Details

Fundamentals of Fragrance Chemistry


Fundamentals of Fragrance Chemistry


1. Aufl.

von: Charles S. Sell

70,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 26.03.2019
ISBN/EAN: 9783527819768
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 416

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Beschreibungen

Comprehensively teaches all of the fundamentals of fragrance chemistry <br> <br> Ernest Beaux, the perfumer who created Chanel No. 5, said, "One has to rely on chemists to find new aroma chemicals creating new, original notes. In perfumery, the future lies primarily in the hands of chemists." This book provides chemists and chemists-to-be with everything they need to know in order to create welcome new fragrances for the world to enjoy. It offers a simplified introduction into organic chemistry, including separation techniques and analytical methodologies; discusses the structure of perfume creation with respect to the many reactive ingredients in consumer products; and shows how to formulate effective and long-lasting scents. <br> <br> Fundamentals of Fragrance Chemistry starts by covering the structure of matter in order to show how its building blocks are held together. It continues with chapters that look at hydrocarbons and heteroatoms. A description of the three states of matter and how each can be converted into another is offered next, followed by coverage of separation and purification of materials. Other chapters examine acid/base reactions; oxidation and reduction reactions; perfume structure; the mechanism of olfaction; natural and synthetic fragrance ingredients; and much more. <br> <br> -Concentrates on aspects of organic chemistry, which are of particular importance to the fragrance industry <br> -Offers non-chemists a simplified yet complete introduction to organic chemistry?from separation techniques and analytical methodologies to the structure of perfume creation <br> -Provides innovative perfumers with a framework to formulate stable fragrances from the myriad of active ingredients available <br> -Looks at future trends in the industry and addresses concerns about sustainability and quality management <br> <br> Fundamentals of Fragrance Chemistry is an ideal resource for students who are new to the subject, as well as for chemists and perfumers already working in this fragrant field of science.
<p>Preface xi</p> <p>Introduction xiii</p> <p><b>1 The Structure of Matter 1</b></p> <p>The Route to the Atomic Theory 1</p> <p>The Atomic Theory, Atomic Number, and Atomic Weight 4</p> <p>Atomic Structure 7</p> <p>Isotopes 8</p> <p>The Electronic Structure of Atoms 9</p> <p>Electronic Structure of Transition Metals 11</p> <p>Hybridisation of Orbitals 11</p> <p>Chemical Bonding, Ions, Cations, Anions, and Molecules 12</p> <p>Review Questions 16</p> <p><b>2 Carbon 1 – Hydrocarbons 17</b></p> <p>Ethane: Conformational Isomers 17</p> <p>Alkanes: Structural Isomers 20</p> <p>Alkenes: Geometric Isomers 22</p> <p>Alkynes 26</p> <p>Cyclic Structures 26</p> <p>Polycyclic Structures 28</p> <p>Greek Letters 30</p> <p>Aromatic Rings 31</p> <p>Stereoisomerism 33</p> <p>Rules for Hydrocarbon Nomenclature 36</p> <p>Quick Rules for Isomers 37</p> <p>Stereoisomers 37</p> <p>Review Questions 38</p> <p><b>3 Carbon 2 – Heteroatoms 39</b></p> <p>Hydrogen Bonding 39</p> <p>Alcohols 40</p> <p>Phenols 43</p> <p>Ethers 44</p> <p>Aldehydes 45</p> <p>Ketones 46</p> <p>Carboxylic Acids 47</p> <p>Esters 49</p> <p>Acid Anhydrides and Chlorides 50</p> <p>Acetals and Ketals 50</p> <p>Peroxy Compounds 52</p> <p>Nitrogen–Amines and Ammonium Salts 53</p> <p>Nitrogen–Imines, Schiff’s Bases, and Enamines 54</p> <p>Nitrogen–Amides/Peptides 55</p> <p>Nitrogen–Nitriles 56</p> <p>Nitrogen–Nitro Compounds 57</p> <p>Sulfur 58</p> <p>Heterocyclic Compounds 60</p> <p>Review Question 66</p> <p><b>4 States of Matter 67</b></p> <p>Solids 67</p> <p>Liquids 71</p> <p>Gases 71</p> <p>Phase Changes 71</p> <p>Two‐Phase Systems 73</p> <p>Solubility 74</p> <p>Surfactants 75</p> <p>Emulsions 79</p> <p>Micelles 81</p> <p>Detergency 81</p> <p>Bilayers 82</p> <p>Colloids 84</p> <p>Review Questions 84</p> <p><b>5 Separation and Purification 85</b></p> <p>Distillation 85</p> <p>Sublimation 93</p> <p>Crystallisation 93</p> <p>Solvent Extraction 94</p> <p>Recent Developments in Commercial