Details

Functional Foods


Functional Foods


1. Aufl.

von: Navnidhi Chhikara, Anil Panghal, Gaurav Chaudhary

173,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 23.02.2022
ISBN/EAN: 9781119776321
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 592

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Beschreibungen

<b>Functional Foods</b> <p><b>Presenting cutting-edge information on new and emerging food engineering processes, <i>Functional Foods</i>, the second volume in the groundbreaking new series, “Bioprocessing in Food Science,” is an essential reference on the modeling, quality, safety, and technologies associated with food processing operations today. </b> <p><i>Functional Foods</i>, the second volume in series, “Bioprocessing in Food Science,” is an up-to-date, comprehensive volume covering the preparation, processes and health benefits of functional foods. Written and edited by a team of experts in the field, this important new volume provides readers extensive knowledge about different types of traditional and commercially available functional foods from different sources, such as milk, meat, cereals, millets and fruits and vegetables. <p>The main objective of this book is to disseminate knowledge about the recent technologies developed in the field of functional foods to students, researchers, and industry professionals. This will enable them to make crucial decisions regarding the adoption, implementation, economics, and constraints of the different technologies. As the demand for healthy food is increasing, manufacturers are searching for new possibilities for occupying a growing share in the rapidly changing food market. <p>Covering the use of conventional and non-conventional sources, prebiotics, probiotics and many other topics, with emphasis on their functionality in food systems, this volume also provides insights on the specific packaging requirements for functional foods with maximum illustrations of how to enhance shelf life and create superior quality products. The authors and editors discuss the need for regulatory frameworks, government bodies, guidelines, and their challenges within the context of the functional food market. Whether for the veteran engineer or scientist, the student, or a manager or other technician working in the field, this volume is a must-have for any library. <p><b>This outstanding new volume: </b> <ul><li>Discusses an overview of functional foods including global regulations, legislations and packaging requirements</li> <li>Provides knowledge of functional ingredients and health benefits of functional foods from different plants, animals, and microbes sources</li> <li>Acquaints the readers about technological aspects for functional ingredients delivery </li> <li>Addresses the basic to advanced aspects of different functional foods, combining the requirements, health benefits and regulations, showcasing the development of functional food products with potential functional benefits</li></ul> <p><b> Audience:</b> Process and chemical engineers, chemists, engineers in other disciplines, managers, researchers, scientists, students, and teachers working in the field of food engineering and processing
