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Imaging Technologies and Transdermal Delivery in Skin Disorders


Imaging Technologies and Transdermal Delivery in Skin Disorders


1. Aufl.

von: Chenjie Xu, Xiaomeng Wang, Manojit Pramanik

133,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 27.11.2019
ISBN/EAN: 9783527814640
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 504

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Beschreibungen

Provides the latest information on imaging technologies and transdermal delivery in skin disorders This important, timely book covers the latest understanding about today's major skin disorders, the development of imaging technologies for skin diagnosis, and the applications of micro/nano-technologies for the treatment of skin complications. It also places great emphasis on the critical role that interdisciplinary science occupies to achieve the requisite level of understanding of skin conditions and their management, which is essential to creating technologies that work. Imaging Technologies and Transdermal Delivery in Skin Disorders starts by outlining the structural characteristics of skin and skin appendages. It then discusses the key pathways involved in skin growth and development. Clinical presentations, pathophysiological mechanisms, and current clinical practices used to treat diseases affecting the skin are then introduced. Common preclinical models used for studying the mechanisms of diverse skin diseases, validation of novel therapeutic targets, and screening of new drugs to treat these diseases are also covered. The book examines the latest imaging technologies for understanding in vivo skin changes, as well as technologies such as high-resolution ultrasound imaging, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, high-resolution Optical Coherence Tomography, and emerging hybrid-imaging modalities. It concludes with chapters introducing emerging drug delivery technologies and potential future innovative developments. Presents up-to-date knowledge of the skin biology and pathologies Introduces advancements in the topic of imaging technology for tracing the drug delivery process, which is rarely systematically reported by other counterparts Covers the latest development in three inter-related directions of drug delivery, imaging, and skin disease intersect for skin research Provides an overview of the latest development of diagnostic and therapeutic technologies for skin diseases Imaging Technologies and Transdermal Delivery in Skin Disorders will be of great interest to analytical chemists, materials scientists, pharmaceutical chemists, clinical chemists, biotechnologists, bioengineers, cosmetics industry, and dermatologists.
Foreword xvii 1 Skin Structure and Biology 1Wei-Meng Woo 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Skin Structure 2 1.2.1 Overview of Skin Tissue Organization 2 1.2.2 Epidermis 3 1.2.3 Dermis 6 1.2.4 Hypodermis 7 1.2.5 Skin Appendages 8 1.3 Skin Biology 9 1.3.1 Homeostasis: Epidermal Self-renewal 9 1.3.2 Formation of aWater Barrier 10 1.3.3 Getting Across theWater Barrier 11 References 12 2 Wound Healing and Its Imaging 15Jiah Shin Chin, Leigh Madden, Sing Yian Chew, Anthony R.J. Phillips and David L. Becker 2.1 Hemostasis and Essential Inflammation 15 2.2 Re-epithelialization 18 2.3 Granulation Tissue Formation 19 2.4 Scar Tissue Formation 20 2.5 Imaging of Wound Healing 21 2.6 Macroscopic Digital Imaging for Wound Size 22 2.7 Hyperspectral and Multispectral Imaging 22 