Extraction of Natural Fragrance</p> <p>Ingredients 95</p> <p>Chromatography 96</p> <p>Paper Chromatography 98</p> <p>Thin Layer Chromatography 98</p> <p>Column Chromatography 99</p> <p>High Performance Liquid Chromatography 100</p> <p>Gas Chromatography 100</p> <p>Review Questions 105</p> <p><b>6 Analysis 107</b></p> <p>Physical Methods of Analysis 108</p> <p>Density 108</p> <p>Melting Point 108</p> <p>Boiling Point 108</p> <p>Refractive Index 109</p> <p>Optical Rotation 109</p> <p>Flashpoint 109</p> <p>Viscosity 109</p> <p>Colour 109</p> <p>Chemical Methods of Analysis 110</p> <p>Titration 110</p> <p>Acid Content 111</p> <p>Base Content 111</p> <p>Peroxide Content 111</p> <p>Ester Value 111</p> <p>Aldehyde/Ketone Content 112</p> <p>Phenol Content 112</p> <p>Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 112</p> <p>Water Content 112</p> <p>Atomic Absorption 113</p> <p>Spectroscopic Methods of Analysis 113</p> <p>Ultraviolet (UV) 114</p> <p>Infrared (IR) 118</p> <p>Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) 120</p> <p>Mass Spectrometry (MS) 124</p> <p>Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) 127</p> <p>Eugenol as an Example of Spectroscopic Techniques 127</p> <p>Quality Control 131</p> <p>Review Questions 132</p> <p><b>7 Chemical Reactivity 133</b></p> <p>The Three Laws of Thermodynamics 133</p> <p>Free Energy 135</p> <p>Chemical Reactions 136</p> <p>The Principle of Microscopic Reversibility and Chemical Equilibrium 137</p> <p>Reaction Profiles 138</p> <p>Catalysts 140</p> <p>Types of Organic Reactions 140</p> <p>Review Questions 145</p> <p><b>8 Chemistry and Perfume 1: Acid/Base Reactions 147</b></p> <p>Acids and Bases 147</p> <p>Strong and Weak 149</p> <p>pH 150</p> <p>Electrophiles and Nucleophiles 152</p> <p>Esterification and Ester Hydrolysis 154</p> <p>The Aldol Reaction and Aldol Condensation 155</p> <p>Acetals and Ketals 158</p> <p>Schiff’s Bases and Enamines 160</p> <p>Nitriles 161</p> <p>Alcohol Dehydration 162</p> <p>Acid‐Catalysed Addition to Olefins 163</p> <p>The Michael Reaction 164</p> <p>The Grignard Reaction 165</p> <p>The Friedel–Crafts Reaction 167</p> <p>Electrophilic Substitutions in Aromatic Molecules 168</p> <p>Review Questions 170</p> <p><b>9 Oxidation and Reduction Reactions 171</b></p> <p>Review Questions 185</p> <p><b>10 Perfume Structure 187</b></p> <p>Notes, Chords, and Discords 187</p> <p>Ingredients 187</p> <p>Odour Families and Top, Middle, and Base Notes 188</p> <p>Persistence/Tenacity 191</p> <p>Threshold 192</p> <p>Impact 192</p> <p>Radiance/Bloom 193</p> <p>Physical and Chemical Factors 194</p> <p>Review Questions 196</p> <p><b>11 Chemistry in Consumer Goods 197</b></p> <p>Introduction 197</p> <p>Acids in Consumer Goods 198</p> <p>Bases in Consumer Goods 199</p> <p>Nucleophiles in Consumer Goods 200</p> <p>Oxidants in Consumer Goods 201</p> <p>Reductants in Consumer Goods 202</p> <p>Surfactants in Consumer Goods 204</p> <p>Chelating Agents in Consumer Goods 205</p> <p>Photoactive Agents in Consumer Goods 206</p> <p>Antibacterial Agents in Consumer Goods 207</p> <p>Other Reactive Ingredients in Consumer Goods 208</p> <p>Types of Consumer Goods 209</p> <p>Fine Fragrance 209</p> <p>Cosmetics and Toiletries 210</p> <p>Personal Wash 210</p> <p>Laundry 211</p> <p>Household 212</p> <p>Review Questions 214</p> <p><b>12 The Chemistry of Living Organisms 215</b></p> <p>Molecular Recognition 215</p> <p>Classes of Natural Chemicals 218</p> <p>Carbohydrates 218</p> <p>Nucleic Acids 221</p> <p>Lipids 223</p> <p>Proteins 225</p> <p>Toxicity and Product Safety 230</p> <p>Review Questions 239</p> <p>13 The Mechanism of Olfaction 243</p> <p>The Role of Olfaction in Biology 243</p> <p>The Organs Used in Olfaction 244</p> <p>The Process of Olfaction 246</p> <p>Transport to the Receptors 246</p> <p>The Receptor Event 247</p> <p>The Combinatorial Nature of Olfaction 249</p> <p>The Perception of Odour 252</p> <p>Review Questions 256</p> <p><b>14 Natural Fragrance Ingredients 257</b></p> <p>Why Does Nature Produce Odorous Chemicals? 257</p> <p>Basic Principles of Biosynthesis: Enzymes and Cofactors 258</p> <p>General Pattern of Biosynthesis of Secondary Metabolites 261</p> <p>Polyketide Biosynthesis 262</p> <p>Lipid Biosynthesis 263</p> <p>The Shikimic Acid Pathway 265</p> <p>Terpenoids 267</p> <p>Degradation Products 277</p> <p>Malodours 279</p> <p>Review Questions 281</p> <p><b>15 Synthetic Fragrance Ingredients 283</b></p> <p>Why the Industry Uses Synthetic Fragrance Ingredients? 