Global Best Practices for CSO, NGO, and Other Nonprofit BoardsLessons From Around the World
An ideal resource for boards everywhere There are at least 10 million Civil Society Organizations (CSO)s in the world, each of them with a board composed of individuals doing their best to govern well and wisely. There is no single model of governance to emulate, but are there universal principles and practices that can help boards everywhere perform at the highest level. This book takes us for a trip around the world to look at what is working for boards. Its discoveries will help not only boards, but also nonprofit staff leaders seeking to assist their boards to optimal performance, and capacity-builders looking to strengthen their civil society sector. Even if your organizational concerns extend no further than city boundaries, this book is for you. One of the greatest governance challenges today is a lack of diversity on the board. This can seriously hamper an organization’s ability to realize mission and to understand and serve its community. Reading this book will provide a greater understanding of how the cultural context affects governance and will sensitize the reader to different ways of thinking about governance. Global Best Practices For CSO, NGO and Other Nonprofit Boards presents case studies from different parts of the world that illustrate effective practice, identifies and discusses interesting and significant differences, and explores global governance trends with implications for us all. Tests for universal truths about roles, responsibilities and practices using criteria established by BoardSource, the premier voice on nonprofit governance Provides information that builds exceptional nonprofit boards Discusses cultural differences in governance that will help all boards to better function in increasingly diverse environments Offers inspiration to NGO boards in any part of civil society Reflects on the future of governance worldwide If you’re a capacity-builder, a board member, or an executive leader looking for guidance on governance, this is the book you’ll want to have on hand.
Acknowledgments xiii 1 Overview 1–Penelope Cagney Who This Book Is For 1 Introduction 2 About the Book’s Title 2 Organization of Contents 3 Framework 3 Apologies 3 Culture 4 Global Trends 8 References 11 2 Africa 13–Mike Muchilwa Historical and Cultural Context for Governance 13 Challenges to CSO Governance 14 Governance Successes 16 Characteristics of African CSO Boards 17 Case Study: Kenya 22 Best Practices of Kenyan Boards 26 Trends 30 Conclusion 31 Notes 32 3 Asia 33 Overview 33–Usha Menon Asia Overview Notes 37 Cambodia 37–Louise Coventry Cambodia References 43 Cambodia Notes 44 China 44–Yinglu Li and Oma Lee China Notes 49 India 49–Noshir H. Dadrawala India References 56 India Notes 56 Indonesia 56–Darmawan Triwibowo Indonesia References 62 Indonesia Notes 63 Japan 63–Masataka Uo and Miho Ito Korea 67–Bekay Ahn Korea References 75 Korea Further Reading 75 Philippines 76–Usha Menon Philippines Notes 81 Singapore 82–Usha Menon Singapore References 87 Singapore Notes 88 4 Australia and Aotearoa New Zealand 89–Alan Hough and Garth Nowland-Foreman Historical and Cultural Context for Governance 89 Understanding the NGO Sector 91 Legal Requirements Affecting NGO Boards 93 The Roles of Boards 97 Board Composition, Rotation, and Recruitment 99 Board’s Relationship with the CEO and Other Staff 101 Organization of Meetings and Culture of Inquiry 102 Evaluation and Monitoring 104 Ethical Challenges 105 Governance Trends 108 Case Study: Oxfam Australia 110 Acknowledgments 117 References 118 Notes 122 5 Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia 123–Marilyn Wyatt Historical Context for Governance 123 Evolution of the Sector 124 Legal Environment 125 A Brief History of Regional Approaches to CSO Governance 127 Looking Forward to New Practices 133 Conclusion 137 References 137 Notes 139 6 Europe 141–Valerio Melandri United Kingdom 142 Continental Europe 142 Mediterranean Region 143 Northern Europe 144 Promoting Board Performance Through Remuneration and Incentives 144 Innovative Models for Boards in Europe 147 Governance Structures and Nonpro?t Reality 148 Striving for an Involved Board 149 Conclusion 157 References 157 Notes 159 Further Reading 160 7 Latin America 161–Consuelo Castro Historical and Cultural Context for Governance 161 Relevant Legal/Tax Requirements Affecting NGO Boards 162 Composition and Recruitment Considerations 166 Organization of Meeting, Culture of Inquiry 168 Roles and Responsibilities 169 Evaluation and Monitoring 173 Trends and Case Studies of Best Practices 174 Conclusion 175 References 175 Notes 176 Further Reading 177 8 Middle East and North Africa 179–Tariq Cheema and Naila Farouky The Philanthropic Landscape — A Historic Opportunity 179 The Role of Good Governance 181 Stewardship 184 Challenges to Accountability and Transparency 184 Need for Study of the Sector 186 MENA Culture 187 Case Study: Emirates Foundation 189 Case Study: AM Qattan Foundation 191 Takeaway Points 193 Conclusion 194 References 194 Notes 195 Further Reading 196 9 North America 197 Canada 197–Krishan