Details

Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants


Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants

Processing, Health Benefits and Safety
IFST Advances in Food Science 1. Aufl.

von: Mohammad B. Hossain, Nigel P. Brunton, Dilip K. Rai

157,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 17.08.2020
ISBN/EAN: 9781119036630
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 400

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Beschreibungen

<p><b>The latest research on the health benefits and optimal processing technologies of herbs and spices</b></p> <p>This book provides a comprehensive overview of the health benefits, analytical techniques used, and effects of processing upon the physicochemical properties of herbs and spices. Presented in three parts, it opens with a section on the technological and health benefits of herbs and spices. The second part reviews the effect of classical and novel processing techniques on the properties of herbs/spices. The third section examines extraction techniques and analytical methodologies used for herbs and spices.</p> <p>Filled with contributions from experts in academia and industry, <i>Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants: Processing, Health Benefits and Safety </i>offers chapters covering thermal and non-thermal processing of herbs and spices, recent developments in high-quality drying of herbs and spices, conventional and novel techniques for extracting bioactive compounds from herbs and spices, and approaches to analytical techniques. It also examines purification and isolation techniques for enriching bioactive phytochemicals, medicinal properties of herbs and spices, synergy in whole-plant medicine, potential applications of polyphenols from herbs and spices in dairy products, biotic and abiotic safety concerns, and adverse human health effects and regulation of metal contaminants in terrestrial plant-derived food and phytopharmaceuticals. </p> <ul> <li>Covers the emerging health benefits of herbs and spices, including their use as anti-diabetics, anti-inflammatories, and anti-oxidants</li> <li>Reviews the effect of classical and novel processing techniques on the properties of herbs and spices</li> <li>Features informed perspectives from noted academics and professionals in the industry</li> <li>Part of Wiley's new IFST Advances in Food Science series</li> </ul> <p><i>Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants</i> is an important book for companies, research institutions, and universities active in the areas of food processing and the agri-food environment. It will appeal to food scientists and engineers, environmentalists, and food regulatory agencies.</p>
<p>List of Contributors xi</p> <p><b>1 Thermal Processing of Herbs and Spices 1<br /></b><i>Anjali H. Kurup, Shweta Deotale, Ashish Rawson, and Ankit Patras</i></p> <p>1.1 Introduction 1</p> <p>1.2 Thermal Processing of Spices 2</p> <p>1.2.1 Cooking and Roasting of Spices 2</p> <p>1.2.2 Blanching 9</p> <p>1.2.3 High-Pressure Steam Treatment 10</p> <p>1.2.4 Electromagnetic Energy (Microwave) Treatment 12</p> <p>1.3 Thermal Processing of Herbs 13</p> <p>1.4 Conclusion 16</p> <p>References 17</p> <p><b>2 Non-Thermal Processing of Herbs and Spices 23<br /></b><i>Camila A. Perussello</i></p> <p>2.1 Introduction 23</p> <p>2.2 Ozone 25</p> <p>2.3 Irradiation 28</p> <p>2.4 Pulsed Electric Field 31</p> <p>2.5 Pulsed Light 33</p> <p>2.6 Fumigation with Ethylene Dioxide 34</p> <p>2.7 High Pressure CO<sub>2</sub> Coupled with Ultrasound 36</p> <p>2.8 Cold Plasma 37</p> <p>2.9 Conclusions 39</p> <p>References 39</p> <p><b>3 Recent Developments in High-Quality Drying of Herbs and Spices 45<br /></b><i>Wei Jin, Min Zhang, Weifeng Shi, and Arun S. Mujumdar</i></p> <p>3.1 Introduction 45</p> <p>3.2 Novel Combined Drying Methods 46</p> <p>3.2.1 Solar-Related Combined Drying Methods 47</p> <p>3.2.2 Microwave-Related Combined Drying Methods 53</p> <p>3.2.3 Other Energy Sources-Related Combined Drying Methods 59</p> <p>3.3 Other Innovative Drying