Fundamentals of Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry

Fundamentals of Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry

1. Aufl.

von: Pedro Andreo, David T. Burns, Alan E. Nahum, Jan Seuntjens, Frank Herbert Attix

147,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 24.05.2017
ISBN/EAN: 9783527808243
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 1000

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<p>A new, comprehensively updated edition of the acclaimed textbook by F.H. Attix (Introduction to Radiological Physics and Radiation Dosimetry) taking into account the substantial developments in dosimetry since its first edition. This monograph covers charged and uncharged particle interactions at a level consistent with the advanced use of the Monte Carlo method in dosimetry; radiation quantities, macroscopic behaviour and the characterization of radiation fields and beams are covered in detail. A number of chapters include addenda presenting derivations and discussions that offer new insight into established dosimetric principles and concepts. The theoretical aspects of dosimetry are given in the comprehensive chapter on cavity theory, followed by the description of primary measurement standards, ionization chambers, chemical dosimeters and solid state detectors. Chapters on applications include reference dosimetry for standard and small fields in radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology and interventional procedures, dosimetry of unsealed and sealed radionuclide sources, and neutron beam dosimetry. The topics are presented in a logical, easy-to-follow sequence and the text is supplemented by numerous illustrative diagrams, tables and appendices.</p> <p>For senior undergraduate- or graduate-level students and professionals.</p>
<p>Preface xix</p> <p>Quantities and symbols xxiii</p> <p>Acronyms xxxix</p> <p><b>1 Background and Essentials 1</b></p> <p>1.1 Introduction 1</p> <p>1.2 Types and Sources of Ionizing Radiation 1</p> <p>1.3 Consequences of the Random Nature of Radiation 4</p> <p>1.4 Interaction Cross Sections 6</p> <p>1.5 Kinematic Relativistic Expressions 9</p> <p>1.6 Atomic Relaxations 11</p> <p>1.7 Evaluation of Uncertainties 22</p> <p>Exercises 28</p> <p><b>2 Charged-Particle Interactions with Matter 29</b></p> <p>2.1 Introduction 29</p> <p>2.2 Types of Charged-Particle Interactions 31</p> <p>2.3 Elastic Scattering 36</p> <p>2.4 Inelastic Scattering and Energy Loss 55</p> <p>2.5 Radiative Energy Loss: Bremsstrahlung 95</p> <p>2.6 Total Stopping Power 103</p> <p>2.7 Range of Charged Particles 104</p> <p>2.8 Number and Energy Distributions of Secondary Particles 106</p> <p>2.9 Nuclear Stopping Power and Interactions by Heavy Charged Particles 112</p> <p>2.10 The <i>W</i>-Value (Mean Energy to Create an Ion Pair) 114</p> <p>2.11 Addendum –Derivation of Expressions for the Elastic and Inelastic Scattering of Heavy Charged Particles 119</p> <p>Exercises 139</p> <p><b>3 Uncharged-Particle Interactions with Matter 143</b></p> <p>3.1 Introduction 143</p> <p>3.2 Photon Interactions with Matter 143</p> <p>3.3 Photoelectric Effect 145</p> <p>3.4 Thomson Scattering 154</p> <p>3.5 Rayleigh Scattering (Coherent Scattering) 157</p> <p>3.6 Compton Scattering (Incoherent Scattering) 161</p> <p>3.7 Pair Production and Triplet Production 178</p> <p>3.8 Positron Annihilation 188</p> <p>3.9 Photonuclear Interactions 191</p> <p>3.10 Photon Interaction Coefficients 193</p> <p>3.11 Neutron Interactions 204</p> <p>Exercises 211</p> <p><b>4 Field and Dosimetric Quantities, Radiation Equilibrium – Definitions and Inter-Relations </b><b>215</b></p> <p>4.1 Introduction 215</p> <p>4.2 Stochastic and Non-stochastic Quantities 215</p> <p>4.3 Radiation Field Quantities and Units 216</p> <p>4.4 Distributions of Field Quantities 219</p> <p>4.5 Quantities Describing Radiation Interactions 220</p> <p>4.6 Dosimetric Quantities 229</p> <p>4.7 Relationships Between Field and Dosimetric Quantities 233</p> <p>4.8 