Harper's Textbook of Pediatric Dermatology
A consummate classic with a fresh approach to pediatric dermatology Children´s skin is different. Maturation affects the epidermal barrier, the cutaneous microbiome, adnexal structures, vasculature, and transcutaneous absorption of drugs. The immature skin is more susceptible to pathogens and environmental disruption. Many genetic disorders are either present at birth or manifest early in childhood. Skin diseases thus present differently in children than in adults. Pediatric dermatology has seen significant advances over the last decade, particularly in the field of molecular genetics research, which has furthered our understanding of the pathogenesis of many skin diseases and the development of new approaches to treatment. This fourth edition of the Harper classic provides state-of-the-art information on all aspects of skin disease in children. It covers the diagnosis and treatment of all conditions - both common and rare - with a consistently evidence-based approach. Existing content has been refreshed and fully updated to reflect emerging thinking and to incorporate the latest in research and clinical data - especially at the genetic level. This new fourth edition includes: Greater focus on the genetics behind skin disease, including new genes/genodermatoses, progress in genetic analysis, and stem cell transplants Increased coverage of lasers and other technologies used to treat skin disease More summary tables, learning points, tables of differential diagnosis, and clinical algorithms for diagnosis and management Additional online features, including patient information links and multiple choice questions Harper's Textbook of Pediatric Dermatology delivers crucial clinical insights and up-to-date research information that spans the breadth of the field. As the most comprehensive reference book on this subject available, this revised fourth edition will support and guide the daily practice of both dermatologists and pediatricians across the world.
Contributors Preface to the fourth edition Dedication Arnold Oranje Acknowledgements Abbreviations Volume 1 Section 1 Development, Structure and Physiology of the Skin 1. Embryogenesis of the Skin Lara Wine Lee & Karen A. Holbrook 2. Molecular Genetics in Paediatric Dermatology Anna C. Thomas & Veronica A. Kinsler 3. Cutaneous Microbiome Carrie C. Coughlin & William H. McCoy 4. Physiology of Neonatal Skin Peter H. Hoeger Section 2 Skin Disorders of the Neonate and Young Infant 1. Neonatal skin care Peter H. Hoeger 2. Transient skin disorders Margarita Larralde & Maria Eugenia Abad 3. Congenital and Acquired Infections in the Neonate Scott H. James, Nico G. Hartwig, David W. Kimberlin and Peter H. Hoeger 4. Transplacentally acquired dermatoses Paula Carolina Luna 5. Developmental anomalies Henning Hamm & Marion Wobser 6. Differential Diagnosis of Neonatal Erythroderma Hagen Ott & Peter H. Hoeger 7. Vesiculopustular, bullous and erosive diseases of the neonate Anna Martinez & Caroline Mahon 8. Iatrogenic Disorders of the Newborn Elia F. Maalouf & Wilson Lopez Section 3 Atopic Dermatitis and Related Disorders 1. Epidemiology of Atopic Dermatitis Carsten Flohr, Jonathan Silverberg, Joy Wan & Sinéad M. Langan 2. Genetics of Atopic Eczema Elke Rodriguez & Stephan Weidinger 3. Clinical Features and Diagnostic Criteria of Atopic Dermatitis Sinéad M. Langan & Hywel C. Williams 4. Severity Scoring and Quality of Life Assessment in Atopic Dermatitis Christian Apfelbacher, Cecilia A.C. (Sanna) Prinsen, Daniel Heinl & Hywel C. Williams 5. Atopic dermatitis and related disorders: Special types of presentation Nawaf Almutairi 6. Atopic dermatitis: Complications Kevin B. Yarbrough & Eric L. Simpson 7. Management of Atopic Dermatitis Lea Solman & Mary Glover Section 4 Other Types of Dermatitis 1. Napkin dermatitis Arnold P. Oranje, Ernesto Bonifazi, Paul J. Honig & Albert C. Yan 2. Adolescent Seborrheic Dermatitis Roselyn Kellen, Nanette Silverberg 3. Irritant contact dermatitis David Luk 4. Allergic contact dermatitis Sharon E