Methods 61</p> <p>3.4 Conclusion and Suggestions for Future Research 62</p> <p>Acknowledgments 63</p> <p>References 63</p> <p><b>4 Conventional Extraction Techniques for Bioactive Compounds from Herbs and Spices 69<br /></b><i>Md Abu Bakar Siddique, Katerina Tzima, Dilip K. Rai, and Nigel Brunton</i></p> <p>4.1 Introduction 69</p> <p>4.2 Principles of Extraction 70</p> <p>4.2.1 Solid–Liquid Extraction 70</p> <p>4.2.2 Liquid–Liquid Extraction 74</p> <p>4.3 Factors Affecting Extraction 76</p> <p>4.3.1 Solid–Liquid Extraction 76</p> <p>4.3.2 Liquid–Liquid Extraction 79</p> <p>4.3.3 Soxhlet Extraction 82</p> <p>4.4 Optimized Extraction Techniques for Herbs and Spices 85</p> <p>4.5 Conclusion 85</p> <p>References 88</p> <p><b>5 Novel Extraction Techniques for Bioactive Compounds from Herbs and Spices 95<br /></b><i>Andrea P. Sánchez-Camargo, Lidia Montero, Jose A. Mendiola, M. Herrero, and E. Ibáñez</i></p> <p>5.1 Introduction 95</p> <p>5.2 Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) 96</p> <p>5.2.1 Description of the Technique 96</p> <p>5.2.2 Applications of PLE to Herbs and Spices 98</p> <p>5.3 Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) 101</p> <p>5.3.1 Description of the Technique 101</p> <p>5.3.2 Applications of SFE to Herbs and Spices 103</p> <p>5.4 Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) 105</p> <p>5.4.1 Description of the Technique 105</p> <p>5.4.2 Applications of UAE to Herbs and Spices 106</p> <p>5.5 Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) 108</p> <p>5.5.1 Description of the Technique 108</p> <p>5.5.2 Applications of MAE to Herbs and Spices 109</p> <p>5.6 Enzyme-Assisted Extraction (EAE) 112</p> <p>5.6.1 Description of the Technique 112</p> <p>5.6.2 Applications of EAE to Herbs and Spices 113</p> <p>5.7 Integration of Different Extraction Techniques 115</p> <p>5.7.1 Ultrasound–Microwave-Assisted Extraction (UMAE) 115</p> <p>5.7.2 Enzyme-Based–Ultrasound–Microwave-Assisted Extraction (EUMAE) 116</p> <p>5.7.3 Supercritical Fluid Extraction–Pressurized Fluid Extraction (SFE–PLE) 116</p> <p>5.7.4 Supercritical Fluid Extraction Assisted by Ultrasound (SFE–UAE) 118</p> <p>5.8 Conclusions and Future Outlook 120</p> <p>Acknowledgments 121</p> <p>References 121</p> <p><b>6 Approaches to Analytical Techniques – Characterizing Phytochemicals in <i>Verbascum </i>spp. 129<br /></b><i>Anna-Maria Keaveney, Ambrose Furey, and Brigid Lucey</i></p> <p>6.1 Introduction 129</p> <p>6.2 The Challenge of Complexity 134</p> <p>6.3 Extraction Processes 137</p> <p>6.4 Separation and Detection 140</p> <p>6.4.1 Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) 143</p> <p>6.4.2 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) 146</p> <p>6.4.3 Gas Chromatography (GC) 147</p> <p>6.4.4 Ion Exchange Chromatography, Size Exclusion Chromatography, Capillary Electrophoresis 147</p> <p>6.4.5 Hyphenated Techniques (LC–MS, GC–MS, LC–NMR) 148</p> <p>6.4.6 TLC Bioautography 149</p> <p>6.4.7 Spectroscopic Methods 150</p> <p>6.5 Chemical Characterization 151</p> <p>6.5.1 Iridoid Glycosides 153</p> <p>6.5.2 Flavonoids 158</p> <p>6.5.3 Phenylethanoid/Phenylproponoid Glycosides 159</p> <p>6.5.4 Saponins 160</p> <p>6.5.5 Spermine Alkaloids 161</p> <p>6.5.6 Polysaccharides 161</p> <p>6.5.7 Other Constituents 162</p> <p>6.6 Discussion 162</p> <p>6.7 Conclusion 165</p> <p>Funding and Acknowledgments 166</p> <p>References 166</p> <p><b>7 Purification and Isolation Techniques for Enrichment of Bioactive Phytochemicals from Herbs and Spices 177<br /></b><i>Ramón Aznar and Dilip K. Rai</i></p> <p>7.1 Introduction 177</p> <p>7.2 How to Approach Purification and Isolation 178</p> <p>7.3 Purification Techniques 180</p> <p>7.3.1 Liquid–Liquid Fractionation 180</p> <p>7.3.2 Solid-Phase Extraction 181</p> <p>7.3.3 Preparative Liquid Chromatography 185</p> <p>7.3.4 Hydrolysis 194</p> <p>7.3.5 Membrane Filtration 195</p> <p>7.3.6 Recrystallization 195</p> <p>7.3.7 Other Techniques 197</p> <p>7.4 Example of Purification and Isolation 198</p> <p>7.5 Challenges and Future Trends 199</p> <p>References 