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Green and Sustainable Advanced Materials


Green and Sustainable Advanced Materials

Processing and Characterization
Volume 1

von: Shakeel Ahmed, Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain

173,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 02.10.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119407379
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 378

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Beschreibungen

Sustainable development is a very prevalent concept of modern society. This concept has appeared as a critical force in combining a special focus on development and growth by maintaining a balance of using human resources and the ecosystem in which we are living. The development of new and advanced materials is one of the powerful examples in establishing this concept. Green and sustainable advanced materials are the newly synthesized material or existing modified material having superior and special properties. These fulfil today’s growing demand for equipment, machines and devices with better quality for an extensive range of applications in various sectors such as paper, biomedical, textile, and much more. Volume 1 gives overviews on a variety of topics of characterization of green and sustainable advanced materials including biopolymers, biocomposites, nanomaterials, polymeric materials, green functional textiles materials and hybrid materials, as well as processing chapters on the design and process aspects of nanofabrication.
1. Green and Sustainable Advanced Materials: OverviewTanvir Arfin, Arshiya Tarannum and Kamini Sonawane. 1 1.1. History. 1 1.2. Biomaterials. 2 1.2.1. Dextran. 2 1.2.1.1. Chemical Structure. 2 1.2.1.2. Properties. 2 1.2.1.3. Applications. 3 1.2.2. Cellulose. 3 1.2.2.1. Chemical Structure. 4 1.2.2.2. Properties. 4 1.2.2.3. Application 1.2.3. Gelatine. 4 1.2.3.1. Chemical Structure. 5 1.2.3.2. Properties. 5 1.2.3.3. Application. 5 1.2.4. Alginate. 6 1.2.4.1. Chemical Structure. 6 1.2.4.2. Properties. 7 1.2.4.3. Application. 7 1.2.5. Chitin. 7 1.2.5.1. Chemical Structure. 8 1.2.5.2. Properties. 8 1.2.5.3. Application. 8 1.2.6. Chitosan. 8 1.2.6.1. Chemical Structure. 9 1.2.6.2. Properties. 9 1.2.6.3. Application. 9 1.2.7. Pollulan. 9 1.2.7.1. Chemical Structure. 9 1.2.7.2. Properties. 10 1.2.7.3. Applications. 10 1.2.8. Curdlan. 10 1.2.8.1. Chemical Structure. 10 1.2.8.2. Properties. 11 1.2.8.3. Application. 11 1.2.9. Lignin. 11 1.2.9.1. Chemical Structure. 11 1.2.9.2. Properties. 12 1.2.9.3. Application. 12 1.2.10. Xanthan Gum. 13 1.2.10.1. Chemical Structure. 13 1.2.10.2. Properties. 14 1.2.10.3. Applications. 14 1.2.11. Hydrogels. 14 1.2.11.1. Chemical Structure. 14 1.2.11.2. Properties:. 14 1.2.11.3. Application. 15 1.2.12. Xylan. 15 1.2.12.1. Chemical Structure. 16 1.2.12.2. Properties. 16 1.2.12.3. Application. 16 1.2.13. Arabic Gum. 17 1.2.13.1. Chemical Structure. 17 1.2.13.2. Properties. 17 1.2.13.3. Applications. 18 1.3. CdS. 18 1.4. Carbon Nanotube. 19 1.5. Fe Containing Nanomaterial. 20 1.6. Graphene. 20 1.7. Graphene Oxide. 22 1.8. Inulin. 23 1.9. Pectin. 24 1.10. Metal Oxide. 25 1.10.1 TiO2. 25 1.10.2 ZnO. 26 1.10.3 CeO2. 26 1.11. Polymer. 27 1.11.1. Polystyrene. 27 1.11.2. PANI. 28 1.11.3 Starch. 28 1.11.4 Dendrimer. 28 1.12 Bentonite. 29 1.13 Conclusion. 29 References. 30 2. Characterization of Green and Sustainable Advanced Materials. 35Pintu Pandit and Gayatri T.N. 2.1. Introduction. 36 2.2. Characterization of Advanced Materials. 38 2.3. Physical Characterization of Advanced Materials. 39 2.3.1. Scanning Electron Microscopy. 41 2.3.2. Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. 41 2.3.3. Transmission Electron Microscopy. 42 2.3.4. X-ray Diffraction. 43 2.3.5. Ultraviolet Protection. 