Jacob, Hannah Hill, & Alina Goldenberg 5. Hypereosinophilic disorders Eirini E. Merika & Nerys Roberts 6. Juvenile plantar dermatosis John C. Browning & Margaret Brown 7. Perioral dermatitis Marius Rademaker Section 5 Psoriasis 1. Psoriasis – Epidemiology Matthias Augustin & Marc Alexander Radtke 2. Psoriasis: Aetiology and pathogenesis Jonathan Barker 3. Psoriasis: Classification, Scores, Diagnosis Nirav Patel & Megha Tollefson 4. Psoriasis: Clinical Features and Comorbidities Derek H. Chu & Kelly M. Cordoro 5. Psoriasis: Management Marieke M.B. Seyger Section 6 Other papulosquamous disorders 1. Pityriasis rubra pilaris Liat Samuelov & Eli Sprecher 2. Lichen Planus Vibhu Mendiratta & Sarita Sanke 3. Lichen nitidus Jasem M. Alshaiji 4. Lichen striatus Franck Boralevi & Alain Taieb 5 Pityriasis rosea Antonio A. T. Chuh & Vijay Zawar Section 7 Bacterial skin Infections 1. Pyodermas and Bacterial Toxin-mediated Syndromes James R. Treat, Christian R. Millett, Warren R. Heymann & Steven M. Manders 2. Cutaneous manifestations of Gram negative infections Saul N. Faust, Diane Gbesemete & Robert S. Heyderman 3. Pitted keratolysis, erythrasma, erysipeloid Zhe xu, Yuanyuan Xiao, Ying liu, Lin Ma 4. Lyme Borreliosis Susan O’Connell 5. Bartonella infections Sonia Kamath & Minnelly Luu 6. Mycobacterial Skin Infections G Sethuraman, Tanvi Dev, and V Ramesh 7. Rickettsial disease Arun C. Inamadar & Aparna Palit 8. Endemic Treponematoses: Yaws, Pinta and Endemic Syphilis Herman Jan H. Engelkens 9. Tropical ulcer Vibhu Mendiratta & Soumya Agarwal Section 8 Fungal skin infections 1. Superficial fungal infections Peter Mayser & Yvonne Gräser 2. Deep Fungal Infections María Teresa García-Romero Section 9 Viral skin infections and opportunistic infections 1. Molluscum contagiosum Joachim J. Bugert, Ali Alikhan & Tor Shwayder 2. Human Papillomavirus Infection Yun Tong, Stephen K. Tyring, Zsuzsanna Z. Szalai 3. Herpes Simplex Virus Infections Manuraj Singh, Helen M. Goodyear, Judith Breuer 4. Varicella-zoster virus infections Manuraj Singh & Judith Breuer 5. Poxviruses Sue Lewis-Jones & Jane Sterling 6. HIV and HTLV-1 Infection Neil S. Prose, Ncoza C. Dlova, Rosalia A. Ballona & Coleen K. Cunningham 7. Viral exanthemas Pamela Gangar, Jusleen Ahluwalia & Sheila Fallon Friedlander 8. Eruptive hypomelanosis Vijay Zawar & Antonio A. T. Chuh 9. Cutaneous Infections in Immunocompromised Children Miriam Weinstein, Hagen Ott & Peter H. Hoeger Section 10 Parasitic skin infestations and sting reactions 1. Leishmaniasis Bernardo Gontijo and Carolina Talhari 2. Helminthic infections Hector Cáceres-Ríos & Felipe Velasquez 3. Scabies and Pseudoscabies Wingfield E. Rehmus & Julie S. Prendiville 4. Pediculosis and Cimicosis Sandipan Dhar & Sahana M. Srinivas 5. Noxious and venomous creatures K L E Hon, TNH Leung & T F Leung 6. Aquatic dermatoses Sarah Hill Section 11 Urticaria, erythemas and drug reactions 1. Urticaria, erythemas and drug reactions Bettina Wedi 2. Annular erythemas Kimberly A. Horii 3. Giannotti-Crosti Syndrome Carlo M. Gelmetti 4. Erythema Multiforme, Stevens–Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Benjamin S Daniel, Lizbeth Ruth Wheeler & Dédée F. Murrell 5. Hypersensitivity reactions to drugs Mohannad AbuHilal & Neil Shear Section 12 Acne and acneiform disorders 1. Acne Marissa J. Perman, Bodo C. Melnik, Anne W. Lucky 2. Rosacea Clio Dessinioti & Andreas Katsambas 3. Hidradenitis suppurativa P. Theut Riis & G.B.E. Jemec Section 13 Nutritional disorders 1. Skin Manifestations of Nutritional Disorders Carola Durán McKinster & Luz Orozco-Covarrubias 2. Skin Manifestations of Paediatric Metabolic Syndrome Gregor Holzer & Beatrix Volc-Platzer Section 14 Blistering disorders 1. Differential diagnosis of vesiculobullous lesions Sharleen F. Hill and Dedee F. Murrell 2. Autoimmune bullous diseases Nina van Beek & Enno Schmidt 3. Childhood Dermatitis Herpetiformis Carmen Liy Wong & Irene Lara-Corrales 4. Epidermolysis bullosa and Kindler syndrome Jemima E. Mellerio, Anna E. Martinez & Christina Has Section 15 