Guidelines for Process Safety in Batch Reaction Systems
Batch reaction systems pose unique challenges to process safety managers because they do not operate in a steady state. The sequence of processing steps, and frequent start-ups and shutdowns, increase the possibility of human errors and equipment failures. And, since batch plants are often designed for shared use, frequent modification of piping and layout may occur, resulting in complex "management of change" issues. This book identifies the singular concerns of batch reaction systems—including potential sources of unsafe conditions—and provides a "how-to" guide for the practicing engineer in dealing with them by applying appropriate practices to prevent accidents.
Preface. Acknowledgments. Acronyms and Abbreviations. Chapter 1. Process Safety in Batch Reaction Systems. 1.1. Scope. 1.2. Special Concerns of Batch Reaction Systems. 1.3. Approach Used in Guidelines. Chapter 2. Chemistry. 2.1. Introduction. 2.2. Case Study. 2.3. Key Issues. 2.4. Process Safety Practices. Table 2: Chemistry. Appendix 2A. Chemical Reactivity Hazards Screening. A.1. Understand the Problem. A.2. Conduct Theoretical Screening. A.3. Conduct Experimental Screening. A.4. Conduct Experimental Analysis. Chapter 3. Equipment Configuration and Layout. 3.1. Introduction. 3.2. Case Studies. Pump Leak Incidents. Tank Farm Fire. 3.3. Key Issues. 3.4. Process Safety Practices. Table 3: Equipment Configuration and Layout. Chapter 4. Equipment. 4.1. Introduction. Vessels Including Reactors and Storage Vessels. Centrifuges. Dryers. Batch Distillation Columns and Evaporators. Process Vents and Drains. Charging and Transferring Equipment. Drumming Equipment. Milling Equipment. Filters. 4.2. Case Studies. Batch Pharmaceutical Reactor Accident. Seveso Runaway Reaction. Pharmaceutical Powder Dryer Fire and Explosion. 4.3. Key Issues. 4.4. Process Safety Practices. Table 4.0: General. Table 4.1: Reactors and Vessels. Table 4.3: Dryers. Table 4.5: Process Vents and Drains. Table 4.6: Transferring and Charging Equipment. Table 4.7: Drumming Equipment. Table 4.8: Milling Equipment. Table 4.9: Filters. Appendix 4A. Storage and Warehousing. Chapter 5. Instrumentation/Control Systems. 5.1. Introduction. 5.2. Case Study. 5.3. Key Issues. 5.4. Process Safety Practices. Table 5: Instrumentation/Control Systems. Chapter 6. Operations and Procedures. 6.1. Introduction. 6.2. Case Studies. Initiator Overcharging Incident. Reactant Stratification Incident. 6.3. Key Issues. 6.4. Process Safety Practices. Table 6: Operations and Procedures. References. Glossary.
The CENTER FOR CHEMICAL PROCESS SAFETY (CCPS), an industry technology alliance of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), has been a world leader in developing and disseminatinginformation on process safety management and technology since 1985. CCPS has published over 80 books in its process safety guidelines and process safety concepts series. For more information, visit www.ccpsonline.org.
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