<p>Preface xv</p> <p><b>1 Overview of Functional Foods 1<br /></b><i>Navnidhi Chhikara and Anil Panghal</i></p> <p>1.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>1.2 Functional Food History and Market 2</p> <p>1.2.1 History 3</p> <p>1.2.2 Definition of Functional Foods 6</p> <p>1.3 Classification of Functional Foods 7</p> <p>1.4 Types of Functional Foods 9</p> <p>1.4.1 Dairy Based Functional Foods 9</p> <p>1.4.2 Cereal Based Functional Foods 10</p> <p>1.4.3 Fruits and Vegetables Based Functional Foods 11</p> <p>1.4.4 Seafood, Meat and Poultry Based Functional Foods 12</p> <p>1.5 Functional Foods and Health Claims 13</p> <p>1.6 Conclusion 14</p> <p>References 15</p> <p><b>2 Prebiotics and Synbiotics in Functional Foods 21<br /></b><i>C&aacute;ssia P. Barros, Ramon Silva, Jonas T. Guimar&atilde;es, Celso F. Balhtazar, Silvani Verruck, Tatiana C. Pimentel, Erick A. Esmerino, M&ocirc;nica Q. Freitas, Maria Carmela K.H. Duarte, M&aacute;rcia Cristina Silva and Adriano Gomes da Cruz</i></p> <p>2.1 Introduction 22</p> <p>2.2 Prebiotics 27</p> <p>2.3 Prebiotic Dairy Functional Foods 32</p> <p>2.4 Synbiotics 35</p> <p>2.5 Synbiotic Dairy Functional Foods 38</p> <p>2.6 Conclusions 42</p> <p>Acknowledgements 43</p> <p>References 43</p> <p><b>3 Cereal-Based Functional Foods 55<br /></b><i>Semih Otles and Emine Nakilcioglu-Tas</i></p> <p>3.1 Introduction 55</p> <p>3.2 Structure and Chemical Composition of Cereal Grains 58</p> <p>3.2.1 Wheat 58</p> <p>3.2.2 Buckwheat 60</p> <p>3.2.3 Oat 61</p> <p>3.2.4 Barley 63</p> <p>3.2.5 Flaxseed 65</p> <p>3.2.6 Psyllium 66</p> <p>3.2.7 Brown Rice 67</p> <p>3.2.8 Other Cereals 69</p> <p>3.3 Functional Foods Produced from Cereal Grains 71</p> <p>3.3.1 Baked Products and Breakfast Cereals 71</p> <p>3.3.2 Multigrain Functional Beverages 71</p> <p>3.4 Conclusion 73</p> <p>References 73</p> <p><b>4 Millet Based Functional Food 91<br /></b><i>Aastha Dewan, Manish Tiwari, Navnidhi Chhikara and B. S. Khatkar</i></p> <p>4.1 Introduction 92</p> <p>4.2 Classification of Millets 93</p> <p>4.2.1 Major Millets 94</p> <p>4.2.2 Minor Millets 97</p> <p>4.3 Nutritional Importance of Major and Minor Millets 98</p> <p>4.3.1 Major Millets 98</p> <p>4.3.2 Minor Millets 99</p> <p>4.4 Grain Structure and Chemical Composition 100</p> <p>4.4.1 Sorghum and Millet Grain Structure and Appearance 100</p> <p>4.4.1.1 Sorghum 100</p> <p>4.4.1.2 Millets 102</p> <p>4.4.2 Chemical Composition of Millets 105</p> <p>4.5 Functional Compounds Present in Millets 111</p> <p>4.5.1 Polyphenols 111</p> <p>4.5.2 Flavonoids 113</p> <p>4.5.3 Phytate 113</p> <p>4.5.4 Xylo-Oligosaccharides 114</p> <p>4.5.5 Carotenoid and Tocopherols 115</p> <p>4.6 Millet and Sorghum Based Commercial Products 116</p> <p>4.7 Millet Based Functional Food Products 132</p> <p>4.7.1 Probiotics 133</p> <p>4.7.2 Prebiotics 137</p> <p>4.7.3 Super Foods 137</p> <p>4.8 Health Benefits of Millet Based Functional Food 139</p> <p>4.8.1 Diabetes 139</p> <p>4.8.2 Cataractogenesis Inhibition 140</p> <p>4.8.3 Wound Healing and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) Production 140</p> <p>4.8.4 Antioxidant Activity (AA) 141</p> <p>4.8.5 Other Health Beneficial Effects 142</p> <p>4.9 Future Aspects 143</p> <p>4.10 Challenges 145</p> <p>4.11 Conclusions 146</p> <p>References 147</p> <p><b>5 Dairy Milk Based Functional Foods 161<br /></b><i>C&aacute;ssia P. Barros, Ramon Silva, Silvani Verruck, Erick