Polymer Semiconductors 244 1. Background—Polyacetylene 244 2. Poly(phenylene vinylene) 246 3. Poly(p-phenylene) 247 4. Polypyrrole and Polythiophene 247 5. Polyaniline 247 6. Mechanism of Conduction in Unsaturated Organic Polymers 248 E. Photolithography and Microlithography 248 1. Principles of Semiconductor Fabrication 248 2. Overview of the Semiconductor Manufacturing Process 250 3. Equipment 253 F. Photoresists 255 1. General Features of Resists 255 2. Novolac Positive Tone Resists 255 3. Chemical Amplification 256 4. Poly(4-hydroxystyrene) Resists 257 5. Multilayer Lithography 257 6. All-Dry Resists 258 G. Electron Beam Lithography 258 H. X-Ray Lithography 258 I. Circuit Wiring 258 J. Semiconductor Devices 259 1. Devices Based on Presence of a Single Semiconductor 259 2. The Transistor and the Metal Oxide Integrated Circuit 260 3. Phenomena Based on a p–n Junction 261 K. Unsolved Problems in Semiconductor Materials Science 267 L. Suggestions for Further Reading 267 M. Study Questions 268 11. Superconductors 269 A. Overview 269 B. Nomenclature 271 C. Synthesis of High-Temperature Superconductors 272 D. Solid-State Structure 274 E. Theories of Superconduction 277 F. Other Superconducting Systems 278 G. Current and Proposed Uses for Superconductors 279 H. Challenges for the Future 280 I. Suggestions for Further Reading 280 J. Study Questions 280 12. Solid Ionic Conductors: Advanced Materials for Energy Generation and Energy Storage 282 A. General Observations 282 B. Fuel Cell Materials 284 1. Background 284 2. General Principles 284 3. Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells 285 4. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells 290 5. Alkaline Fuel Cells 291 6. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 292 7. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 293 C. Battery Electrolyte Materials 295 1. Background 295 2. Lithium Ion (“Rocking Chair”) Batteries 295 3. Principles behind Lithium Ion Transport Membranes 296 4. Metallic Lithium/Solid Polymer or Gel Electrolyte Batteries 298 5. Example Polymers for Lithium Battery Applications 299 6. Lithium–Seawater Batteries 300 D. Capacitors and Supercapacitors 301 E. Challenges for the Future 303 1. Challenges for Materials in Fuel Cells 303 2. Challenges in Battery Science and Technology 304 3. Challenges for Capacitors and Supercapacitors 304 F. Suggestions for Further Reading 305 G. Study Questions 306 13. Membranes 307 A. Background 307 B. Porous Membranes 308 1. Mechanism of Operation 308 C. Membranes that Function by a Chemical Reaction 309 D. Nonporous Membranes that Do Not React with Participating Molecules 310 E. Specific Examples of Materials Used in Solid Polymeric Membranes 312 1. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Membranes for Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transmission 312 2. Desalination Membranes 312 3. Dialysis Membranes 312 4. Membranes for Controlled Drug Delivery 313 F. Gel Membranes 313 1. General Principles 313 2. The Special Case of Gel Membranes as On/Off Switching Systems 314 G. Testing of Membranes 314 1. Gas Separations 315 2. Liquid Separations 316 3. Controlled Drug Release and Dialysis Membranes 316 H. Sound Transducer Membranes 317 1. Principle of Operation 317 2. A Polymeric Example—Poly(vinylidene fluoride) 318 3. Ceramic-Type Piezoelectric Materials 319 I. Challenges for the Future 320 J. Suggestions for Further Reading 320 K. Study Questions 321 14. Optical and Photonic Materials 323 A. Overview 323 1. Passive versus Responsive Optical Materials 323 2. Importance of Refractive Index 324 3. Optical Dispersion 326 4. Optical Birefringence 328 B. Passive Optical Materials 329 1. Materials and Devices for Passive Optical Applications 329 2. General-Purpose Optical Materials 329 3. Lenses and Prisms 330 4. Optical Waveguides 331 5. Waveguide Multiplex/Demultiplex Devices 334 6. Optical Filters 335 7. Optical Polarizing Filters 336 C. Responsive Optical Materials 338 1. General Observations 338 2. Liquid Crystalline Materials 339 3. Photochromic Materials 341 4. Nonlinear Optical Materials 343 5. Electrochromic Devices 350 6. Thermochromism 351 7. Light-Emitting Materials 352 D. Challenges for the Future 352 E. Final Comments 352 F. Suggestions for Further Reading 353 G. Study Questions 353 15. Surface Science of Materials 355 A. Perspective 355 B. Summary of Characterization Methods 356 C. Surfaces of Metals 356 1. Important Aspects 356 2. Etching of Metal Surfaces 357 3. Heterogeneous Catalysis by Metals 357 4. Metal Surfaces and Vapor Deposition, Sputtering, or Solution Reactions 357 D. Ceramic Surfaces 358 1. Oxide Ceramic Surfaces 358 2. Chemical Modification of Glass Surfaces 359 3. Nonoxide Ceramic Fiber Surfaces 359 4. Ceramic Decomposition by Pollutants 359 E. Polymer Surfaces 360 1. General Aspects of Polymer Surfaces 360 2. Unusual Characteristics of Polymer Surfaces 360 3. Chemical Modification of Polymer Surfaces 360 4. Polymer Surfaces in Offset Lithography Printing 361 5. Plasma Modification of Polymer Surfaces 362 6. Influence of Polymer Fabrication Method 362 7. Micro- and Nanofiber Surfaces 363 8. Role of Block Copolymers at Surfaces 364 F. Surfaces of Semiconductors 364 1. Oxidation of Semiconductor Silicon 364 2. High-Surface-Area