2.8 Near-Infrared Spectroscopy 23 2.9 Raman Imaging 23 2.10 Confocal Microscopy 24 2.11 Multiphoton Imaging and Second Harmonics 24 References 27 3 Common Skin Diseases: Chronic Inflammatory and Autoimmune Disorders 35Navin Kumar Verma, Maurice Adrianus Monique van Steensel, Praseetha Prasannan, Zhi Sheng Poh, Alan D. Irvine and Hazel H. Oon 3.1 Introduction 35 3.2 Psoriasis 36 3.2.1 Definition and Prevalence 36 3.2.2 Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, and Pathophysiology 37 3.2.3 Diagnosis 39 3.2.4 Therapy 40 3.3 Atopic Dermatitis (AD) 40 3.3.1 Definition and Prevalence 40 3.3.2 Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, and Pathophysiology 41 3.3.3 Diagnosis 42 3.3.4 Therapy 43 3.4 Scleroderma 43 3.4.1 Definition and Prevalence 43 3.4.2 Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, and Pathophysiology 44 3.4.3 Diagnosis 44 3.4.4 Therapy 45 3.5 Dermatomyositis (DM) 45 3.5.1 Definition and Prevalence 45 3.5.2 Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, and Pathophysiology 46 3.5.3 Diagnosis 46 3.5.4 Therapy 47 3.6 Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (CLE) 47 3.6.1 Definition and Prevalence 47 3.6.2 Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, and Pathophysiology 47 3.6.3 Diagnosis 48 3.6.4 Treatment 49 3.7 Generalized Vitiligo (GV) 49 3.7.1 Definition and Prevalence 49 3.7.2 Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, and Pathophysiology 49 3.7.3 Diagnosis 50 3.7.4 Treatment 51 3.8 Concluding Remarks 51 Acknowledgments 51 References 52 4 Common Skin Diseases: Autoimmune Blistering Disorders 61Navin Kumar Verma, Shermaine Wan Yu Low, Hazel H. Oon, Dermot Kelleher and Maurice Adrianus Monique van Steensel 4.1 Introduction 61 4.2 Pemphigus 62 4.2.1 Definition and Prevalence 62 4.2.2 Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, and Pathophysiology 62 4.2.3 Diagnosis 67 4.2.4 Treatment 67 4.3 Pemphigoid 68 4.3.1 Definition and Prevalence 68 4.3.2 Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, and Pathophysiology 68 4.3.3 Diagnosis 70 4.3.4 Treatment 70 4.4 Dermatitis Herpetiformis (DH) 70 4.4.1 Definition and Prevalence 70 4.4.2 Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, and Pathophysiology 71 4.4.3 Diagnosis 71 4.4.4 Treatment 71 4.5 Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita (EBA) 72 4.5.1 Definition and Prevalence 72 4.5.2 Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, and Pathophysiology 72 4.5.3 Diagnosis 73 4.5.4 Treatment 73 4.6 Concluding Remarks and Future Directions 73 Acknowledgments 74 References 74 5 Common Skin Diseases: Skin Cancer 83Tuyen T.L. Nguyen, Eric Tarapore and Scott X. Atwood 5.1 Introduction 83 5.2 Basal Cell Carcinoma 83 5.2.1 Risk Factors 84 5.2.2 Classification 85 5.2.3 Cell of Origin 85 5.2.4 Signaling Pathways 86 5.2.5 Common Treatments 87 5.3 Squamous Cell Carcinoma 88 5.3.1 Risk Factors 89 5.3.2 Classification 89 5.3.3 Cell of Origin 90 5.3.4 Signaling Pathways 90 5.3.5 Common Treatments 91 5.4 Melanoma 92 5.4.1 Risk Factors 92 5.4.2 Classification 93 5.4.3 Cell of Origin 94 5.4.4 Signaling Pathways 94 5.4.5 Common Treatments 94 5.5 Concluding Remarks 95 References 96 6 Preclinical Models for Drug Screening and Target Validation 105Ivo J.H.M. de Vos, Julia Verbist and Maurice A.M. van Steensel 6.1 Introduction 105 6.2 Ex Vivo Models of Human Skin 105 6.2.1 Introduction 105 6.2.2 Ex Vivo Models of Skin Barrier Function and Dermal Absorption 107 6.2.3 Ex Vivo Models of Cutaneous Wound Healing 107 6.2.4 Ex Vivo Hair