Green Solvents, Volume 4Supercritical Solvents
Handbook of Green Chemistry 1. Aufl.
The shift towards being as environmentally-friendly as possible has resulted in the need for this important volume on the topic of supercritical solvents. Edited by the leading experts in the field, Professors Walter Leitner and Phil Jessop, this is an essential resource for anyone wishing to gain an understanding of the world of green chemistry, as well as for chemists, environmental agencies and chemical engineers.
Introduction to Supercritical Fluids<br> <br> Preface<br> INTRODUCTION<br> What is a Supercritical Fluid (SCF)?<br> Practical Aspects of Reactions in Supercritical Fluids<br> The Motivation for Use of SCFs in Modern Chemical Synthesis<br> The History and Applications of SCFs<br> HIGH-PRESSURE METHODS AND EQUIPMENT<br> Introduction<br> Infrastructure for High-Pressure Experiments<br> High-Pressure Reactors<br> Auxiliary Equipment and Handling<br> Dosage Under a High-Pressure Regime<br> Further Regulations and Control in Flow Systems<br> Evaporation and Condensation<br> Complete Reactor Systems for Synthesis with SCFs<br> Conclusion<br> BASIC PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, PHASE BEHAVIOR AND SOLUBILITY<br> Introduction<br> Basic Physical Properties of Supercritical Fluids<br> Phase Behavior in High-Pressure Systems<br> Factors Affecting Solubiliy in Supercritical Fluids<br> EXPANDED LIQUID PHASES IN CATALYSIS: GAS-EXPANDED LIQUIDS AND LIQUID-SUPERCRITICAL FLUID BIPHASIC SYSTEMS<br> A Practical Classification of Biphasic Systems Consisting of Liquids and Compressed Gases for Multiphase Catalysis<br> Physical Properties of Expanded Liquid Phases<br> Chemisorption of Gases in Liquids and their Use for Synthesis and Catalysis<br> Using Gas-Expanded Liquids for Catalysis<br> Why Perform Liquid-SCF Biphasic Reactions?<br> Biphasic Liquid-SCF Systems<br> Biphasic Reactions in Emulsions<br> SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMISTRY IN SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS<br> Introduction<br> Hydrogenation in Supercritical Fluids<br> Hydroformylation and Related Reactions in Supercritical Fluids<br> Oxidation Reactions in Supercritical Fluids<br> Palladium-Mediated Coupling Reactions in Supercritical Fluids<br> Miscellaneous Catalytic Reactions in Supercritical Fluids<br> Cycloaddition Reactions in Supercritical Fluids<br> Photochemical Reactions in Supercritical Fluids<br> Radical Reactions in Supercritical Fluids<br> Biotransformations in Supercritical Fluids<br> Conclusion<br> HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS<br> Introduction and Scope<br> General Aspects of Heterogeneous Catalysis in SCFs and GXLs<br> Selected Examples of Heterogeneously Catalyzed Conversions in SCFs and GXLs<br> Outlook<br> ENZYMATIC CATALYSIS<br> Enzymes in Non-Aqueous Environments<br> Supercritical Fluids for Enzyme Catalysis<br> Enzymatic Reactions in Supercritical Fluids<br> Reaction Parameters in Supercritical Biocatalysis<br> Stabilized Enzymes for Supercritical Biocatalysis<br> Enzymatic Catalysis in lL-scCO2 Biphasic Systems<br> Future Trends<br> <br> POLYMERIZATION IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE<br> General Aspects<br> Polymerization in scCO2<br> Conclusion<br> SYNTHESIS OF NANOMATERIALS<br> Introduction<br> Metal and Semiconductor Nanocrystals<br> Metal Oxide Nanoparticles<br> Carbon Nanomaterials<br> Nanocomposites<br> Conclusion<br> PHOTOCHEMICAL AND PHOTO-INDUCED REACTIONS IN SUPERCRITICAL FLUID SOLVENTS<br> Introduction<br> Photochemical Reactions in Supercritical Fluid Solvents<br> Photo-Initiated Radical Chain Reactions in Supercritical Fluid Solvents<br> Conclusion<br> ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS<br> Introduction<br> Electrochemical Methods<br> Analytes<br> Electrolytes<br> Electrochemical Cell and Supercritical Fluid Delivery System<br> Electrodes<br> Solvents<br> Applications<br> Conclusion and Outlook<br> COUPLING REAGENTS AND SEPARATION IN TUNABLE FLUIDS: PHASE TRANSFER-CATALYSIS AND ACID-CATALYZED REACTIONS<br> Introduction<br> Phase Transfer Catalysis<br> Near-Critical Water<br> Alkylcarbonic Acids<br> Conclusion<br> CHEMISTRY IN NEAR- AND SUPERCRITICAL WATER<br> Introduction<br> Properties<br> Synthesis Reactions<br> Biomass Conversion<br> Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO)<br> Inorganic Compounds in NSCW<br> Conclusion<br> Future Trends
