Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials, Structure and Chemistry, Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials, Structure and Chemistry
Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials Volume 1
Preface xix About the Editors xxi 1 Carbon Fibers from Sustainable Resources 1 Rafael de Avila Delucis, Veronica Maria de Araujo Calado, Jose Roberto Moraes d’Almeida and Sandro Campos Amico 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Lignin and Other Sustainable Resources 3 1.3 Carbon Fibers from Lignin 9 1.4 Carbon Fibers from Other Sustainable Resources 12 1.5 Concluding Remarks 15 References 15 2 Polylactic Acid Composites and Composite Foams Based on Natural Fibers 25 A.A. Pérez-Fonseca, H. Teymoorzadeh, J.R. Robledo-Ortíz, R. González-Nuñez and D. Rodrigue 2.1 Introduction 25 2.2 PLA-Natural Fibers Composites 27 2.3 PLA Composite Foams with Natural Fibers 36 2.4 Thermal Annealing of PLA Composites 51 2.5 Conclusions 55 References 55 3 Microcrystalline Cellulose and Related Polymer Composites: Synthesis, Characterization and Properties 61 Djalal Trache 3.1 Introduction 61 3.2 Cellulose: Structure and Sources 63 3.3 Microcrystalline Cellulose 66 3.4 Characterization and Properties of Microcrystalline Cellulose 72 3.5 MCC-based Composites 78 3.6 Application of Composite Materials Based on MCC 83 3.7 Conclusions 84 Acknowledgments 85 References 85 4 Tannin-Based Foams: The Innovative Material for Insulation Purposes 93 Gianluca Tondi and Alexander Petutschnigg 4.1 First Tannin Foams and Their Characterization 93 4.2 Formulation and Process Modifications 96 4.3 Composite Materials: Tannin-based Panels 100 4.4 Conclusions 102 References 102 5 Renewable Feedstock Vanillin-Derived Polymer and Composites: Structure Property Relationship 107 G. Madhumitha, Selvaraj Mohana Roopan, D. Devi Priya and G. Elango 5.1 Introduction 107 5.2 Vanillin Production 109 5.3 Some Common Applications of Vanillin 111 5.4 Vanillin-Derived Polymers 112 5.5 Vanillin-based Composites 119 5.6 Applications of Vanillin-based Polymers and Composites 121 5.7 Conclusion 124 References 125 6 Biomass-Based Formaldehyde-Free Bio-Resin for Wood Panel Process 129 Xiaobin Zhao 6.1 Introduction 129 6.1.1 Wood Composite 129 6.1.2 Biomass-based Adhesives 130 6.2 Market Analysis of Biomass Based Adhesives 130 6.3 Bio-based Adhesive Formulations 131 6.4 Cambond Biomass Based Adhesives 135 6.5 Bio-composites Based on Cambond Bio-Resin 142 6.6 Final Remarks 145 7 Bio-Derived Adhesives and Matrix Polymers for Composites 151 Mariusz ?. Mami?ski and Renata Toczy?owska-Mami?ska 7.1 Introduction 151 7.2 Glycerol 152 7.3 Tannins 156 7.4 Lignin 159 7.5 Polysaccharides 165 7.6 Proteins 170 7.7 Oils 175 7.8 Microorganism-produced biopolymers 177 8 Silk Biocomposites: Structure and Chemistry 189 Alexander Morin, Mahdi Pahlevan and Parvez Alam 8.1 Introduction 189 8.2 Spider Silk Protein 189 8.3 Bombyx Mori Silk 195 8.4 Silk Biocomposites: Applications 205 9 Isolation and Characterisation of Water Soluble Polysaccharide from Colocasia esculenta Tubers 221 Harshal Ashok Pawar, Pritam Dinesh Choudhary and Amit Jagannath Gavasane 9.1 Introduction 221 9.2 Materials and Methods 224 9.3 Results and Discussion 230 9.4 Conclusions 238 Acknowledgements 238 References 238 10 Bio-based Fillers for Environmentally Friendly Composites 243 Thabang H. Mokhothu and Maya J. John 10.1 Introduction 243 10.2 Bio-based Fillers/Reinforcements 244 10.3 Bio-based Fillers Reinforced Biopolymer Composites 255 10.4 Applications of Bio-based Composites 261 10.5 Summary 262 References 264 11 Keratin-based Materials in Biotechnology 271 Hafiz M. N. Iqbal and Tajalli Keshavarz 11.1 Introduction 271 11.2 Biopolymers 273 11.3 Classification of Biopolymers 273 11.4 Occurrence and Physicochemical Properties of Keratin 274 11.5 Keratin-based