Photodermatoses, photoprotection and environmental skin disorders 1. The Idiopathic Photodermatoses and Skin Testing Erhard Hölzle & Robert Dawe 2. The Porphyrias Jorge Frank 3. Photoprotection Lachlan Warren & Genevieve Casey 4. Skin Reactions to Plants, Cold, Heat, and Chemicals Tuyet A. Nguyen, Christopher Lovell & Andrew C. Krakowski Section 16 Granulomatous diseases 1. Sarcoidosis Lisa M. Arkin, Julie L. Cantatore-Francis & Julie V. Schaffer 2. Granuloma annulare Annalisa Patrizi & Iria Neri 3. Orofacial granulomatosis Lisa Weibel & Martin Theiler Section 17 Neutrophilic dermatoses 1. Sweet syndrome Peter von den Driesch 2. Pyoderma gangrenosum Karolina Gholam Section 18 Lymphocytic disorders 1. Pityriasis lichenoides Christine T. Lauren & Maria C. Garzon 2. Jessner Lymphocytic Infiltrate of the Skin R.M. Ross Hearn 3. Primary Cutaneous Lymphoma Rebecca Levy & Elena Pope 4. Childhood Leukaemias and Lymphomas Keith Morley & Jennifer Huang Section 19 Histiocytic disorders 1. Langerhans cell histiocytosis Sylvie Fraitag & Jean Donadieu 2. Juvenile Xanthogranuloma and other Non Langerhans Cell Histiocytoses Gudrun Ratzinger & Bernhard W.H. Zelger Section 20 Mastocytosis 1. Paediatric mastocytosis Laura Polivka & Christine Bodemer Section 21 Disorders of connective tissue 1 Ehlers-Danlos-Syndrome Nigel P. Burrows 2 Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum and Cutis Laxa Sean D Reynolds & Lionel Bercovitch 3 Buschke-Ollendorff-Syndrome, Marfan Syndrome, Osteogenesis imperfect Marc Lacour 4 Anetodermas and Atrophoderma Marc Lacour 5 Hyalinoses, Stiff Skin Syndrome, Restrictive Dermopathy David G. Paige 6 Striae in Children and Adolescents Marcelo Ruvertoni 7 Morphoea (Localised Scleroderma) Despina Eleftheriou & Lindsay Shaw 8 Systemic sclerosis in childhood Christopher P. Denton & Carol M. Black Section 22 Disorders of fat tissue 1. Lipoma and lipomatosis Siriwan Wananukul & Susheera Chatproedprai 2. Panniculitis Christine Bodemer 3. Lipodystrophies Robert K. Semple Section 23 Mosaic disorders, naevi and hamartomas 1. An introduction to Mosaicism Veronica A. Kinsler 2. Melanocytic naevi Veronica A. Kinsler 3. Epidermal naevi Leopold M. Groesser & Christian Hafner 4. Other naevi and hamartomas Jonathan A. Dyer 5. Proteus syndrome and other localised overgrowth disorders Veronica A. Kinsler 6. Mosaic disorders of pigmentation Veronica A. Kinsler Section 24 Non-vascular skin tumours 1. Differential diagnosis of skin nodules and cysts Susanne Abraham & Peter H. Hoeger 2. Adnexal disorders Andrew Wang & Robert Sidbury 3. Calcification and Ossification in the Skin Amanda T. Moon, Albert C. Yan, and Eulalia T. Baselga 4. Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia Jasem M. Alshaiji 5. Fibromatoses Jenna L. Streicher, Moise L. Levy, and Albert C. Yan 6. Carcinomas of the skin Karen Agnew 7. Childhood Melanoma Birgitta Schmidt & Elena B. Hawryluk 8. Other malignant skin tumours Andrea Bettina Cervini, Marcela Bocian, María Marta Bujan & Paola Stefano Section 25 Vascular tumours and malformations 1. Vascular malformations Laurence M. Boon & Miikka Vikkula 2. Infantile haemangiomas Anna L. Bruckner, Ilona J. Frieden & Julie Powell 3. Other vascular tumours Ann M. Kulungowski, Taizo A. Nakano & Anna L. Bruckner 4. Disorders of lymphatics Arin K. Greene & Jeremy A. Goss Section 26 Disorders of Pigmentation 1. Inherited and Acquired Hyperpigmentation Leslie Castelo-Soccio & Alexis Weymann Perlmutter 2. Vitiligo Julien Seneschal, Juliette Mazereeuw-Hautier & Alain Taïeb 3. Albinism Fanny Morice-Picard & Alain Taïeb 4. Disorders of hypopigmentation M.W. Bekkenk & A. Wolkerstorfer 5. Dyschromatosis Eli Sprecher & Liat Samuelov Section 27 Disorders of Keratin and Keratinization 1. Review of Keratin Disorders Maurice A.M. van Steensel & Peter M. Steijlen 2. Mendelian Disorders of Cornification (MEDOC): the Keratodermas Edel A. O’Toole 3. Mendelian Disorders of Cornification (MeDOC): The ichthyoses Angela Hernandez, Robert Gruber, Vinzenz Oji 4. Keratosis pilaris and Darier´s Disease Flora B. de Waard-van der