A. Esmerino, M&ocirc;nica Q. Freitas, M&aacute;rcia Cristina Silva and Adriano Gomes da Cruz</i></p> <p>5.1 Introduction 161</p> <p>5.2 Functional Foods and Regulation 163</p> <p>5.3 Functional Dairy Foods 168</p> <p>5.3.1 Probiotics 169</p> <p>5.3.2 Prebiotics 174</p> <p>5.4 Industrial Processing of Functional Dairy Products 181</p> <p>5.4.1 Factors That Affects the Viability of Probiotics During Processing and Storage 183</p> <p>5.5 Conclusions 186</p> <p>Acknowledgements 187</p> <p>References 187</p> <p><b>6 Fruits and Vegetable Functional Foods 195<br /></b><i>Nicola Gasparre and Cristina M. Rosell</i></p> <p>6.1 Introduction 195</p> <p>6.2 Fruit and Vegetable as Functional Ingredients 198</p> <p>6.3 Common Functional Compounds in Fruits and Vegetables 199</p> <p>6.3.1 Carbohydrates 199</p> <p>6.3.2 Protein 199</p> <p>6.3.3 Lipid 200</p> <p>6.3.4 Vitamins 200</p> <p>6.3.5 Polyphenols 201</p> <p>6.3.6 Carotenoids 202</p> <p>6.3.7 Glucosinolates 203</p> <p>6.4 Physicochemical Treatments to Produce Fruit and Vegetable Based Ingredients 203</p> <p>6.4.1 Preliminary Operations to Obtain Ingredients from Fruits and Vegetable 204</p> <p>6.5 Main Technologies to Obtain Powder Ingredients from Fruits and Vegetable 206</p> <p>6.5.1 Conventional Oven Drying 206</p> <p>6.5.2 Vacuum Drying 207</p> <p>6.5.3 Freeze-Drying 207</p> <p>6.5.4 Microwave Drying 207</p> <p>6.5.5 Osmotic Dehydration 208</p> <p>6.5.6 Size Reduction Process 208</p> <p>6.5.7 From Fruits and Vegetable to Liquid Ingredients 209</p> <p>6.5.8 Spray Drying 209</p> <p>6.6 Foods as Carriers of Bioactive Compounds from Fruits and Vegetable 216</p> <p>6.6.1 Bakery Foods 216</p> <p>6.6.2 Pasta Like-Products 217</p> <p>6.6.3 Snacks 218</p> <p>6.6.4 Beverages 219</p> <p>6.7 Fruits and Vegetable By-Products as Functional Ingredients 220</p> <p>6.8 Impact of Food Processing on the Biofunctional Properties 221</p> <p>6.9 Concluding Remarks and Future Outlooks 223</p> <p>Acknowledgements 224</p> <p>References 224</p> <p><b>7 Meat Based Functional Foods 235<br /></b><i>Dr Amee Ravani and Dr Harsh P. Sharma</i></p> <p>7.1 Introduction 235</p> <p>7.2 Meat Role in the Nourishments 237</p> <p>7.2.1 Meat Nutrition 238</p> <p>7.2.2 Source of Protein 239</p> <p>7.2.3 Vitamins and Minerals in Meat 242</p> <p>7.3 Types of Meat 243</p> <p>7.3.1 Red Meat 243</p> <p>7.3.1.1 White Meat 244</p> <p>7.3.1.2 Meat as Processed 244</p> <p>7.4 Benefits of Consuming Meat 244</p> <p>7.5 Concept of Functional Foods 245</p> <p>7.6 Creation of Functional Foods Based on Meat 247</p> <p>7.6.1 Bioactive Compounds Which are Found in Meat 248</p> <p>7.6.2 Methods Designed for Producing Integrated Meat Foods 250</p> <p>7.6.3 Reformulation of Products Containing Meat 252</p> <p>7.6.4 Production of Shelf-Stable, Health Driven Functional Poultry Meat Finger Chips 255</p> <p>7.6.5 As a Functional Element in Meat and Meat Products, Dietary Fibre 256</p> <p>7.6.6 Fish Oils for Omega-3s and Lipoprotein Metabolism 262</p> <p>7.6.7 Improvements in Animal Feed 266</p> <p>7.6.8 Meat Reformulation 267</p> <p>7.6.9 Design of Meat-Based Foods with Walnuts 269</p> <p>7.7 Innovation of Technology for New Dietary Principles 272</p> <p>7.8 Conclusion 273</p> <p>References 275</p> <p><b>8 Seafood Based Functional Foods 289<br /></b><i>M. Selvamuthukumaran</i></p> <p>8.1 