Girls, Delinquency, and Juvenile Justice
The new edition of Girls, Delinquency, and Juvenile Justice combines cutting-edge research and expanded coverage of girls’ delinquency, including coverage of girls in gangs and the sexual trafficking of girls, to provide students with an accessible, up-to-date, and globally oriented textbook. Including global perspectives and coverage of cutting-edge research, this is the only textbook to deal exclusively with girls and crime Offers expanded coverage of girls in gangs and emerging literature on the sexual trafficking of girls Pulls together and analyzes all existing literature on the subject of female delinquency Brings to light new research on a wide range of issues, including the conditions of confinement for girls incarcerated in juvenile jails and prisons, Latina girls, and gender responsive programming Explores the moral panic around "violent," "bad," and "mean" girls
Preface to the Fourth Edition x 1 Introduction: Why a Book on Girls and Juvenile Justice? 1 2 The Extent of Female Delinquency 9 Recent Trends: National Arrest Data 9 Self-Report Surveys 19 Delinquent Careers 22 Racial Differences 24 Summary 29 Notes 30 References 30 3 The Nature of Female Delinquency 34 Girls and Shoplift ing 34 Status Offenses 37 Runaways 42 Prostitution among Girls 44 International Prostitution 47 Girls and Violence 48 Relabeling Status Off enses 54 Aggression and Gender 55 Girls and Robbery 58 Summary 60 Note 61 References 62 4 Girls and Gangs 72 Trends in Girl Gang Membership 74 Criminal Activities of Girls in Gangs 75 Types of Female Gangs 78 Moving Beyond the Stereotypes: The Social Context of Girl Gangs 80 Class and race 80 Drug use 83 Reasons for joining the gang 85 Relationship with males and male gangs 90 Family-related issues 93 School and work 99 Summary 101 Notes 102 References 102 5 Theories of Crime and Female Delinquency 107 Early Theories of Female Delinquency 108 Sociological Theories of (Male) Delinquency: Do They Apply to Girls? 115 Social disorganization/social ecology theory 115 Strain Th eory 118 Cultural Deviance Theories 122 Cohen’s “culture of the gang” 122 Miller’s “lower-class culture” 123 Differential Association 124 Control Theory 124 Labeling Theory 126 Critical/Marxist Perspectives 128 A Concluding Note 130 Towards a Th eory of Female Delinquency 131 The Women’s Movement and Female Crime 135 Feminist Criminology 138 Summary 139 Notes 141 References 141 6 Girls’ Lives and Girls’ Delinquency 146 Growing Up Female 146 Welcome to “Girlworld”: “Oh, Look at Me I’m So Pretty” 149 Girls, Parents, and Peers 153 Girls, Peers, and Pathways into Delinquency 157 Girls and the Sexual Double Standard 158 Girls’ Victimization and Girls’ Crime 160 Girls’ victimization and female delinquency 162 Contemporary Th inking about Adolescence, Gender, and Crime 165 Sisters are doing it for themselves 167 Street liberation perspectives 167 Contemporary Perspectives of Girls’ Delinquency and Violence 168 Patriarchy and gendered inequalities 169 Beyond victimization: violent girls as “one of the guys” 170 Girls’ code of the streets: considering race, class, and gender 172 Context matters in girls’ delinquency 173 Summary 176 Note 177 References 178 7 Girls and the Juvenile Justice System: A Historical Overview 183 The Doctrine of Parens Patriae: Roots of a Double Standard of Juvenile Justice 184 Ex Parte Crouse: Challenging Parens Patriae 187 People v. Turner: Over-Ruling Crouse 188 The Child-Saving Movement and the Juvenile Court 189 “The Best Place to Conquer Girls” 195 The Juvenile Court and the Double Standard of Juvenile Justice 196 Deinstitutionalization and Judicial Paternalism: Challenges to the Double Standard of Juvenile Justice 200 Unpopular Reform? 201 Recent Trends: Finally a Focus on Girls, the Republican Backlash, and Congressional Gridlock 204 Summary 208 Notes 209 References 210 8 The Contemporary Juvenile Justice System and Girls, Part I: Police and Juvenile Court Processing 215 An Overview of the System and Process 215 Th e Rights of Juveniles: A Review of Key Cases 216 Implications of Supreme Court Rulings for Girls 219 Getting into the System 221 Girls on the Streets 222 Girls at the Station House 225 Delinquents in Court 228 Gender and Delinquency Referrals 229 Comparing Girls and Boys in Court 232 Girls, Race, and the New Double Standard of Juvenile Justice 235 Summary 237 Notes 238 References 238 9 The Contemporary Juvenile Justice System and Girls, Part II: Girls in Institutions 243 Youths in Institutions: A National Overview 244 Number of girls in institutions 244 Private facilities: a problematic option for juvenile justice 247 Demographic