Spek & Arnold. P Oranje 5. The Erythrokeratodermas Juliette Mazereeuw-Hautier, S Leclerc-Mercier & E Bourrat 6. Netherton Syndrome Wei-Li Di & John Harper 7. Porokeratosis Leslie Castelo-Soccio Section 28 Focal or generalized hypoplasia, premature ageing 1. Ectodermal dysplasia Cathal O’Connor, Yuka Asai & Alan D. Irvine 2. Focal dermal hypoplasia Bret L. Bostwick, Ignatia B. Van den Veyver & V. Reid Sutton 3. Incontinentia pigmenti Elizabeth A. Jones & Dian Donnai 4. Premature ageing syndromes Helga V. Toriello & Caleb P. Bupp Section 29 Genetic diseases predisposing to malignancy 1. Xeroderma pigmentosum and related diseases Steffen Schubert & Steffen Emmert 2. Gorlin (Naevoid basal cell carcinoma) syndrome Kai Ren Ong & Peter Farndon 3. Rothmund–Thomson Syndrome, Bloom Syndrome, Dyskeratosis Congenita, Fanconi Anaemia, Poikiloderma with Neutropenia Lisa L. Wang & Moise L. Levy 4. Other Genetic Disorders Predisposing to Malignancy Julie V. Schaffer Section 30 Neurofibromatosis, RASopathies, and Hamartoma-overgrowth-syndromes 1. The Neurofibromatoses Amy Theos, Kevin P. Boyd, and Bruce R. Korf 2. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Francis J. DiMario Jr. 3. Other RASopathies Fanny Morice-Picard Section 31 Vasculitic and Rheumatic Syndromes 1. Cutaneous vasculitis Joyce C Chang & Pamela F. Weiss 2. Purpura fulminans Saul N. Faust, Brian Eley, Michael Levin 3. Kawasaki disease Wynnis L. Tom & Jane C. Burns 4. Polyarteritis Nodosa, Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, and Microscopic Polyangiitis Paul A. Brogan 5. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Juvenile Dermatomyositis Elena Moraitis & Despina Eleftheriou 6. Behçet’s Disease and Relapsing Polychondritis Sibel Ersoy-Evans, Ay?en Karaduman, Seza Özen 7. Erythromelalgia Nedaa Skeik Section 32 Cutaneous Manifestations of Systemic Disease 1. Metabolic Disorders and the Skin Fatma Al Jasmi & Hassan Galadari, Peter T. Clayton & Emma J. Footitt 2. Cystic Fibrosis Roderic J Phillips 3. Cutaneous manifestations of endocrine disease Devika Patel & Tor A. Shwayder 4. Autoinflammatory diseases and amyloidosis Antonio Torrelo, Sergio Hernández-Ostiz & Teri A. Khan 5. Immunodeficiency syndromes Julie V. Schaffer, Melanie Makhija & Amy S. Paller 6. Graft-Versus-Host Disease John Harper & Paul Veys Section 33 The oral cavity 1. The Oral Mucosa and Tongue Jane Luker & Crispian Scully Section 34 Hair, scalp and nail disorders 1. Hair Disorders Elise A. Olsen & Matilde Iorizzo 2. Alopecia areata Kirsten Foitzik-Lau 3. Nail disorders Antonella Tosti & Bianca Maria Piraccini Section 35 Anogenital disease in children 1. Genital disease in children Gayle O. Fischer 2. Sexually transmitted diseases in children and adolescents Arnold P. Oranje, Robert A.C. Bilo & Nico G. Hartwig Section 36 Cutaneous Signs of Child Maltreatment and Sexual Abuse 1. Maltreatment, physical and sexual abuse Bernhard Herrmann Section 37 Psychological Aspects of Skin Disease in Children 1. Assessing and scoring Life Quality Andrew Y Finlay 2. Coping with the burden of disease Sarah L. Chamlin 3. Physiological Habits, Self-Mutilation and Factitious Disorders Arnold P. Oranje, Jeroen Novak & Robert A.C. Bilo Section 38 Principles of treatment in children 1. Topical therapy Johannes Wohlrab 2. Systemic therapy in Pediatric Dermatology Blanca Rosa Del Pozzo-Magana & Irene Lara-Corrales 3. New genetic approaches to treating diseases of the skin. Stephen Hart & Amy Walker 4. Surgical therapy Julianne A. Mann & Jane S. Bellet 5. Laser therapy Samira Batul Syed, Maria Gnarra & Sean Lanigan 6. Sedation and anaesthesia Brenda M. Simpson,Yuin-Chew Chan, & Lawrence F. Eichenfield Section 39 Diagnostic procedures in dermatology 1. Approach to the pediatric patient Diana Purvis 2. Dermoscopy of Melanocytic Lesions in the Paediatric Population Maria L Marino, Jennifer L. DeFazio, Ralph P. Braun & Ashfaq A. Marghoob 3. The Role of Histopathology and Molecular Techniques in Pediatric Dermatology Lori Prok & Adnan Mir Section 40 Nursing care of cutaneous disorders in children 1. Nursing Care of the Skin in Children Bisola Laguda, Hilary Kennedy, Jackie, Denyer, Heulwyn Wyatt, Jean Robinson & Kathryn Pett Index