Biomaterials 276 11.6 Bio-composites 276 11.7 Properties of Bio-composites for Bio-medical Applications 278 11.8 Biomedical and Biotechnological Applications 280 11.9 Potential Applications 281 11.10 Concluding Remarks 284 References 284 12 Pineapple Leaf Fiber: A High Potential Reinforcement for Green Rubber and Plastic Composites 289 Taweechai Amornsakchai 12.1 Introduction 289 12.2 Structure of Pineapple Leaf and Pineapple Leaf Fiber 292 12.3 Conventional Methods of Fiber Extraction 293 12.4 The Novel Mechanical Grinding Method 293 12.5 Potential Applications of PALF as Reinforcement for Polymer Matrix Composites 298 12.6 Concluding Remarks 304 Acknowledgements 305 References 305 13 Insights into the Structure of Proteins Adsorbed onto Bioactive Glasses 309 Klára Magyari, Adriana Vulpoi and Lucian Baia 13.1 Introduction 309 13.2 Bioactive Glasses as Renewable Materials 310 13.3 Proteins Structure 313 13.4 Suitable Methods for Proteins Investigation 315 13.5 Interaction of Protein with Bioactive Glasses 320 13.6 Summary 330 Acknowledgements 331 14 Effect of Filler Properties on the Antioxidant Response of Thermoplastic Starch Composites 337 Tomy J. Gutiérrez, Paula González Seligra, Carolina Medina Jaramillo, Lucía Famá and Silvia Goyanes 14.1 Introduction 337 14.2 Starch-based Nanocomposites 338 14.3 Regulatory Aspect 355 14.4 Conclusions and Outlook 357 Acknowledgements 358 15 Preparation and Application of the Composite from Chitosan 371 Chen Yu 15.1 Introduction 371 15.2 Composites from Chitosan and Natural Polymers 372 15.3 Composites from Chitosan and Synthetic Polymers 380 15.4 Composites from Chitosan and Biomacromolecules 388 15.5 Composites from Chitosan and Inorganic Components 394 15.6 Composites from Chitosan and Carbon Materials 409 Acknowledgments 420 16 Overview on Synthesis of Magnetic Bio Char from Discarded Agricultural Biomass 435 Manoj Tripathi, N.M. Mubarak, J.N. Sahu and P.Ganesan 16.1 Introduction 436 16.2 Magnetic Bio Char 437 16.3 Synthesis of Magnetic Bio Char 438 16.4 Characteristics of Magnetic Bio Char 447 16.5 Applications of Magnetic Bio Char 450 16.6 Challenges and Future Scope of Magnetic Bio Char 452 16.7 Summary 452 Acknowledgement 454 17 Polyurethanes Foams from Bio-Based and Recycled Components 461 S.Gaidukovs, U.Cabulis and G.Gaidukova 17.1 Introduction 461 17.2 Experiments 464 17.3 Results and Discussion 467 Conclusions 478 References 479 18 Biodegradable Polymers for Protein and Peptide Therapeutics: Next Generation Delivery Systems 455 Sathish Dyawanapelly, Nishant Kumar Jain, Sindhu KR, Maruthi Prassana and Akhilesh Vikram Singh 18.1 Introduction 456 18.2 Protein Therapeutics and Their Challenges 456 18.3 Biodegradable Polymers for Conjugation 459 18.4 PEGylated Protein Therapeutics 460 18.5 Glycosylation of Proteins 470 18.6 Polyglycerols (PG)-Protein Conjugates 480 18.7 Dendrimer-Protein Conjugates 481 18.8 HESylation of Proteins 485 18.9 Dextran-Protein Conjugates 487 18.10 Dextrin-Protein Conjugates 494 18.11 Hyaluronic Acid (HA)-Protein Conjugates 496 18.12 Some Other Polymer-Protein Conjugates 503 18.13 PASylation 503 18.14 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 504 Abbreviations 504 References 507
Vijay Kumar Thakur is a Lecturer in the School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing Engineering, Cranfield University, UK. Previously he had been a Staff Scientist in the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at Washington State University, USA. He spent his postdoctoral study in Materials Science & Engineering at Iowa State University, USA, and gained his PhD in Polymer Chemistry (2009) at the National Institute of Technology, India. He has published more than 90 SCI journal research articles in the field of polymers/materials science and holds one US patent. He has also published about 25 books