Details

Functional Organic Liquids


Functional Organic Liquids


1. Aufl.

von: Takashi Nakanishi

115,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 12.03.2019
ISBN/EAN: 9783527804924
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 350

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Beschreibungen

The first book to comprehensively cover the burgeoning new class of soft materials known as functional organic liquids Functional organic liquids, a new concept in soft matter materials science, exhibit favorable properties compared to amorphous polymers and ionic liquids. They are composed of a functional core unit and a side chain, which induces fluidity even at room temperature. Due to their fluidity, functional organic liquids can adopt any shape and geometry and fulfill their function in stretchable and bendable devices for applications in photovoltaics, organic electronics, biomedicine, and biochemistry. Presented in five parts, this book starts with an overview of the design methods and properties of functional organic liquids. The next three parts focus on the applications of this exciting new class of soft materials in the fields of energy conversion, nanotechnology, and biomaterials. They study the liquids for energy conversion, those containing inorganic nanoclusters, and solvent-free soft biomaterials. Functional Organic Liquids concludes with a comparison in terms of properties and application potential between functional organic liquids and more conventional soft matter such as ionic liquids and liquid metals. -Examines the current state of science and technology for functional organic liquids -Focuses on potential and already realized applications such as functional organic liquids for energy conversion -Stimulates researchers to move forward on future development and applications Functional Organic Liquids is an excellent book for materials scientists, polymer chemists, organic chemists, physical chemists, surface chemists, and surface physicists.
Preface xi 1 Room-Temperature Liquid Dyes 1Bhawani Narayan and Takashi Nakanishi 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Design Strategy: Alkyl Chain Engineering 2 1.3 Alkylated ?-Molecular Liquids 3 1.3.1 Carbazoles 3 1.3.2 Azobenzenes 5 1.3.3 Naphthalenes 6 1.3.4 Anthracenes 6 1.3.5 Pyrenes 8 1.3.6 ?-Conjugated Oligomers 10 1.3.6.1 Oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene)s (OPVs) 10 1.3.6.2 Oligo-(p-phenyleneethylene)s (OPEs) 11 1.3.6.3 Benzothiadiazoles (BTDs) 12 1.3.7 Porphyrins 12 1.3.8 Fullerenes 12 1.4 Alkylsilane-Chain-Appended ?-Molecular Liquids 13 1.4.1 Triarylamines 14 1.4.2 Phthalocyanines 15 1.4.3 Oligofluorenes 15 1.5 Analytical Tools for FunctionalMolecular Liquids 16 1.5.1 Analytical Tools for Bulk Physical Properties 16 1.5.1.1 Structural Analysis 16 1.5.1.2 Microscopy Techniques 16 1.5.1.3 Rheology 16 1.5.1.4 Calorimetric Techniques 17 1.5.2 Analytical Tools for Spectroscopic Properties 17 1.5.2.1 UV–vis Analysis 17 1.5.2.2 Fluorescence Measurements 17 1.5.2.3 Fluorescence Lifetime Analysis 17 1.5.2.4 FTIR Measurements 17 1.6 Conclusion 18 References 18 2 Low-Melting Porphyrins and Their Photophysical Properties 21Agnieszka Nowak-Król and Daniel T. Gryko 2.1 Introduction 21 2.2 Liquid Porphyrins 22 2.3 Low-Melting trans-A2B2-Arylethynyl Porphyrins 28 2.4 Liquid Crystalline trans-A2B2-Arylethynyl Porphyrins 31 2.5 Bis-porphyrins 31 2.6 Low-Melting Corroles 34 2.7 Summary and Outlook 34 References 35 3 Porous Liquids 39Stuart L. James and Ben Hutchings 3.1 Introduction 39 3.2 Porosity in Solids 40 3.3 Porosity in Liquids 41 3.4 Porous Liquids Reported in the Literature 43 3.4.1 Type 1 43 3.4.2 Type 2 46 3.4.3 Type 3 48 3.4.4 Other Types of Porous Liquids and Theoretical Studies 48 3.5 Opportunities for Applications and Current Challenges 49 3.6 Concluding Remarks 50 References 50 4 Cyclic Host Liquids for the Formation of Rotaxanes and Their Applications 53Tomoki Ogoshi, Takahiro Kakuta, and Tada-aki Yamagishi 4.1 Introduction 53 4.2 Liquid Pillar[n]arenes at Room Temperature 54 4.2.1 Synthesis and Structure of Pillar[n]arenes 54 4.2.2 Versatile Functionality of Pillar[n]arenes 55 4.2.3 Molecular Design to Produce