Characteristics of Youths in Institutions 250 Status off enses and bootstrapping, a continuing problem 250 Girls in detention 251 Girls’ experiences in detention 253 Gender and training schools – girls’ victimization continues 259 Girls, race, and institutionalization 263 Summary 266 Notes 267 References 268 10 In Their Own Words: Voices of Youths at Risk 273 With assistance from Vera Lopez and Julia Foley Introduction 273 Relationship Power, Control, and Dating Violence Among Latina Girls 275 Boys’ control strategies 276 Girls’ counterstrategies 278 The “Risky” Lives of Girl Delinquents: Bottcher’s California Study 281 Summary 284 Note 285 References 285 11 Programs for Girls in Trouble 286 Interconnected Troubles 286 Trauma 287 Destructive and distraught families 287 Dangerous neighborhoods and unsafe schools 288 Substance abuse 289 Health issues 290 Academic achievement 290 Specific Types of Counseling and Education 292 The Detention Diversion Advocacy Project (DDAP) 292 Gender differences 294 Gaps in Services for Girls 296 Explaining the lack of services for girls 297 The fit of assessed needs, expressed needs, and program descriptions 299 Someone to talk to 300 Improving relationships with peers 301 Sex, sexuality, pregnancy, parenting, and relationships with intimate partners 301 Empowerment 303 Multiple needs and wraparound services 304 Assessed Needs, Expressed Needs, and Contemporary Program Evaluations 304 The Ideal Program 306 Instead of Incarceration: What Could Be Done to Meet the Needs of Girls? 308 Are Gender-Specific Programs Necessary? 310 Programming as if Girls Mattered: Getting Past Girls Watching Boys Play Sports 311 Lack of validated gender-specific programs: programming and the “forgotten few” 311 Honolulu Girls Court: Overview of a Promising Best Practice 312 Policy Implications and Future Directions 314 Summary 315 Notes 317 References 318 12 Conclusions 324 Index 331
Meda Chesney-Lind is Professor of Women’s Studies at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Nationally recognized for her work on women and crime, her books include The Female Offender: Girls, Women and Crime (3rd edition, 2013), Girls, Delinquency, and Juvenile Justice (3rd edition, 2004), Female Gangs in America (1999), Invisible Punishment (2002), Beyond Bad Girls: Gender, Violence and Hype (2008), and Feminist Theories of Crime (2011). Randall G. Shelden is Professor of Criminal Justice at the University of Nevada-Las Vegas. He is the author or co-author of 15 books. Besides three previous editions of Girls, Delinquency, and Juvenile Justice (with Meda Chesney-Lind), his books include Youth Gangs in American Society (4th edition, 2013), Delinquency and Juvenile Justice in American Society (2nd edition, 2012), Our Punitive Society (2010), and Controlling the Dangerous Classes (2nd edition, 2008). He is co-editor of the online Justice Policy Journal.
In the last two decades data on girls’ detention and incarceration reveals a remarkable shift in their treatment, resulting in increased arrest and detention. It is now the case that girls coming into the criminal justice system are much more likely to be jailed. In light of girls' increased arrests for delinquency, this book—the only textbook to focus exclusively on girls and crime—is both timely and highly relevant. The new edition of Girls, Delinquency, and Juvenile Justice combines cutting-edge research and expanded coverage of girls’ violence to include data showing that, despite media hype, girls are not becoming more violent. It also covers girls in gangs and the emerging literature on the sexual trafficking of girls, adding some complexity to the sometimes over-hyped discussion of this issue. The overall approach is global in context.
“Twenty years after publication of the first edition, this remains the definitive source for understanding both the experiences that bring girls into the orbit of the juvenile justice system and the system itself. This immensely valuable book should be required reading for anyone studying or working in juvenile justice.” —Marjorie S. Zatz, Arizona State University “Instructors of criminal justice or criminology looking for a textbook on the girl delinquent would be hard pressed to find a more comprehensive and brilliantly delivered one than Chesney-Lind and Shelden’s Girls, Delinquency, and Juvenile Justice. The fact that it is now in its 4th edition speaks volumes about how well it has been received by members of the academy. Both authors are known nationally and internationally as highly regarded experts on girl delinquents and this comes through in the pages of this textbook.” —Barbara Sims, Mars Hill University