Details

Geoforensics


Geoforensics


1. Aufl.

von: Alastair Ruffell, Jennifer McKinley

48,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 06.08.2008
ISBN/EAN: 9780470758847
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 340

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Beschreibungen

This book is a comprehensive introduction to the application of geoscience to criminal investigations. Clearly structured throughout, the text follows a path from the large-scale application of remote sensing, landforms and geophysics in the first half to the increasingly small-scale examination of rock and soils to trace amounts of material. The two scales of investigation are linked by geoscience applications to forensics that can be applied at a range of dimensions. These include the use of topographic mapping, x-ray imaging, geophysics and remote sensing in assessing whether sediment, rocks or concrete may have hidden or buried materials inside for example, drugs, weapons, bodies.  <p>This book describes the wider application of many different geoscience-based methods in assisting law enforcers with investigations such as international and national crimes of genocide and pollution, terrorism and domestic crime as well as accident investigation. The text makes a clear link to the increasingly important aspects of the spatial distribution of geoscience materials (be it soil sampling or the distribution of mud-spatter on clothing), Geographic Information Science and geostatistics. </p> <ul type="disc"> <li><a id="OLE_LINK3" name="OLE_LINK3"></a>A comprehensive introduction to the application of geoscience to criminal investigation</li> <li>Examples taken from an environmental and humanitarian perspective in addition to the terrorist and domestic criminal cases more regularly discussed</li> <li>A chapter on the use of GIS in criminalistics and information on unusual applications and methods - for example underwater scene mapping and extraterrestrial applications</li> <li>Material on how geoscience methods and applications are used at a crime scene</li> <li>Accompanying website including key images and references to further material </li> <li>An invaluable text for both undergraduate and postgraduate students taking general forensic science degrees or geoscience courses </li> </ul> <p>"The whole book is peppered with useful and appropriate examples from the authors' wide experiences and also from the wider literature... an essential purchase for any forensic science department as well as for any law enforcement organisation."<br />—<b>Lorna Dawson</b>, Macaulay Institute</p>
<p>Acknowledgements ix</p> <p>Preamble xi</p> <p><b>1 Background to the work, organization of the text and history of research 1</b></p> <p>1.1 The scene 4</p> <p>1.2 The victim and materials 5</p> <p>1.3 The suspect 6</p> <p>1.4 The scope of geoforensics 8</p> <p><b>2 Physical geography, geomorphology, landform interpretation, archaeology, stratigraphy and hydrodynamics 13</b></p> <p>2.1 Physical geography 13</p> <p>2.2 Atmosphere 16</p> <p>2.3 Types of landscapes, landscape change and human influences on the landscape (short and long term) 18</p> <p>2.4 Soils 33</p> <p>2.5 Hydrodynamics of rivers, lakes, estuaries, seas and oceans 47</p> <p>2.6 Geography, geomorphology, geological and soil maps, and other resources 50</p> <p>2.7 Groundwater 53</p> <p><b>3 Geophysics 55</b></p> <p>3.1 Seismic methods: macro to micro 57</p> <p>3.2 Gravity/gravimetrics 64</p> <p>3.3 Electrical 66</p> <p>3.4 Magnetic and electromagnetic 70</p> <p>3.5 Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) 77</p> <p>3.6 Radiometrics 85</p> <p>3.7 Review of why some methods are favoured and others not 88</p> <p><b>4 Remote sensing 91</b></p> <p>4.1 Definitions 91</p> <p>4.2 Conventional aerial photography: rural and urban examples 92</p> <p>4.3 Geoscience use of light photography 93</p> <p>4.4 Infrared photography 102</p> <p>4.5 Elevation modelling 104</p> <p>4.6 Photogrammetry 105</p> <p>4.7 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and interferometry 105</p> <p>4.8 Multispectral and thermal imaging 106</p> <p>4.9 Hyperspectral imaging 109</p> <p>4.10 Satellite mapping 109</p> <p>4.11 Long-distance LiDAR (satellite, aerial) 114</p> <p>4.12 Laser scanning of scenes and objects 117</p> <p>4.13 X-ray imagery, X-ray tomography and neutron activation 117</p> <p>4.14 Field Portable X-ray Fluorescence (FPXRF) spectrometry 122</p> <p>4.15 Some conjecture on the future of remote sensing applications 124</p> <p><b>5 Spatial location and geographic information science 125</b></p> <p>5.1 Geographic location and crime 125</p> <p>5.2 Spatial data and GIS 137</p> <p>5.3 Spatial analysis within GIS 140</p> <p>5.4 Use of Google Earth in criminal investigations 152</p> <p><b>6 Scale, sampling and geostatistics 155</b></p> <p>6.1 Scale and spatial resolution 155</p> <p>6.2 Sampling for geological materials at urban and non-urban crime scenes 157</p> <p>6.3 Timing of the crime 157</p> <p>6.4 Sample size 157</p> <p>6.5 Lateral variation 159</p> <p>6.6 Use and misuse of statistics in forensic studies 160</p> <p>6.7 Statistical sampling 161</p> <p>6.8 Number of samples required for robust statistical analysis 164</p> <p>6.9 Comparing ‘like with like’ 165</p> <p>6.10 Addressing the issue of comparing related material 165</p> <p>6.11 Spatial and temporal variability in nature 166</p> <p>6.12 Spatial awareness and use of spatial statistics: application of geostatistics 168</p> <p>6.13 Geostatistical techniques 172</p> <p>6.14 GIS and geostatistics 179</p> <p><b>7 Conventional geological analysis 183</b></p> <p>7.1 Elementary analysis of rocks 185</p> <p>7.2 Hand-specimen analysis – case studies from Murray and Tedrow (1991) 187</p> <p>7.3 Sediment analysis 190</p> <p>7.4 Fossils and microfossils 220</p> <p>7.5 A paradigm shift in geoforensics? 