Liquid-State Macrocyclic Hosts 56 4.2.3.1 Pillar[n]arenes 56 4.2.3.2 Cyclodextrins 58 4.2.3.3 Crown Ethers 60 4.2.3.4 Calix[n]arenes and Cucurbit[n]urils 60 4.3 Complexation of Guest Molecules by Pillar[5]arenes 61 4.3.1 Host Properties of Pillar[5]arenes 61 4.3.2 Complexation of Guest Molecules in Liquid Pillar[5]arenes 62 4.4 High Yield Synthesis of [2]Rotaxane and Polyrotaxane Using Liquid Pillar[5]arenes as Solvents 63 4.5 Conclusion and Remarks 70 References 71 5 Photochemically Reversible Liquefaction/Solidification of Sugar-Alcohol Derivatives 75Haruhisa Akiyama 5.1 Introduction 75 5.2 Mechanism of the Phase Transition Between Liquid and Solid State 76 5.3 Effect of Molecular Structure 79 5.3.1 Number of Azobenzene Units 79 5.3.2 Alkyl Chain Length 80 5.3.3 Mixed Arms 82 5.3.4 Structure of Sugar Alcohol 83 5.4 Summary 85 Acknowledgments 85 References 85 6 Functional Organic Supercooled Liquids 87Kyeongwoon Chung, Da Seul Yang, and Jinsang Kim 6.1 Organic Supercooled Liquids 87 6.2 Stimuli-Responsive Organic Supercooled Liquids 88 6.2.1 Shear-triggered Crystallization 88 6.2.2 Scratch-Induced Crystallization of Trifluoromethylquinoline Derivatives 89 6.2.3 Highly Sensitive Shear-Triggered Crystallization in Thermally Stable Organic Supercooled Liquid of a Diketopyrrolopyrrole Derivative 91 6.3 Highly Emissive Supercooled Liquids 95 6.4 Conclusion 97 References 97 7 Organic Liquids in Energy Systems 101Pengfei Duan, Nobuhiro Yanai, and Nobuo Kimizuka 7.1 Introduction 101 7.2 Photoresponsive ?-Liquids for Molecular Solar Thermal Fuels 102 7.3 Azobenzene-Containing Ionic Liquids and the Phase Crossover Approach 107 7.4 Photon Upconversion and Condensed Molecular Systems 113 7.5 TTA-UC Based on the Amorphous ?-Liquid Systems 114 7.6 Photon Upconversion Based on Bicontinuous Ionic Liquid Systems 118 7.7 Conclusion and Outlook 121 References 122 8 Organic Light Emitting Diodes with Liquid Emitters 127Jean-Charles Ribierre, JunMizuno, Reiji Hattori, and Chihaya Adachi 8.1 Introduction 127 8.2 Organic Light-emitting Diodes with a Solvent-Free Liquid Organic Light-emitting Layer 129 8.2.1 Basics of Conventional Solid-state OLEDs 129 8.2.2 First Demonstration of a Fluidic OLED Based on a Liquid Carbazole Host 130 8.2.3 Introduction of an Electrolyte to Improve the Liquid OLED Performance 132 8.2.4 Liquid OLED Material Issues 134 8.3 Microfluidic OLEDs 135 8.3.1 Refreshable Liquid Electroluminescent Devices 135 8.3.2 Fabrication of Microfluidic Organic Light-Emitting Devices 137 8.3.3 Large-Area Flexible Microfluidic OLEDs 137 8.3.4 Multicolor Microfluidic OLEDs 140 8.3.5 Microfluidic White OLEDs 143 8.4 Conclusions 147 References 148 9 Liquids Based on Nanocarbons and Inorganic Nanoparticles 151Avijit Ghosh and Takashi Nakanishi 9.1 Liquid Nanocarbons 151 9.1.1 Introduction 151 9.1.2 General Synthetic Strategies 151 9.1.3 Liquid Fullerenes 152 9.1.4 Liquid-Like Carbon Nanotubes 154 9.1.5 Fluidic Graphene/Graphene Oxide 156 9.2 Liquids Based on Inorganic Nanoparticles 158 9.2.1 Background 158 9.2.2 Liquid-Like Silica Nanoparticles 159 9.2.3 Functional Colloidal Fluids 160 9.2.4 Fluidic Functional Quantum Dots 161 9.3 Conclusions 162 References 164 10 Solvent-Free Nanofluids and Reactive Nanofluids 169John Texter 10.1 Introduction 169 10.1.1 Solvent-Free Nanofluids 170 10.1.2 Simulation and Theoretical Modeling 180 10.1.3 Reactive Solvent-Free Nanofluids 183 10.2 Syntheses of Nanofluids 184 10.2.1 Core–Corona–Cap Nanofluid 184 10.2.2 Core-Free Corona–Cap Nanofluid 186 10.2.3 Core–Corona Nanofluid 186 10.3 UV Reactive Nanofluids 187 10.3.1 Model Coatings andThermomechanical Characterization 187 10.3.2 UV Protective Coatings 191 10.4 Polyurethane and Polyurea Coupling of Nanofluids 191 10.4.1 Air-Cured Polyurethane Coupling with Isothiocyanate Nanofluid 192 10.4.2 Air-Cured TDI Coupling with Amino Nanofluid 195 10.4.3 Polyurethane Shape-Memory Materials 196 10.4.4 PDMS-Amino Nanofluids Coupling with HMDI 197 10.4.5 Polyurethane Coupling with Hydroxyl Nanofluid 198 10.5 Epoxy Coupling with Amino Nanofluid 198 10.6 Using Nanofluids to Make Composites Tougher 199 10.6.1 Nanosilica Polyacrylate Nanocomposites 199 10.6.2 MWCNT Polyamide Nanocomposites 200 