Series Editor:<br> Paul T. Anastas joined Yale University as Professor and iserves as the Director of the Center for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering at Yale. From 2004-2006, Paul Anastas has been the Director of the Green Chemistry Institute in Washington, D.C. Until June of 2004 he served as Assistant Director for Environment at e White House Office of Science and Technology Policy where his responsibilities included a wide range of environmental science issues including furthering international public-private cooperation in areas of Science for Sustainability such as Green Chemistry. In 1991, he established the industry-government-university partnership Green Chemistry Program, which was expanded to include basic research, and the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards. He has published and edited several books in the field of Green Chemistry and is one of the inventors of the 12 principles of Green Chemistry.<br> <br> Volume Editors:<br> Philip Jessop is the Canada Research Chair of Green Chemistry at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. After his Ph.D. (Inorganic Chemistry, UBC, 1991) and a postdoctoral appointment at the University of Toronto, he took a contract research position in the Research Development Corp. of Japan under the supervision of Ryoji Noyori, investigating reactions in supercritical CO2. As a professor at the University of California-Davis (1996-2003) and then at Queen's University, he has studied green solvents, the conversion of CO2 to useful products, and aspects of H2 chemistry. He has presented popular chemistry shows to thousands of members of the public. Distinctions include the Canadien Catalysis Lectureship Award (2004), a Canada Research Chair (2003 to present), and the NSERC Polanyi Award (2008). He has chaired the 2007 CHEMRAWN and ICCDU Conference on Green Chemistry, and serves as Technical Director of GreenCentre Canada.<br> <br> Walter Leitner was born in 1963. He obtained his Ph.D. with Prof. Henri Brunner at Regensburg University in 1989 and was a Postdoctoral Fellow with Prof. John M. Brown at the University of Oxford. After research within the Max-Planck-Society under the mentorship of Profs. Eckhard Dinjus (Jena) and Manfred T. Reetz (Mulheim), he was appointed Chair of Technical Chemistry and Petrochemistry at RWTH Aachen University in 2002 as successor to Prof. Willi Keim. Walter Leitner is External Scientific Member of the Max-Planck-Institut fur Kohlenforschung and Scientific Director of CAT, the joint Catalysis Research Center of RWTH Aachen and the Bayer Company.<br> His research interests are the molecular and reaction engineering principles of catalysis as a fundamental science and key technology for Green Chemistry. In particular, this includes the development and synthetic application of organometallic catalysts and the use of alternative reaction media, especially supercritical carbon dioxide, in multiphase catalysis. Walter Leitner has published more than 170 publications in this field and co-edited among others the first edition of "Synthesis using Supercritical Fluids" and the handbook on "Multiphase Homogeneous Catalysis". Since 2004, he serves as the Scientific Editor of the Journal "Green Chemistry" published by the Royal Society of Chemistry. The research of his team has been recognized with several awards including the Gerhard-Hess-Award of the German Science Foundation (1997), the Otto-Roelen-Medal of Dechema (2001), and the Wohler-Award of the German Chemical Society (2009).
Green Chemistry is of crucial interest in a world where being as environmentally sound as possible is no longer a luxury but a necessity. Its applications include the design of chemical products and processes that help to reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.<br> <br> This handbook comprises 12 volumes, divided into four subject-specific sets:<br> Set I: Green Catalysis<br> - Volume 1: Homogeneous Catalysis<br> - Volume 2: Heterogeneous Catalysis<br> - Volume 3: Biocatalysis<br> Set II: Green Solvents<br> Set III: Green Processes<br> Set IV: Green Products<br> <br> Supercritical fluids (SCFs) and gas-expanded liquids (GXLs) are of great interest in green chemistry since they are either nontoxic and non-polluting solvents (such as carbon dioxide or water) or they help to avoid harmful intermediates through new processing routes. This book examines the use of SCFs and GXLs in catalysis, polymerization and many other major reactions and processes where it is crucial to avoid using hazardous solvents. The additional control parameters resulting from the unique physico-chemical properties of such solvents are discussed and highlighted along with numerous examples from the current literature and applications.<br>
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