237</p> <p><b>8 Trace evidence 241</b></p> <p>8.1 What is geological trace evidence? 241</p> <p>8.2 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) 249</p> <p>8.3 Laser Raman spectroscopy 253</p> <p>8.4 Inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy 253</p> <p>8.5 Isotope analysis 254</p> <p>8.6 X-ray diffraction and trace evidence 254</p> <p>8.7 Manufactured or processed materials that geoscience techniques can analyse 259</p> <p>8.8 Some conjecture on the future of trace evidence 266</p> <p><b>9 The search for buried materials 269</b></p> <p>9.1 Introduction 269</p> <p>9.2 Possible methodologies for non-urban underground searches 274</p> <p>9.3 Underwater searches and scene mapping (remote sensing, geophysics) 276</p> <p>9.4 Gas monitoring, organic remains and the decomposition of bodies 288</p> <p>9.5 Weird and wonderful burial locations 290</p> <p><b>10 Circuit complete 293</b></p> <p><b>Appendix 1. Search methods 301</b></p> <p><b>Appendix 2. Soil sampling 305</b></p> <p>A.1 Sampling protocol suggestions 305</p> <p>Glossary 313</p> <p>References 317</p> <p>Index 330</p>
"The book is an excellent source of information on the applied aspect of Earth sciences. In my opinion, the book is worth reading, especially for those who are professional geologists, geographers or geophysicists. They may be surprised by the new, sometimes amazing applications of the methodology of their well-known disciplines." (<i>Geologos</i>, November 2010)<br /> <br /> "[The book] is concerned with evidence of crime from the world beneath our feet: it's more <i>Time Team</i> than <i>Silent Witness … .</i>This book shows that a great number of different scientific instruments and techniques are being used to provide evidence that will stand up in court." (<i>Geomatics World</i>, March/April 2009) <p>"The work is an excellent introductory text, written in a very accessible style, for students and practitioners alike … .To have all this in one book is a great addition to the forensic geoscience literature." (<i>GiS Professional</i>, February 2009)</p> <p>"[This books is] an excellent coverage of the current state of knowledge in both forensics research and the practical application of these geological concepts and techniques.... The whole book is peppered with useful and appropriate examples from the authors’ wide experiences and also from the wider literature. This book is an essential purchase." (<i>Macaulay Institute</i>, November 2008)</p>
<p><b>Dr Alastair Ruffell</b>, School of Geography, Archaeology and Paleoecology, Queen's University, Belfast, UK.</p> <p><b>Dr Jennifer McKinley</b>, School of Geography, Archaeology and Paleoecology, Queen's University, Belfast, UK.</p>
<p><b>Geoforensics</b> <p><b>ALASTAIR RUFFELL and JENNIFER MCKINLEY</b> <b><i>Department of Geography, Archaeology & Palaeoecology Queen's University, Belfast, UK</i></b> <p><i>Geoforensics</i> is a comprehensive introduction to the application of geoscience to criminal investigations. Clearly structured throughout, the book follows a path from the large-scale application of remote sensing, landforms and geophysics in the first half to the increasingly small-scale examination of rock and soils totrace amounts of material. The two scales of investigation are linked by geoscience applications to forensics that can be applied at a range of dimensions. These include the use of topographic mapping, x-ray imaging, geophysics and remote sensing in assessing whether sediment, rocks or concrete may have hidden or buried materials inside. <p>This book describes the wider application of many different geoscience-based methods in assisting law enforcers with investigations such as international and national crimes of genocide and pollution, terrorism and domestic crime as well as accident investigation. The text makes a clear link to the increasingly important aspects of the spatial distribution of geoscience materials (be it soil sampling or the distribution of mud-spatter on clothing), Geographic Information Science and geostatistics. <ul> <li>A comprehensive introduction to the application of geoscience to criminal investigation.</li> <li>Examples taken from an environmental and humanitarian perspective in addition to the terrorist and domestic criminal cases more regularly discussed.</li> <li>A chapter on the use of GIS in criminalistics and information on unusual applications and methods- for example, underwater scene mapping and extraterrestrial applications.</li> <li>Material on how geoscience methods and applications are used at a crime scene.</li> <li>Accompanying website (www.wileyeurope.com/college/ruffell) including key images and references to further material.</li> <li>An invaluable text for both undergraduate and postgraduate students taking general forensic science degrees or geoscience courses.</li> </ul>

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