10.6.3 MnSn(OH)6 Thread Epoxy Nanocomposites 201 10.6.4 Graphene Oxide Epoxy Nanocomposites 201 10.7 Summary and Future Prospects 201 Acknowledgments 203 References 203 11 Solvent-Free Liquids and Liquid Crystals from Biomacromolecules 211Kai Liu, ChaoMa, and Andreas Herrmann 11.1 Introduction 211 11.2 Solvent-Free Nucleic Acid Liquids 212 11.2.1 Fabrication of Solvent-Free Nucleic Acid Liquids 212 11.2.2 Electrical Applications Based on Solvent-Free Nucleic Acid Liquids 215 11.3 Solvent-Free Protein Liquids 217 11.3.1 Fabrication of Solvent-Free Protein Liquids 217 11.3.2 Electrochemical Applications Based on Solvent-Free Protein Liquids 222 11.3.3 Catalysis of Solvent-Free Enzyme Liquids 224 11.4 Solvent-Free Virus Liquids 226 11.5 Mechanism for the Formation of Solvent-Free Bioliquids 228 11.6 Conclusions and Outlook 229 References 230 12 Ionic Liquids 235Hiroyuki Ohno 12.1 What Is Ionic Liquid? 235 12.2 Some Physicochemical Properties 236 12.3 Preparation 238 12.4 IL Derivatives 239 12.4.1 Zwitterions 239 12.4.2 Self-Assembled ILs 239 12.4.3 Polymers 241 12.5 IL/Water Functional Mixture 241 12.6 Application 243 12.6.1 Reaction Solvents 243 12.6.2 Electrolyte Solution 243 12.6.3 Biomass Treatment 244 12.6.4 Solvents for Proteins and Biofuel Cell 246 12.7 Summary 247 Acknowledgments 247 References 247 13 Room-Temperature Liquid Metals as Functional Liquids 251Minyung Song and Michael D. Dickey 13.1 Introduction: Room-temperature Liquid Metals 251 13.1.1 Mercury 251 13.1.2 Gallium-Based Alloys 252 13.1.3 Oxide Skin on Ga Alloys 252 13.2 Removal of Oxide Skin 252 13.3 Patterning Techniques for Liquid Metals 253 13.3.1 Lithography-enabled Processes 254 13.3.2 Injection 255 13.3.3 Subtractive 256 13.3.4 Additive 256 13.4 Controlling Interfacial Tension 257 13.4.1 Surface Activity of the Oxide on Liquid Metal Droplets 258 13.5 Applications of Liquid Metals 261 13.6 Conclusions and Outlook 263 References 263 Index 273
Takashi Nakanishi, PhD, is a group leader at the International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA) at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Japan. He obtained his PhD from Nagasaki University, Japan, and subsequently was postdoctoral researcher at Houston University, USA, and Oxford University, UK. Takashi Nakanishi was group leader at the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces and researcher at the Japanese Science and Technology Agency before taking up his current position.
The first book to comprehensively cover the burgeoning new class of soft materials known as functional organic liquids Functional organic liquids, a new concept in soft matter materials science, exhibit favorable properties compared to amorphous polymers and ionic liquids. They are composed of a functional core unit and a side chain, which induces fluidity even at room temperature. Due to their fluidity, functional organic liquids can adopt any shape and geometry and fulfill their function in stretchable and bendable devices for applications in photovoltaics, organic electronics, biomedicine, and biochemistry. Presented in five parts, this book starts with an overview of the design methods and properties of functional organic liquids. The next three parts focus on the applications of this exciting new class of soft materials in the fields of energy conversion, nanotechnology, and biomaterials. They study the liquids for energy conversion, those containing inorganic nanoclusters, and solvent-free soft biomaterials. Functional Organic Liquids concludes with a comparison in terms of properties and application potential between functional organic liquids and more conventional soft matter such as ionic liquids and liquid metals. Examines the current state of science and technology for functional organic liquids Focuses on potential and already realized applications such as functional organic liquids for energy conversion Stimulates researchers to move forward on future development and applications Functional Organic Liquids is an excellent book for materials scientists, polymer chemists, organic chemists, physical chemists, surface chemists, and surface physicists.

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