44 2.3.6. Thermal Characterization (TGA, DTA, DSC, Cone Calorimetry). 44 2.3.6.1. Thermogravimetric Analysis. 45 2.3.6.2. Differential Thermal Analysis. 47 2.3.6.3. Differential Scanning Calorimetric Analysis. 47 2.3.6.4. Cone Calorimetry. 48 2.3.7. Characterization for Mechanical Properties of Advanced Materials. 49 2.4. Chemical Characterization of Advanced Materials. 50 2.4.1. EXAFS, XPS, and AES. 51 2.4.2. ICP-MS, ICP OES, and SIMS. 55 2.4.3. LC/GC/FTICR-MS. 57 2.4.4. NMR. 58 2.4.5. FTIR and Raman Spectroscopy. 59 2.5. Conclusions. 61 References. 62 3. Green and Sustainable Advanced Biopolymeric and Biocomposite Materials. 67T.P. Mohan and K. Kanny 3.1. Introduction. 67 3.2. Classification of Green Materials. 68 3.3. Biopolymers. 69 3.4. Natural Fillers. 70 3.5. Natural Fibers. 72 3.6. Biocomposites. 73 3.6.1. Thermoplastic Starch Based Composites. 73 3.6.2. Polylactic Acid (PLA) Based Composites. 74 3.6.3. Cellulose Based Composites. 74 3.6.4. Plant Oil Based Composites. 75 3.6.5. Polymer—Polymer Blends-Based Composites. 76 3.7. Merits and Demerits of Green Materials. 76 3.8. Recent Progress in Improvement of Material Properties. 78 3.8.1. Hybridization. 79 3.9. Current Applications of Biocomposites and Biopolymers. 79 3.9.1. Green Fibers and their Potential in Diversified Applications. 80 3.9.2. Textile Applications. 80 3.9.3. Green Fibers for Pulp. 81 3.9.4. Green Fiber for Biocomposites, Based on Lignocelluloses. 82 3.9.5. Applications of Composites. 83 3.9.6. Particleboards. 83 3.10. Futuristic Applications of Biocomposites and Biopolymers. 83 3.10.1. Development Prospects for Plant Fiber/Polymer Composites: 85 3.11. Conclusion. 85 References. 86 4. Green and Sustainable Advanced Nanomaterials. 93Alaa K. H. Al-Khalaf and Falah H. Hussein 4.1. Introduction. 93 4.1.1. Green Chemistry and Nanoscale Science. 94 4.1.2. Examples of Such Green Nanoparticles. 94 4.1.2.1. Beta-Carotene Molecule. 94 4.1.2.2. Anthocyanin Molecule. 96 4.1.2.3. Hydro Gel. 99 4.2. Applications of Natural NanoOrganic Materials. 100 4.2.1. Application of Beta-Carotene. 100 4.2.2. Application of Anthocyanin. 100 4.2.3. Application of Hydrogel. 101 4.3. Conclusion. 104 References. 105 5. Biogenic Approaches for SiO2 Nanostructures: Exploring the Sustainable Platform of Nanofabrication. 107M. Hariram, P. Vishnukumar and S. Vivekanandhan 5.1. Introduction. 108 5.2. Synthesis of SiO2 Nanostructures. 109 5.2.1. Physical Processes. 110 5.2.2. Chemical Processes. 111 5.2.3. Template Assisted Process. 114 5.3. Bio-Mediated Sustainable Processes for SiO2 Nanostructures. 115 5.3.1. Bacterial Assisted Synthesis Process. 116 5.3.2. Fungal Mediates Biogenic Synthesis Process. 118 5.3.3. Plant Based Synthesis Process. 120 5.3.4. Biomolecular Template Assisted Synthetic Process. 123 5.4. Biogenic SiO2 based Doped, Functionalized and Composite Nanostructures. 125 5.4.1. Biogenic Synthesis of Doped and Functionalized SiO2 Nanostructures. 126 5.4.2. Biogenic SiO2 Nanocomposites. 127 5.5. Applications of Bio-fabricated SiO2 Nanoparticles. 129 5.5.1. Catalysis. 130 5.5.2. Biomedical. 130 5.5.3. Energy and Environment. 131 5.6. Conclusions. 131 Acknowledgements. 132 References. 132 6. Green and Sustainable Advanced Composite Materials. 143Yahya F. Al-Khafaji and Falah H. Hussein. 6.1. Introduction. 143 6.2. Applications of Polymers. 145 6.3. The Problems of Synthetic Polymers. 145 6.4. Why Biodegradable Polymers. 147 6.5. Biodegradable Polymers. 147 6.6. Copolymers. 147 6.7. Examples of Biodegradable Polymers is Polyesters. 148 6.7.1. Aliphatic Polyesters Polylactide PLA, PolYcaprolactone PCL and Polyvalerolactone PVL. 148 6.7.2. Preparation of Polyesters. 148 6.7.2.1. Polycondensation. 149 6.7.2.2. Ring opening Polymerization (ROP). 149 6.7.3. Mechanism of ROP. 150 6.7.3.1. Cationic Ring Opening Polymerization (CROP). 