Follicle Culture 108 6.3 In Vitro Models of Human Skin 108 6.3.1 Introduction 108 6.3.2 Two-Dimensional Cell Culture Models 109 6.3.3 Three-Dimensional Reconstructed Human Skin Models 109 6.4 In Vivo Animal Models 112 6.4.1 Caenorhabditis elegans 112 6.4.2 Drosophila melanogaster 113 6.4.3 Danio rerio 116 6.4.4 Mus musculus 118 6.4.5 Cavia porcellus 122 6.4.6 Oryctolagus cuniculus 124 6.4.7 Canis lupus familiaris 126 6.4.8 Sus scrofa domesticus 128 References 129 7 Skin Tissue Engineering with Nanostructured Materials 147Zahra Davoudi and Qun Wang 7.1 Introduction 147 7.2 Nanostructured Materials for Skin Tissue Engineering 148 7.2.1 Natural Biomaterials for Skin Tissue Engineering 148 7.2.2 Synthetic Polymers for Skin Tissue Engineering 152 7.2.3 Blend of Natural and Synthetic Materials 153 7.3 Fabrication Techniques 154 7.3.1 Self-Assembly and Phase Separation 154 7.3.2 Electrospinning 156 7.4 Clinical Application of Tissue Engineered Skin 157 7.4.1 Skin Grafts 157 7.4.2 Stem Cell Application in Skin Tissue Engineering 159 7.5 Summary 162 References 163 8 Topical and Transdermal Delivery with Chemical Enhancers and Nanoparticles 169Chandrashekhar Voshavar, Praveen Kumar Vemula and Srujan Marepally 8.1 Introduction 169 8.2 Anatomy of Skin/Skin Structure 170 8.3 Skin Permeation Routes 171 8.4 Chemical Enhancers (CEs) or Skin Penetration Enhancers 172 8.4.1 Characteristics of an Ideal Chemical Enhancer 173 8.4.2 Classification of Chemical Enhancers 173 8.5 Transdermal Delivery Using Nanoparticles 182 8.5.1 Lipid Based Nanoparticles 184 8.5.2 Polymer Based Nanoparticles 185 8.6 Peptides for Skin Permeation 189 8.7 Peptide–Nucleic Acid Nanoconjugates 190 8.8 Spherical Nucleic Acids 191 8.9 Conclusion 191 References 192 9 Needle-Free Jet Injectors for Dermal and Transdermal Delivery of Actives 201Michele Schlich, Rosita Primavera, Francesco Lai, Chiara Sinico and Paolo Decuzzi 9.1 Introduction 201 9.2 Components and Functioning Principle 203 9.3 Modulating the Depth of Active Delivery 203 9.4 Clinical and Preclinical Use of Needle-Free Jet Injectors for Systemic Drug Delivery 206 9.4.1 Vaccines 206 9.4.2 Insulin 208 9.4.3 Growth Hormone 210 9.4.4 Triptans 211 9.4.5 Others 211 9.5 Clinical and Preclinical Use of Needle-Free Jet Injectors for Local Drug Delivery 212 9.5.1 Local Anesthetics 212 9.5.2 Others 213 9.6 Future Perspectives: Jet Injection for Nano-/Microparticles 215 References 216 10 Microneedles for Transdermal Drug Delivery 223Eman M. Migdadi and Ryan F. Donnelly 10.1 Introduction 223 10.2 Microneedles 223 10.2.1 MN Delivery Strategies 225 10.2.2 MN Fabrication Methods 232 10.2.3 MNs and Vaccine Delivery 235 10.2.4 MNs for Patient Drug Monitoring 237 10.2.5 MN Skin Insertion and Recovery Process 239 10.2.6 Pain Perception and Skin Adverse Reactions of MN Application 242 10.2.7 MN Products 243 10.2.8 Combination of MNs with Other Techniques 245 10.2.9 MN-Assisted Microparticle and Nanoparticle Permeation 245 10.3 Microneedles in Management of Skin Disorders 247 10.4 Future Considerations for MN Technology 249 10.5 Conclusion 250 References 251 11 Ultrasound-Enhanced Transdermal Drug Delivery 271James Jing Kwan and Sunali Bhatnagar 11.1 Introduction 271 11.2 Principles in Ultrasound 271 11.2.1 Acoustic Waves 271 11.2.2 Ultrasound Transducers and Instrumentation 272 11.2.3 Propagation of Ultrasound 274 11.2.4 Ultrasound Phenomena 274 11.2.5 Mechanisms of Action 276 11.3 State of the Art in Ultrasound-Enhanced Transdermal Drug Delivery 277 11.3.1 Modes of Delivery 277 11.3.2 