Radiation Equilibrium (RE) 239</p> <p>4.9 Charged-Particle Equilibrium (CPE) 242</p> <p>4.10 Partial Charged-Particle Equilibrium (PCPE) 248</p> <p>4.11 Summary of the Inter-Relations between Fluence, Kerma, Cema, and Dose 252</p> <p>4.12 Addendum – Example Calculations of (Net) Energy Transferred and Imparted 252</p> <p>Exercises 256</p> <p><b>5 Elementary Aspects of the Attenuation of Uncharged Particles </b><b>259</b></p> <p>5.1 Introduction 259</p> <p>5.2 Exponential Attenuation 259</p> <p>5.3 Narrow-Beam Attenuation 261</p> <p>5.4 Broad-Beam Attenuation 263</p> <p>5.5 Spectral Effects 270</p> <p>5.6 The Build-up Factor 271</p> <p>5.7 Divergent Beams –The Inverse Square Law 273</p> <p>5.8 The Scaling Theorem 276</p> <p>Exercises 277</p> <p><b>6 Macroscopic Aspects of the Transport of Radiation Through Matter </b><b>279</b></p> <p>6.1 Introduction 279</p> <p>6.2 The Radiation Transport Equation Formalism 280</p> <p>6.3 Introduction to Monte Carlo Derived Distributions 286</p> <p>6.4 Electron Beam Distributions 287</p> <p>6.5 Protons and Heavier Charged Particle Beam Distributions 296</p> <p>6.6 Photon Beam Distributions 301</p> <p>6.7 Neutron Beam Distributions 309</p> <p>6.7.1 Fluence Distributions 309</p> <p>6.7.2 Dose Distributions 311</p> <p>Exercises 313</p> <p><b>7 Characterization of Radiation Quality 315</b></p> <p>7.1 Introduction 315</p> <p>7.2 General Aspects of Radiation Spectra. Mean Energy 316</p> <p>7.3 Beam Quality Specification for Kilovoltage x-ray Beams 318</p> <p>7.4 Megavoltage Photon Beam Quality Specification 326</p> <p>7.5 High-Energy Electron Beam Quality Specification 331</p> <p>7.6 Beam Quality Specification of Protons and Heavier Charged Particles 335</p> <p>7.7 Energy Spectra Determination 339</p> <p>Exercises 346</p> <p><b>8 The Monte Carlo Simulation of the Transport of Radiation Through Matter </b><b>349</b></p> <p>8.1 Introduction 349</p> <p>8.2 Basics of the Monte Carlo Method (MCM) 350</p> <p>8.3 Simulation of Radiation Transport 359</p> <p>8.4 Monte Carlo Codes and Systems in the Public Domain 379</p> <p>8.5 Monte Carlo Applications in Radiation Dosimetry 386</p> <p>8.6 Other Monte Carlo Developments 393</p> <p>Exercises 394</p> <p><b>9 Cavity Theory 397</b></p> <p>9.1 Introduction 397</p> <p>9.2 Cavities That Are Small Compared to Secondary Electron Ranges 399</p> <p>9.3 Stopping-Power Ratios 413</p> <p>9.4 Cavities That Are Large Compared to Electron Ranges 423</p> <p>9.5 General or Burlin Cavity Theory 425</p> <p>9.6 The Fano Theorem 429</p> <p>9.7 Practical Detectors: Deviations from ‘Ideal’ Cavity Theory Conditions 431</p> <p>9.8 Summary and Validation of Cavity Theory 435</p> <p>Exercises 440</p> <p><b>10 Overview of Radiation Detectors and Measurements 443</b></p> <p>10.1 Introduction 443</p> <p>10.2 Detector Response and Calibration Coefficient 444</p> <p>10.3 Absolute, Reference, and Relative Dosimetry 445</p> <p>10.4 General Characteristics and Desirable Properties of Detectors 447</p> <p>10.5 Brief Description of Various Types of Detectors 460</p> <p>10.6 Addendum –The Role of the Density Effect and <i>I</i>-Values in the Medium-to-Water Stopping-Power Ratio 467</p> <p>Exercises 471</p> <p><b>11 Primary Radiation Standards 473</b></p> <p>11.1 Introduction 473</p> <p>11.2 Free-Air Ionization Chambers 474</p> <p>11.3 Primary Cavity Ionization Chambers 481</p> <p>11.4 Absorbed-Dose Calorimeters 484</p> <p>11.5 Fricke Chemical Dosimeter 488</p> <p>11.6 International Framework for Traceability in Radiation Dosimetry 490</p> <p>11.7 Addendum – Experimental Derivation of Fundamental Dosimetric Quantities 491</p> <p>Exercises 493</p> <p><b>12 Ionization Chambers 497</b></p> <p>12.1 Introduction 497</p> <p>12.2 Types of Ionization Chamber 498</p> <p>12.3 Measurement of Ionization Current 504</p> <p>12.4 Ion Recombination 513</p> <p>12.5 Addendum –Air Humidity in Dosimetry 524</p> <p>Exercises 531</p> <p><b>13 Chemical Dosimeters 533</b></p> <p>13.1 Introduction 533</p> <p>13.2 Radiation Chemistry in Water 