201</p> <p><b>8 Medicinal Properties of Herbs and Spices: Past, Present, and Future 207<br /></b><i>Celia Rodríguez-Pérez and Ramón Aznar</i></p> <p>8.1 Introduction 207</p> <p>8.2 Historical Uses of Herbs and Spices 208</p> <p>8.3 Herbs and Spices in the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases 210</p> <p>8.3.1 Anticancer Properties 210</p> <p>8.3.2 Anti-inflammatory Properties 230</p> <p>8.3.3 Antidiabetic Properties 231</p> <p>8.3.4 Antiobesity Properties 233</p> <p>8.3.5 Hypolipidemic Properties 233</p> <p>8.3.6 Influence on Digestive Stimulation 235</p> <p>8.3.7 Antihypertensive Properties 236</p> <p>8.3.8 Protection Against Alzheimer’s Disease 236</p> <p>8.3.9 Hepatoprotective Properties 237</p> <p>8.4 Interaction and Potential Side Effects 238</p> <p>8.5 Future Trends 239</p> <p>Abbreviations 239</p> <p>References 240</p> <p><b>9 Synergy in Whole Plant Medicine: <i>Crataegus </i>spp.: An Example 251<br /></b><i>Mary C. Tassell, Anne-Maria Keaveney, Rosari Kingston, Deirdre Gilroy, Mary Lehane, Brigid Lucey, and Ambrose Furey</i></p> <p>9.1 Introduction 251</p> <p>9.2 Cardiovascular Diseases 252</p> <p>9.3 <i>Crataegus </i>spp. 252</p> <p>9.4 Synergy 254</p> <p>9.4.1 Dose–Effect Approaches 257</p> <p>9.4.2 Effect-Based Approaches 260</p> <p>9.5 Mechanisms of Action 262</p> <p>9.5.1 Multitarget Effects 264</p> <p>9.5.2 Pharmacokinetic or Physicochemical Effects (Enhanced Bioavailability, Improved Solubility, or Improved Resorption Rate) 264</p> <p>9.5.3 Interactions with the Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms of Bacteria 264</p> <p>9.5.4 Improved Effectiveness by, for Example, Elimination or Neutralization of</p> <p>Adverse or Toxic Effects 265</p> <p>9.6 <i>Crataegus </i>spp. – a Review 266</p> <p>9.6.1 Published Papers 266</p> <p>9.6.2 Multitarget Effects 270</p> <p>9.7 General Considerations 272</p> <p>9.7.1 Lack of a Precise Definition for Combination Effects 272</p> <p>9.7.2 Heterogeneity of Studies 273</p> <p>9.7.3 Preparations Used 273</p> <p>9.7.4 Absorption and Bioavailability 274</p> <p>9.8 Conclusion 275</p> <p>Funding and Acknowledgments 276</p> <p>References 276</p> <p><b>10 Potential Applications of Polyphenols from Herbs and Spices in Dairy Products as Natural Antioxidants 283<br /></b><i>Katerina Tzima, Nigel P. Brunton, Alka Choudhary, and Dilip K. Rai</i></p> <p>10.1 Introduction 283</p> <p>10.2 Implications in the Use of Herbs and Spices as Natural Antioxidants in Milk and Dairy Products 284</p> <p>10.2.1 Effect of Phenolic Concentration on Milk and Dairy Products 284</p> <p>10.2.2 Effect of Phenolics on the Organoleptic Properties of Dairy Products 285</p> <p>10.2.3 Effect of Phenolics on the Protein Stability of Milk and Dairy Products 287</p> <p>10.2.4 Effect of Indigenous Antioxidant Compounds (Chlorophyll) on the Color of Milk and Dairy Products 288</p> <p>10.3 Milk and Dairy Products as Carriers of Natural Antioxidants 288</p> <p>10.3.1 Butter and Dairy Spreads as Carriers of Natural Antioxidants 289</p> <p>10.3.2 Cheese as a Carrier of Natural Antioxidants 290</p> <p>10.3.3 Ghee as a Carrier of Natural Antioxidants 291</p> <p>10.3.4 Sandesh as a Carrier of Natural Antioxidants 292</p> <p>10.3.5 Yogurt as a Carrier of Natural Antioxidants 293</p> <p>10.3.6 Ice Cream as a Carrier of Natural Antioxidants 294</p> <p>Abbreviations 294</p> <p>References 294</p> <p><b>11 Biotic and Abiotic Safety Concerns for Herbs and Spices 301<br /></b><i>Manja Zec and Maria Glibetic</i></p> <p>11.1 Natural Products in Science – “Generally Recognized as Safe?” 303</p> <p>11.2 Herbs and Spices – Reported Adverse Effects and Adverse Drug Reactions 304</p> <p>11.3 (A)Biotic Factors Incorporated in the Foodchain and Influencing the Safety of Herbal Consumption 306</p> <p>11.4 Herbal Product Safety Concerns – Advances in Identification and Regulatory Framework 309</p> <p>References 313</p> <p><b>12 Adverse Human Health Effects and Regulation of Metal Contaminants in Terrestrial Plant-Derived Food and Phytopharmaceuticals 321<br /></b><i>Ciara-Ruth Kenny, Brigid Lucey, and