Semiconductors 364 G. Assembly of Molecules on Surfaces 366 1. Langmuir–Blodgett Techniques 366 2. Self-Assembly on Gold Surfaces 366 3. Layer-by-Layer Assembly 368 4. Surface Patterning by AFM 368 H. Adhesion and Surface Chemistry 368 1. General Characteristics of Adhesion 368 2. Chemical Bonding as a Source of Adhesion 368 3. Physical Bonding of Surfaces 369 I. Relationship to Other Materials Topics 369 1. Soft Contact Printing 369 2. Biomedical Materials Surfaces 370 J. Suggestions for Further Reading 371 K. Study Questions 372 16. Biomedical Materials 373 A. Special Requirements for Biomedical Materials 373 B. Traditional Biomedical Materials 375 1. Metals 375 2. Ceramics 376 3. Polymers 376 C. Materials for Specific Medical Applications 382 1. Cardiovascular Materials 382 2. Surgical Sutures, Clips, and Staples 386 3. Orthopedic Materials 386 4. Optical Materials in Medicine 387 5. Controlled Drug and Vaccine Delivery 387 6. Tissue Engineering 391 D. Fabrication and Testing of Biomedical Materials 393 1. Fabrication 393 2. Testing of Biomedical Materials 393 E. Unsolved Problems in Biomedical Materials Science 394 F. Suggestions for Further Reading 395 G. Study Questions 396 17. Materials in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 398 A. Background and Motivation 398 B. Synthesis and Fabrication of Nanostructures 400 1. “Top–Down” Nanostructure Preparations 400 2. “Bottom–Up” Synthesis Methods 401 C. Examples of Nanostructures 402 1. Nanofibers 402 2. Nanowires 403 3. Nanoscale Particles 404 4. Nanochannels and Nanotubes 406 5. Nanoscale Features in Electronics and Photonics 409 6. Nanomachines 409 D. Major Challenges in Nanoscience and Technology 410 E. Suggestions for Further Reading 410 F. Study Questions 411 Glossary 413 Index 419
"This book is not only informative and comprehensive for a novice reader, but also a valuable resource for a scientist and/or an industrialist for new and novel challenges." (Materials and Manufacturing Process, June 2009) "Allcock provides a clear path by first describing basic chemical principles, then distinguishing between the various major materials groups, and finally enriching the student by offering a variety of special examples." (CHOICE, April 2009) "Proceeding logically from the basics to materials in advanced technology, it covers the fundamentals of materials chemistry, including principles of materials synthesis and materials characterization methods." (Internationale Fachzeitschrift Metall, January 2009)
HARRY R. ALLCOCK, PHD, is an Evan Pugh Professor of Chemistry at The Pennsylvania State University. His research interests include applications of chemical synthesis to polymer chemistry, materials science, energy research, and biomedicine; and the correlation of molecular structure with properties for hybrid inorganic-organic macromolecules and materials. Dr. Allcock has received numerous awards, including four American Chemical Society Awards for his work in polymers and materials science. He has authored or coauthored 530 peer-reviewed articles and has edited, coauthored, or written eight books, including the recent Chemistry and Applications of Polyphosphazenes (Wiley). More than 130 graduate students and postdoctoral scientists, as well as numerous undergraduates, have received their research training under his direction.
THE IMPACT OF CHEMISTRY ON MODERN TECHNOLOGY Classical chemistry courses emphasize fundamental science. Materials chemistry deals with how chemistry is utilized in modern technology. Introduction to Materials Chemistry gives readers a broad overview of how the fundamentals of chemistry are used to create sophisticated materials and devices that improve modern life. Proceeding logically from the basics to materials in advanced technology, it: Covers the fundamentals of materials chemistry, including principles of materials synthesis and materials characterization methods Introduces readers to the various classes of materials, including small molecules in solids, organic and inorganic polymers, glasses and ceramics, metals, semi- conductors, superconductors, alloys, and composite materials Explains how the various materials are produced and why they possess specific combinations of properties Examines how different materials are used in technology, covering semiconductors, superconductors, solid ionic conductors, membranes, optical and photonic materials, surface science of materials, biomedical materials, and materials in nanoscience and nanotechnology Emphasizes the principles of device design and fabrication Includes a summary of the challenges in the different fields The chapters on materials in advanced technology help to prepare students for careers in the design and development of materials for uses in the medical, energy, communications, aerospace, and other advanced technology sectors. This is an ideal text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in chemistry, materials science, and chemical engineering. It also provides a general overview for professionals in research and/or industry, illustrating the relationships between different types of solids and how combinations of different materials are often used to solve challenging technical problems.

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