EDITORS Peter Hoeger is Head of the Departments of Pediatrics and Pediatric Dermatology, Catholic Children's Hospital Wilhelmstift, and Professor of Pediatrics and Dermatology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany. Veronica Kinsler is Consultant Paediatric Dermatologist and Academic Lead Clinician, Paediatric Dermatology Department, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, and Associate Professor, Genetics and Genomic Medicine, University College London Institute of Child Health, London, UK. Albert Yan is Professor of Pediatrics and Dermatology and Chief of Pediatric Dermatology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. John Harper is Honorary Professor of Paediatric Dermatology, University College London, Institute of Child Health / Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK. Arnold Oranje was formerly Consultant in General and Pediatric Dermatology and Professor of Pediatric Dermatology, Department of Pediatrics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands. Christine Bodemer is Professor in Dermatology and Coordinator, Centre de reference sur les Maladies Génétiques à Expression Cutanée (MAGEC), Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, France. Margarita Larralde is Tenured Professor of Dermatology at the University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and Director of the Carrera de Médicos Specialists in Pediatric Dermatology at Ramos Mejía Hospital Headquarters, Buenos Aires, Argentina. David Luk is Consultant Pediatrician, Department of Pediatrics, United Christian Hospital, Kwun Tong, Hong Kong. Vibhu Mendiratta is Professor of Dermatology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, Delhi, India. Diana Purvis is Paediatric Dermatologist, Starship Children's Health, Auckland, New Zealand.
VOLUME 1 Harper's Textbook of Pediatric Dermatology FOURTH EDITION A consummate classic with a fresh approach to pediatric dermatology Children??s skin is different. Maturation affects the epidermal barrier, the cutaneous microbiome, adnexal structures, vasculature, and transcutaneous absorption of drugs. The immature skin is more susceptible to pathogens and environmental disruption. Many genetic disorders are either present at birth or manifest early in childhood. Skin diseases thus present differently in children than in adults. Pediatric dermatology has seen significant advances over the last decade, particularly in the field of molecular genetics research, which has furthered our understanding of the pathogenesis of many skin diseases and the development of new approaches to treatment. This fourth edition of the Harper classic provides state-of-the-art information on all aspects of skin disease in children. It covers the diagnosis and treatment of all conditions – both common and rare – with a consistently evidence-based approach. Existing content has been refreshed and fully updated to reflect emerging thinking and to incorporate the latest in research and clinical data – especially at the genetic level. This new fourth edition includes: Greater focus on the genetics behind skin disease, including new genes/genodermatoses, progress in genetic analysis, and stem cell transplants Increased coverage of lasers and other technologies used to treat skin disease More summary tables, learning points, tables of differential diagnosis, and clinical algorithms for diagnosis and management Additional online features, including patient information links and multiple-choice questions Harper's Textbook of Pediatric Dermatology delivers crucial clinical insights and up-to-date research information that spans the breadth of the field. As the most comprehensive reference book on this subject available, this revised fourth edition will support and guide the daily practice of both dermatologists and pediatricians across the world.
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