Ambrose Furey</i></p> <p>12.1 Introduction 321</p> <p>12.2 Sources of Environmental Metal Impurities Contributing to Plant Material Contamination 323</p> <p>12.2.1 Soil and Surrounding Rhizosphere 324</p> <p>12.2.2 Air 326</p> <p>12.2.3 Water (Ground-, Surface- and Waste-water) 327</p> <p>12.2.4 Processing, Packaging, Storage, and Preparation 327</p> <p>12.3 Overview of Metal Uptake Systems in Plants 328</p> <p>12.4 Human Exposure to Metals in Plant-Derived Food and Associated Regulation 328</p> <p>12.4.1 Aluminum (Al) 335</p> <p>12.4.2 Arsenic (As) 336</p> <p>12.4.3 Cadmium 342</p> <p>12.4.4 Chromium (Cr) 346</p> <p>12.4.5 Lead (Pb) and Mercury (Hg) 348</p> <p>12.5 Metals in Phytopharmaceuticals and Associated Regulation 349</p> <p>12.5.1 Phytopharmaceuticals 349</p> <p>12.5.2 Current European Regulatory Guidelines: The Herbal Directive Scheme 349</p> <p>12.5.3 Current Quality Criteria for Metal Impurities 351</p> <p>12.5.4 Key Issues 354</p> <p>12.6 Metal Contaminants in Supplements: An Overview 356</p> <p>12.7 Conclusion 356</p> <p>Declaration of Interest 357</p> <p>Funding and Acknowledgments 357</p> <p>References 357</p> <p>Index 377</p>
<p><b>About the Editors</b> <p><b>Mohammad B. Hossain,</b> is a Research Officer in the Department of Food Biosciences at Teagasc Food Research Centre in Ashtown, Ireland, and is a member of the editorial board of '<i>Antioxidants</i>' and '<i>Journal of Food Processing and Beverages</i>'. <p><b>Nigel P. Brunton,</b> is an Associate Professor at the School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Ireland. <p><b>Dilip K. Rai,</b> is a Senior Research Officer in the Department of Food Biosciences at Teagasc Food Research Centre in Ashtown, Ireland where he focuses on nutraceuticals.
<p><b>IFST Advances in Food Science</b> <p><b>Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants</b> <p><b>The latest research on the health benefits and optimal processing technologies of herbs and spices</b> <p>This book provides a comprehensive overview of the health benefits, analytical techniques used, and effects of processing upon the physico-chemical properties of herbs and spices. Presented in three parts, it opens with a section on the technological and health benefits of herbs and spices. The second part reviews the effect of classical and novel processing techniques on the properties of herbs/spices. The third section examines extraction techniques and analytical methodologies used for herbs and spices. <p>Filled with contributions from experts in academia and industry, <i>Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants: Processing, Health Benefits and Safety</i> offers chapters covering thermal and non-thermal processing of herbs and spices, recent developments in high-quality drying of herbs and spices, conventional and novel techniques for extracting bioactive compounds from herbs and spices, and approaches to analytical techniques. It also examines purification and isolation techniques for enriching bioactive phytochemicals, medicinal properties of herbs and spices, synergy in whole-plant medicine, potential applications of polyphenols from herbs and spices in dairy products, biotic and abiotic safety concerns, and adverse human health effects and regulation of metal contaminants in terrestrial plant-derived food and phytopharmaceuticals. <ul> <li>Covers the emerging health benefits of herbs and spices, including their use as anti-diabetics, anti-inflammatories, and anti-oxidants</li> <li>Reviews the effect of classical and novel processing techniques on the properties of herbs and spices</li> <li>Features informed perspectives from noted academics and professionals in the industry</li> </ul> <p><i>Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants</i> is an important book for companies, research institutions, and universities active in the areas of food processing and the agri-food environment. It will appeal to food scientists and engineers, environmentalists, and food regulatory agencies.

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