Mehta Canada References 213 Canada Notes 214 Canada Further Reading 214 United States 214–Paloma Raggo and Penelope Cagney United States References 229 10 From Reform of Governance to Transfer of Power: The Future of International Civil Society Organizations 231–Burkhard Gnärig ICSOs’ Governance Model of Choice: International Federations of Autonomous National Organizations 233 The Self-Assessment: The Quality of ICSOs’ Governance 237 Towards Effective Global Governance 242 Cornerstones of ICSOs’ Transformation 248 Notes 250 11 The Future 251–Penelope Cagney Wealth Inequality 251 Proactive Philanthropy 252 Reaction to Globalization 252 Technological Innovation 253 Tomorrow’s Organizations 253 Servant Leadership 254 New Approaches to Governance 255 Conclusion 256 References 256 Notes 257 Further Reading 257 Appendix 259 10 Basic Responsibilities of Nonpro?t Boards (Summary) 259 The Source: 12 Principles of Governance That Power Exceptional Boards 259 Notes 261 Glossary 263 About the Contributors 269 Index 277
PENELOPE CAGNEY is the principal of The Cagney Company, consultants to CSOs in governance, planning and fundraising worldwide. She co-edited the award-winning Global Fundraising: How the World is Changing the Rules of Philanthropy (Wiley/AFP International), and authored Nonprofit Consulting Essentials: What Every Nonprofit and Consultant Needs to Know (Wiley imprint-Jossey-Bass/ Alliance of Nonprofit Management).
Throughout the world there are millions of nonprofits also known as civil society organizations (CSOs) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The board members who serve these organizations strive to do their best to govern well and wisely. While there is no one model of nonprofit governance that is appropriate for all these millions of organizations, there are universal principles and practices that can help boards everywhere achieve stellar performance. With contributions from an international panel of experts, Global Best Practices for CSO, NGO, and Other Nonprofit Boards offers a guide for those who want to be a responsible, informed, and well-equipped board member in order to provide quality leadership for their organization. This book takes us for a trip around the world to look at what is working for a diverse range of CSO organizations. The authors draw on an individual board's roles and responsibilities based on criteria established by BoardSource, the premier voice on nonprofit governance. The key discoveries to governance excellence will help not only board members, but also nonprofit staff leaders seeking to assist their boards to optimal performance, and capacity-builders looking to strengthen their civil society sector. The book also examines five trends that are affecting the global nonprofit sector including threats to civil society; growing pains of civil society; pressure to be more transparent and accountable; a board's need for greater diversity and inclusiveness; and the emergence of new kinds of organizations that straddle for- and nonprofit models. No matter what your role in your organization—board member, support staff, volunteer, or executive leader—this book offers a guide to governance that will help propel your organization towards the realization of its mission. BoardSource works to inspire and support excellence in nonprofit governance and board and staff leadership by supporting and educating nonprofit leaders. A commitment to increasing board effectiveness and strengthening organizational impact is rooted in three decades of leadership development and research. The support that BoardSource provides is strengthened by its broader work on critical sector issues that explore challenges and opportunities for board leaders to make a difference—in their communities and throughout the world. BoardSource is a 501(c)(3) organization.
THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE FOR BECOMING AN EFFECTIVE BOARD MEMBER "The need for responsible, informed and well-equipped governance for nonprofit organizations is critical. This book is intended for those who seek to prepare themselves to provide it. Boards everywhere, composed of impassioned grassroots volunteers, concerned philanthropists, and accomplished community and business leaders, seek guidance on providing quality leadership to nonprofits. This book is also for capacity-building organizations that strive to equip nonprofits in the best way possible to carry out their important tasks. It is also for CEOs and executive directors intending to assist their boards to work at optimal performance levels, and for those who teach in, and study our sector." —From the Introduction No matter how large or small your nonprofit organization may be, Global Best Practices for CSO, NGO, and Other Nonprofit Boards offers a resource for understanding how to serve effectively as a board member. Filled with case studies from around the world, the book clearly illustrates the effective practices, identifies and discusses interesting and significant differences, and explores recent global trends that can serve as examples of stellar board governance.
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