Drug Dosage Medium 279 11.3.3 Ultrasound-Assisted Drug Delivery: Drug Formulations and Safety Concerns 280 11.3.4 Applications of Ultrasound-Enhanced Transdermal Delivery 283 11.4 Conclusions 284 References 284 12 Iontophoresis Enhanced Transdermal Drug Delivery 291Xiayu Ning, Razina Z. Seeni and Chenjie Xu 12.1 Introduction 291 12.1.1 Hyperhidrosis 292 12.1.2 Delivery of Anesthetics for Pain Management 292 12.1.3 Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis 292 12.1.4 Glucose Monitoring 293 12.1.5 Growing Interest 293 12.2 Enhancing Transdermal Drug Delivery Using Iontophoresis Alone 294 12.2.1 Iontophoretic Transdermal Delivery of Small Molecules 297 12.2.2 Iontophoretic Transdermal Delivery of Macromolecules 297 12.3 Enhancing Transdermal Drug Delivery Using Combination of Iontophoresis and Other Approaches 300 12.3.1 Iontophoresis with Chemical Enhancers 300 12.3.2 Iontophoresis with Microneedles 302 12.3.3 Iontophoresis and Nanoparticles 303 12.4 Summary and Outlook 304 References 304 13 Ultrasound Imaging in Dermatology 309Jihun Kim, Sangyeon Youn and Jae Youn Hwang 13.1 Introduction 309 13.2 The Physics of Ultrasound 309 13.3 Ultrasonic Transducers 313 13.3.1 Piezoelectric Materials 314 13.3.2 Matching Layer 317 13.3.3 Backing Layer 317 13.3.4 Single-Element Ultrasound Transducers 318 13.3.5 Array Ultrasound Transducers 318 13.4 Ultrasound Imaging Systems for Skin Diagnosis 320 13.4.1 Ultrasound Imaging with Single-Element Ultrasound Transducers 321 13.4.2 Ultrasound Imaging with Array Ultrasound Transducers 326 13.5 Applications of Ultrasound Imaging in Dermatology 330 13.5.1 Ultrasound Imaging of Skin Cancer 330 13.5.2 Ultrasound Imaging of Inflammatory and Infectious Skin Diseases 332 13.5.3 Ultrasound Imaging for Other Skin Applications 334 13.6 Conclusions 334 Acknowledgments 335 References 335 14 Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Skin: In Vitro and In Vivo Applications 341Bernard Querleux, Geneviève Guillot, Jean-Christophe Ginéfri, Marie Poirier-Quinot and Luc Darrasse 14.1 Introduction 341 14.2 Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Skin 342 14.2.1 Hardware Challenges for Skin Imaging 342 14.2.2 State of the Art of Clinical MR Applications of Healthy and Diseased Skin 348 14.2.3 MR Imaging of the Skin on the Face 349 14.2.4 Water States in Skin by Quantitative MR Imaging 350 14.3 Quantitative MR Imaging of the Skin In Vitro 351 14.3.1 Opportunities with Preclinical MR Systems 351 14.3.2 State of the Art of In Vitro MR Applications 352 14.3.3 Quantification of Water States in Reconstructed Skin 354 14.4 Conclusion and Perspectives 359 References 360 15 High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for Skin Imaging 371Xiaojun Yu, XianghongWang, LuluWang, Razina Z. Seeni and Linbo Liu 15.1 Introduction 371 15.2 HR-OCT Systems for Skin Imaging 373 15.2.1 TD-OCT Systems 373 15.2.2 FD-OCT Systems 375 15.2.3 PS-OCT 381 15.3 Skin Imaging with HR-OCT 382 15.3.1 Normal Skin Imaging Applications 382 15.3.2 Skin Imaging in Clinical Practice 387 15.3.3 Skin Imaging for Laboratory Research 388 15.4 Discussions 398 15.5 Conclusion 400 Acknowledgments 400 References 400 16 Photoacoustic Imaging of Skin 411Emelina Vienneau, Tri Vu and Junjie Yao 16.1 Introduction 411 16.2 Photoacoustic Imaging Technology 412 16.3 Applications to Skin Imaging 414 16.3.1 Skin Cancers 414 16.3.2 Tumor Environment Analysis 418 16.3.3 Detection of Noncancerous Skin Diseases 422 16.3.4 Burn Injury Assessment and Monitoring of Healing 423 16.3.5 