and 33 book chapters on the advanced state-of-the-art of polymers/materials science with numerous publishers, including Wiley-Scrivener. Manju Kumar Thakur has been working as an Assistant Professor of Chemistry at the Division of Chemistry, Govt. Degree College Sarkaghat Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, India since 2010. She received her PhD in Polymer Chemistry from the Chemistry Department at Himachal Pradesh University. She has deep experience in the field of organic chemistry, biopolymers, composites/ nanocomposites, hydrogels, applications of hydrogels in the removal of toxic heavy metal ions, drug delivery etc. She has published more than 30 research papers in peer-reviewed journals, 25 book chapters and co-authored five books all in the field of polymeric materials. Michael R. Kessler is a Professor and Director of the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at Washington State University, USA. He is an expert in the mechanics, processing, and characterization of polymer matrix composites and nanocomposites. His honours include the Army Research Office Young Investigator Award, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research Young Investigator Award, the NSF CAREER Award, and the Elsevier Young Composites Researcher Award from the American Society for Composites. He has more than 150 journal articles and 5800 citations, holds 6 patents, published 5 books on the synthesis and characterization of polymer materials, and presented at least 200 talks at national and international meetings.
This unique multidisciplinary 8-volume set focuses on the emerging issues concerning synthesis, characterization, design, manufacturing and various other aspects of composite materials from renewable materials and provides a shared platform for both researcher and industry. The Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials comprises a set of 8 individual volumes that brings an interdisciplinary perspective to accomplish a more detailed understanding of the interplay between the synthesis, structure, characterization, processing, applications and performance of these advanced materials. The Handbook comprises 169 chapters from world renowned experts covering a multitude of natural polymers/ reinforcement/ fillers and biodegradable materials. Volume 1 is solely focused on the Structure and Chemistry of renewable materials. Some of the important topics include but not limited to: carbon fibers from sustainable resources; polylactic acid composites and composite foams based on natural fibres; composites materials from other than cellulosic resources; microcrystalline cellulose and related polymer composites; tannin-based foam; renewable feedstock vanillin derived polymer and composites; silk biocomposites; bioderived adhesives and matrix polymers; biomass-based formaldehyde-free bioresin; isolation and characterization of water soluble polysaccharide; biobased fillers; keratin-based materials in biotechnology; structure of proteins adsorbed onto bioactive glasses for sustainable composite; effect of filler properties on the antioxidant response of starch composites; composite of chitosan and its derivate; magnetic biochar from discarded agricultural biomass; biodegradable polymers for protein and peptide conjugation; polyurethanes and polyurethane composites from biobased / recycled components. AudienceThis valuable reference work will be read and consulted by researchers, engineers and students both in academia and industry who are working in the field of materials science especially polymer composites/technology. Composites from renewable materials have significant industrial applications especially in the automotive, marine, aerospace, construction, wind energy and consumer goods industries.
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