283</p> <p>The Economics of Fragrance Ingredient Manufacture 284</p> <p>Production of Fragrance Ingredients from Polyketides and Shikimates 288</p> <p>Terpenoid Production 290</p> <p>Production of Fragrance Ingredients from Petrochemicals 302</p> <p>What Is Required of a Fragrance Ingredient? 320</p> <p>How Novel Fragrance Ingredients Are Designed? 322</p> <p>Review Questions 326</p> <p><b>16 Chemical Information 329</b></p> <p>How New Chemical Information Is Generated and Published? 329</p> <p>Patents 329</p> <p>Reviews and Books 331</p> <p>Abstracts 331</p> <p>How to Find Chemical Information? 333</p> <p><b>17 Towards a Sustainable Future 335</b></p> <p>What Is Sustainability? 335</p> <p>Commercial Feasibility 337</p> <p>Safety in Use 337</p> <p>Natural Fragrance Ingredients 340</p> <p>Synthetic Fragrance Ingredients 341</p> <p>Synthetic Fragrance Ingredients A: Use of By‐Products 341</p> <p>Synthetic Fragrance Ingredients B: Environmental Impact 342</p> <p>Synthetic Fragrance Ingredients C: Biotechnology 344</p> <p>Synthetic Fragrance Ingredients D: Finding the Balance 345</p> <p>The Symrise Route 347</p> <p>The Takasago Route 347</p> <p>The BASF Route 348</p> <p>Menthol Sustainability 349</p> <p>Pro‐fragrances 351</p> <p>Social and Health Factors 353</p> <p>Understanding Olfaction 353</p> <p>Malodour Management 354</p> <p>Health and Well‐Being 355</p> <p>Information 356</p> <p>Conclusion 356</p> <p>Answers to Review Questions 357</p> <p>Glossary 371</p> <p>Bibliography 379</p> <p>Index 381</p>
<p><b><i>Dr. Charles Sell,</i></b><i> PhD, has recently retired from Givaudan after thirty-six years in the fragrance industry. His work has covered all aspects of synthetic organic chemistry as applied to the fragrance industry, from discovery of novel materials through process R&D to improvement of established chemical manufacturing processes. His interest in the design of novel fragrance ingredients, coupled with a long-standing interest in the chemistry of living organisms, led to a deepened investigation into olfaction.</i>
<p><b>Comprehensively teaches all of the fundamentals of fragrance chemistry</b> <p>Ernest Beaux, the perfumer who created Chanel No. 5, said, "One has to rely on chemists to find new aroma chemicals creating new, original notes. In perfumery, the future lies primarily in the hands of chemists." This book provides chemists and chemists-to-be with everything they need to know in order to create welcome new fragrances for the world to enjoy. It offers a simplified introduction into organic chemistry, including separation techniques and analytical methodologies; discusses the structure of perfume creation with respect to the many reactive ingredients in consumer products; and shows how to formulate effective and long-lasting scents. <p> <i>Fundamentals of Fragrance Chemistry</i> starts by covering the structure of matter in order to show how its building blocks are held together. It continues with chapters that look at hydrocarbons and heteroatoms. A description of the three states of matter and how each can be converted into another is offered next, followed by coverage of separation and purification of materials. Other chapters examine acid/base reactions; oxidation and reduction reactions; perfume structure; the mechanism of olfaction; natural and synthetic fragrance ingredients; and much more. <ul> <li>Concentrates on aspects of organic chemistry, which are of particular importance to the fragrance industry</li> <li>Offers non-chemists a simplified yet complete introduction to organic chemistry—from separation techniques and analytical methodologies to the structure of perfume creation</li> <li>Provides innovative perfumers with a framework to formulate stable fragrances from the myriad of active ingredients available</li> <li>Looks at future trends in the industry and addresses concerns about sustainability and quality management</li> </ul> <p><i>Fundamentals of Fragrance Chemistry</i> is an ideal resource for students who are new to the subject, as well as for chemists and perfumers already working in this fragrant field of science.

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