Monitoring Glucose Levels 425 16.3.6 Other Molecular Applications in Skin Imaging 426 16.4 Outlook 428 References 429 17 Laser Speckle Techniques for Flow Monitoring in Skin 443Renzhe Bi, Malini Olivo and Kijoon Lee 17.1 Introduction 443 17.2 Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging 444 17.2.1 Working Principle of Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging 444 17.2.2 Applications of LSCI 446 17.3 Diffuse Speckle Contrast Analysis 448 17.3.1 Theory of Diffuse Speckle Contrast Analysis 449 17.3.2 Deep Tissue Blood Flow and Cold-Induced Vasodilation 451 17.4 Diffuse Speckle Tomography 456 17.4.1 Depth Sensitivity of Flow Measurement 456 17.4.2 Tomographic Flow Imaging 458 17.5 The Future of Diffuse Speckle Analysis and Imaging 459 References 460 Index 465
Chenjie Xu, PhD, is Assistant Professor at the School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Xiaomeng Wang, PhD, is Associate Professor at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Principal Investigator at IMCB, Honorary Lecturer at UCL, and Adjunct Research Scientist at SERI. Manojit Pramanik, PhD, is Associate Professor at the School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
Provides the latest information on imaging technologies and transdermal delivery in skin disorders This important, timely book covers the latest understanding about today's major skin disorders, the development of imaging technologies for skin diagnosis, and the applications of micro/nano-technologies for the treatment of skin complications. It also places great emphasis on the critical role that interdisciplinary science occupies to achieve the requisite level of understanding of skin conditions and their management, which is essential to creating technologies that work. Imaging Technologies and Transdermal Delivery in Skin Disorders starts by outlining the structural characteristics of skin and skin appendages. It then discusses the key pathways involved in skin growth and development. Clinical presentations, pathophysiological mechanisms, and current clinical practices used to treat diseases affecting the skin are then introduced. Common preclinical models used for studying the mechanisms of diverse skin diseases, validation of novel therapeutic targets, and screening of new drugs to treat these diseases are also covered. The book examines the latest imaging technologies for understanding in vivo skin changes, as well as technologies such as high-resolution ultrasound imaging, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, high-resolution Optical Coherence Tomography, and emerging hybrid-imaging modalities. It concludes with chapters introducing emerging drug delivery technologies and potential future innovative developments. Presents up-to-date knowledge of the skin biology and pathologies Introduces advancements in the topic of imaging technology for tracing the drug delivery process, which is rarely systematically reported by other counterparts Covers the latest development in three inter-related directions of drug delivery, imaging, and skin disease intersect for skin research Provides an overview of the latest development of diagnostic and therapeutic technologies for skin diseases Imaging Technologies and Transdermal Delivery in Skin Disorders will be of great interest to analytical chemists, materials scientists, pharmaceutical chemists, clinical chemists, biotechnologists, bioengineers, cosmetics industry, and dermatologists.

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