150 6.7.3.2. AnionicRring Opening Polymerization (AROP). 150 6.7.3.3. Coordination-Insertion Polymerization. 150 6.8. Conclusion. 152 References. 152 7. Design and Processing Aspects of Polymer and Composite Materials. 155Hafiz M. N. Iqbal, Muhammad Bilal and Tahir Rasheed 7.1. Introduction. 156 7.2. Design and Processing. 158 7.3. Natural Polymers and Their Applied Potentialities. 158 7.3.1. Alginate – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 158 7.3.2. Carrageenan – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 161 7.3.3. Cellulose – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 162 7.3.4. CS – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 163 7.3.5. Dextran – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects 7.3.6. Guar Gum – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 166 7.3.7. Xanthan – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 167 7.4. Synthetic Polymers and Their Applied Potentialities. 169 7.4.1. PAA – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 169 7.4.2. PAM – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 170 7.4.3. PVA – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 171 7.4.4. PEG – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 171 7.4.5. Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 172 7.4.6. PLA – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 172 7.5. Materials-based Biocomposites. 173 7.6. Concluding Remarks and Future Considerations. 179 Conflict of Interest. 180 Acknowledgements. 180 References. 180 8. Seaweed-Based Binder in Wood Composites. 191Kang Chiang Liew and Nur Syafiqah Nadiah Abdul Ghani 8.1. Introduction. 191 8.2. Methods and Techniques. 193 8.2.1. Preparation of Raw Material. 193 8.2.2. Seaweed Adhesive Preparation. 193 8.2.3. Blending and Mat Forming. 193 8.2.4. Conditioning. 194 8.2.5. Data Analysis. 195 8.3. Results and Discussion. 195 8.3.1. Overview. 195 8.3.2. The Physical Properties of Acacia Mangium Particleboard. 195 8.3.2.2. Density. 197 8.3.3. Dimensional Stability of Acacia Mangium Particleboard. 199 8.3.2.1. Moisture Content. 199 8.3.3.2. Thickness Swelling. 201 8.3.4. The Mechanical Properties of Acacia Mangium Particleboard. 204 8.3.3.1. Water Absorption. 204 8.3.4.2. Modulus of Rupture. 205 8.3.4.3. Internal Bonding. 207 8.4. Conclusion. 208 References. 209 9. Green and Sustainable Textile Materials Using Natural Resources. 213Pintu Pandit, Gayatri T.N. and Saptarshi Maiti 9.1. Introduction. 213 9.2. Sustainable Colouration of Textile Materials Using Natural Plant Waste Resources. 216 9.2.1. Natural Dyeing with DSE on Silk Fabric. 216 9.2.2. Natural Dyeing of Textile Materials Using Sterculia Foetida Fruit Shell Waste Extract. 217 9.2.3. Natural Dyeing of Textile Materials Using Green CSE. 220 9.2.4. Colouration of Textile Materials Using Resources from Temple Flower Waste. 223 9.3. Sustainable Antibacterial Finishing of Textile Materials Using Natural Waste Resources. 223 9.3.1. Antibacterial Activity of Delonix Regia Stem Shell Waste Extract on Silk Fabric. 223 9.3.2. Antibacterial Textile Materials Using Natural Sterculia Foetida Fruit Shell Waste Extract. 224 9.3.3. Antibacterial Textile Materials Using Waste Green CSE. 225 9.4. Sustainable UV Protective Textile Materials Using Waste Natural Resources. 226 9.4.1. UV Protective Silk Fabric Using DSE. 226 9.4.2. UV Protective Textile Materials Using Sterculia Foetida FSE. 227 9.4.3. UV Protective Textile Materials Using Waste Green CSE. 228 9.5. Sustainable Green Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using Natural Resources. 229 9.5.1. Flame Retardancy Imparted by Plant Based Waste Natural Resources. 230 9.5.1.1. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using Green CSE. 231 9.5.1.2. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using BPS. 234 9.5.1.3. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using SJ. 236 9.5.1.4. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using Starch. 236 9.5.1.5. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using PRE. 238 9.5.2. Flame Retardancy Imparted by Animal Based Natural Resources. 239 9.5.2.1. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using Chicken Feather. 239 9.5.2.2. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using Casein. 239 9.5.2.3. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using Whey Protein. 240 9.5.2.4. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using Hydrophobin. 242 9.5.2.5. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using Deoxyribonucleic Acid. 242 9.5.2.6. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using Chitosan. 243 9.6. Sustainable Textile Materials Using Clay as Natural Resources. 243 9.6.1. Different Types of Clay and its Application in Textile Materials. 243 9.6.1.1. Application of Clay in Nanocomposites. 245 9.6.1.2. Application of Clay in UV Protection. 246 9.6.1.3. Application of Clay in Effluent Treatment. 246 9.6.1.4. Application of Clay in Superabsorbency. 247 9.6.1.5. Application of Clay in Discolouration of Denim. 248 9.6.1.6. Application of Clay in Antimicrobial Finish. 248 9.6.1.7. Application of Clay in Flame Retardancy. 249 9.6.1.8. Application of Clay in Dyeing and Printing. 250 9.7. Sustainable Application of Aroma Finishing in Textile Materials Using Natural Resources. 250 9.7.1. Different Natural Sources of Aroma and Technology for Microencapsulation. 250 9.7.2. Preparation of Recipe and Method of Application for Aroma Finishing. 251 9.7.3. Fragrance Release Property of Aroma Finishing. 251 9.7.4. Applications of Aroma Finishing in Textile Materials. 252 9.8. Sustainable Mosquito Repellent Textile Materials Using Natural Resources. 253 9.8.1. Different Types of Repellent Insecticides. 253 9.8.2. Natural Resources of Mosquito Repellents. 253 9.8.3. Mosquito Repellency Evaluation. 253 9.8.4. Method of Application of Mosquito Repellency. 255 9.8.5. Applications of Mosquito Repellency in Textile Materials. 256 9.9. Conclusion. 256 References. 257 10. Green Engineered Functional Textile Materials. 263Pravin Chavan, Shahid-ul-Islam, Akbar Ali, Shakeel Ahmed and Javed Sheikh 10.1. Introduction. 263 10.1.1. Green Chemicals. 265 10.1.2. Functional Finishing of Textiles: The Expectations. 265 10.2. Different Finishes Applied onto Textiles: Present Techniques vs. Green Methods. 266 10.2.1. Mosquito Repellent Finish. 267 10.2.2. Green Approach. 269 10.3. Methods of Application of Microcapsules on Textiles. 273 10.4. Release Mechanism of Core Material from Microcapsules. 273 10.5. Chemistry of EO. 273 10.6. Evaluation of Mosquito Repellency. 276 10.6.1. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard E951–83. 276 10.6.2. Screened Cage Method. 276 10.6.3. WHO Cone and Field Test Method. 276 10.6.4. Tunnel Test. 277 10.6.5. USDA Laboratory Method. 279 10.7. Aroma Finish. 279 10.7.1. General Method of Application. 280 10.7.2. Green Methods: EO for Aroma Finish. 281 10.7.3. Evaluation of Aroma Finishes. 282 10.8. Conclusion. 282 References. 283 11. Advances in Bio-Nanohybrid Materials. 289Houda Saad, Pedro Luis de Hoyos, Ezzeddine Srasra, Fatima Charrier-El Bouhtoury 11.1. Introduction. 289 11.2. Inorganic/Organic Hybrids. 290 11.2.1 Definition, Classification and Synthetic Routes. 291 11.2.2 Bio-nanohybrid Materials. 296 11.3. Bio-nanohybrid Materials Based on Clay and Polyphenols. 297 11.3.1 Clay Minerals and Organoclay. 297 11.3.1.1. Clay Minerals. 297 11.3.1.2. Surface Modification of Clay Minerals: Organoclays. 306 11.3.2. Polyphenols as Natural Substances. 309 11.3.3. Clay/Polyphenols Hybrids. 