533</p> <p>13.3 Chemical Heat Defect 538</p> <p>13.4 Ferrous Sulfate Dosimeters 539</p> <p>13.5 Alanine Dosimetry 547</p> <p>13.6 Film Dosimetry 556</p> <p>13.7 Gel Dosimetry 568</p> <p>Exercises 574</p> <p><b>14 Solid-State Detector Dosimetry 577</b></p> <p>14.1 Introduction 577</p> <p>14.2 Thermoluminescence Dosimetry 577</p> <p>14.3 Optically-Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeters 591</p> <p>14.4 Scintillation Dosimetry 596</p> <p>14.5 Semiconductor Detectors for Dosimetry 609</p> <p>Exercises 628</p> <p><b>15 Reference Dosimetry for External Beam Radiation Therapy </b><b>631</b></p> <p>15.1 Introduction 631</p> <p>15.2 A Generalized Formalism 632</p> <p>15.3 Practical Implementation of Formalisms 636</p> <p>15.4 Quantities Entering into the Various Formalisms 651</p> <p>15.5 Accuracy of Radiation Therapy Reference Dosimetry 669</p> <p>15.6 Addendum – Perturbation Correction Factors 671</p> <p>Exercises 689</p> <p><b>16 Dosimetry of Small and Composite Radiotherapy Photon Beams </b><b>693</b></p> <p>16.1 Introduction 693</p> <p>16.2 Overview 694</p> <p>16.3 The Physics of Small Megavoltage Photon Beams 696</p> <p>16.4 Dosimetry of Small Beams 701</p> <p>16.5 Detectors for Small-Beam Dosimetry 714</p> <p>16.6 Dosimetry of Composite Fields 717</p> <p>16.7 Addendum—Measurement in Plastic Phantoms 723</p> <p>Exercises 726</p> <p><b>17 Reference Dosimetry for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology </b><b>729</b></p> <p>17.1 Introduction 729</p> <p>17.2 Specific Quantities and Units 730</p> <p>17.3 Formalism for Reference Dosimetry 736</p> <p>17.4 Quantities Entering into the Formalism 740</p> <p>Exercises 751</p> <p><b>18 Absorbed Dose Determination for Radionuclides </b><b>753</b></p> <p>18.1 Introduction 753</p> <p>18.2 Radioactivity Quantities and Units 755</p> <p>18.3 Dosimetry of Unsealed Radioactive Sources 763</p> <p>18.4 Dosimetry of Sealed Radioactive Sources 788</p> <p>18.5 Addendum –The Reciprocity Theorem for Unsealed Radionuclide Dosimetry 804</p> <p>Exercises 809</p> <p><b>19 Neutron Dosimetry </b><b>813</b></p> <p>19.1 Introduction 813</p> <p>19.2 Neutron Interactions in Tissue and Tissue-Equivalent Materials 814</p> <p>19.3 Neutron Sources 818</p> <p>19.4 Principles of Mixed-Field Dosimetry 821</p> <p>19.5 Neutron Detectors 825</p> <p>19.6 Reference Dosimetry of Neutron Radiotherapy Beams 833</p> <p>Exercises 838</p> <p><b>A Data Tables </b><b>841</b></p> <p>A.1 Fundamental and Derived Physical Constants 841</p> <p>A.2 Data of Elements 843</p> <p>A.3 Data for Compounds and Mixtures 846</p> <p>A.4 Atomic Binding Energies for Elements 846</p> <p>A.5 Atomic Fluorescent X-ray Mean Energies and Yields for Elements 857</p> <p>A.6 Interaction Data for Electrons and Positrons (Electronic Form) 863</p> <p>A.7 Interaction Data for Protons and Heavier Charged Particles (Electronic Form) 868</p> <p>A.8 Interaction Data for Photons (Electronic Form) 874</p> <p>A.9 Neutron Kerma Coefficients (Electronic Form) 879</p> <p>References 881</p> <p>Index 945</p>
"[...] this book is a significant update to previous publications on this topic and a major contribution to the field of radiation dosimetry. [...] It is extremely comprehensive in its coverage of every topic from theoretical background to<br> clinical practice. This book will serve every member of the medical physics community well." Prof. Peter J. Biggs in Physica Medica (2018)
<p>The four authors continuing the pioneering work of Frank Attix, Prof Pedro Andreo (Karolinska, Stockholm), Dr David T. Burns (BIPM, Paris), Prof Alan E. Nahum (University of Liverpool) and Prof Jan Seuntjens (McGill University, Montreal), are leading scientists in radiation dosimetry, having published between them more than 600 papers in the field. They have co-authored most of the existing national and international recommendations for radiotherapy dosimetry and received a number of international awards for their contributions.</p>

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