311 11.3.3.1. Techniques Used for Clay-Based Hybrids Characterization. 311 11.4. Conclusions and Perspectives. 323 References. 324 12. Green and Sustainable Selenium Nanoparticles and Their Biotechnological Applications. 333MeryamSardar and HammadAlam 12.1. Introduction. 334 12.2. Synthesis of SeNPs. 335 12.2.1. Physical Methods of Synthesis of SeNPs. 336 12.2.2. Chemical Methods for Synthesis of SeNPs. 336 12.2.3. Microbial Synthesis of SeNPs. 337 12.2.4. Plant Based Synthesis of SeNPs. 337 12.3. Biotechnological Applications of SeNPs. 341 12.3.1 Anticancerous Activity. 342 12.3.2 Antioxidant Activity. 343 12.3.3 Antidiabetic Effect. 345 12.3.4 Wound Healing. 345 12.3.5 Antibacterial Activity. 345 12.3.6 Antilarvicidal Activity. 347 12.3.7 Biosensors. 347 12.4. Conclusion. 347 Acknowledgments. 348 References. 348 Index. 000
Shakeel Ahmed is a Research Fellow at Bio/Polymers Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi. He obtained his PhD in the area of biopolymers and bionanocomposites. He has published several research publications in the area of green nanomaterials and biopolymers for various applications including biomedical, packaging, sensors, and water treatment. He is an associate member of the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), UK and life member of the Asian Polymer Association and Society of Materials Chemistry. Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain, is an Adjunct Professor, an Academic Advisor and Director of Laboratories in the Department of Chemistry & Environmental Sciences at the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), Newark, New Jersey, USA. Dr. Hussain is the author of numerous papers in peer-reviewed journals as well as a prolific author and editor of several scientific monographs and handbooks in his research areas.
This book is industry-oriented and shows current challenges for scaling up green and sustainable advanced materials design and manufacturing technology. Green and sustainable advanced materials are the newly synthesized material having superior and special properties. These fulfil today's growing demand for equipment, machines and devices with better quality for an extensive range of applications in various sectors such as paper, biomedical, food, construction, textile, and many more. The objective of this two-volume set is to provide an overview of new developments and state-of-the-art for a variety of green and sustainable advanced materials. It incorporates in-depth technical information without compromising the delicate link between factual data and fundamental concepts or between theory and practice. In this first volume, the first chapter presents an overview and characterization of green and sustainable advanced materials. The subsequent chapters encompass details of biopolymers, biocomposite materials and nanomaterials. Subsequent chapters describe biogenic approaches for SiO2 nanostructures nanofabrication, polymer and composite materials, design and processing aspects of polymer and composite materials. The next set of chapters incorporate seaweed-based binder in wood composites, coloration and functional finishing of textile materials using natural resources. The final two chapters discuss advances in bio-nanohybrid materials, selenium nanoparticles and their biotechnological applications. Audience The 2-volume set will be of significant interest to materials scientists, chemists, pharmacists, biologists, biotechnologists and chemical engineers who are involved in the future frontiers of advanced materials, polymer and ceramic sciences & technology. The books will also appeal to advanced undergraduate and graduate students who will find a useful source of knowledge for their studies

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