Introduction 289</p> <p>8.2 Fish Protein Hydrolysates 290</p> <p>8.2.1 Process for Preparing Fish Protein Hydrolysates 290</p> <p>8.3 Fish Oil 292</p> <p>8.3.1 Oil Refining 292</p> <p>8.4 Chitin 294</p> <p>8.4.1 Source of Chitin 294</p> <p>8.4.2 Extraction of Chitin 294</p> <p>8.4.3 Extraction of Chitin Using Biological Process 295</p> <p>8.5 Fish Roe 296</p> <p>8.5.1 Fish Roe Protein Concentrates 297</p> <p>8.6 Gelatine 298</p> <p>8.7 Conclusions 298</p> <p>References 298</p> <p><b>9 Millet Based Functional Foods: Bio-Chemical and Bio-Functional Properties 303<br /></b><i>Issoufou Amadou</i></p> <p>9.1 Introduction 304</p> <p>9.2 Recent Developments on Millet Based Functional Foods 306</p> <p>9.3 Millet Nutrition Profile 307</p> <p>9.3.1 Carbohydrates 309</p> <p>9.3.2 Protein 309</p> <p>9.3.3 Lipids 310</p> <p>9.3.4 Fibers 310</p> <p>9.3.5 Vitamins 311</p> <p>9.3.6 Minerals 311</p> <p>9.3.7 Anti-Nutritional Factors 312</p> <p>9.4 Bioactivities of the Millet Based Functional Foods Compounds 312</p> <p>9.5 Biomedicinal and Health Potential of Millet-Based Foods 314</p> <p>9.6 Conclusion 323</p> <p>References 324</p> <p><b>10 Mushroom as a Source of Fungal Based Functional Foods 331<br /></b><i>Mandira Kapri, Prem Prakash Srivastav and Satyawati Sharma</i></p> <p>10.1 Introduction 331</p> <p>10.2 Life Cycle of Mushroom 333</p> <p>10.3 Different Types of Mushroom Cultivation Process 335</p> <p>10.4 Traditional and Valorised Substrates Used for Cultivation of Mushroom Under SSF Process 337</p> <p>10.5 Challenges of Mushroom Cultivation and Upcoming Strategies 337</p> <p>10.6 Mycelium Physiology 338</p> <p>10.7 Mushroom Mycelium Cultivation Status 339</p> <p>10.8 Enhancement of Nutritional and Therapeutic Attributes Present in Mycelium and Mushroom 341</p> <p>10.9 Nutraceuticals Compounds Present in Mycelium and Mushroom Along with their Therapeutic Effects 341</p> <p>10.10 Food Products Developed from Mushroom Mycelium and Fruit-Bodies 366</p> <p>10.11 Umami Flavour Extracted from Mushroom Mycelium and Fruit-Bodies 371</p> <p>10.12 Conclusion 373</p> <p>Abbreviations 373</p> <p>References 374</p> <p><b>11 Probiotics and Prebiotics as Functional Foods 391<br /></b><i>Tolulope Joshua Ashaolu</i></p> <p>11.1 Introduction 391</p> <p>11.2 Immunity of the Gut and its Connection to Microbes 392</p> <p>11.3 An Overview of Functional Foods 393</p> <p>11.3.1 Probiotics 394</p> <p>11.3.2 Prebiotics 401</p> <p>11.4 Critical Evaluations on Probiotics and Prebiotics 408</p> <p>11.5 Conclusions 409</p> <p>References 410</p> <p><b>12 Food Function and Health Benefits of Functional Foods 419<br /></b><i>Anil Panghal, Nitin Kumar, Sunil Kumar, Anju Kumari and Navnidhi Chhikara</i></p> <p>12.1 Introduction 420</p> <p>12.2 Functional Foods Terminology and Definition 420</p> <p>12.2.1 Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Synbiotics 421</p> <p>12.3 Constituents in Functional Foods 423</p> <p>12.3.1 Macronutrients 424</p> <p>12.3.2 Micronutrients 424</p> <p>12.4 Bioactive Compounds in Functional Foods 424</p> <p>12.4.1 Phenolic Compounds 425</p> <p>12.4.2 Flavonoids 425</p> <p>12.4.3 Alkaloids 426</p> <p>12.4.4 Terpenes and Terpenoids 426</p> <p>12.4.5 Saponins 427</p> <p>12.5 Health Benefits 427</p> <p>12.5.1 Diabetes Mellitus 427</p> <p>12.5.2 Cancer 430</p> <p>12.5.3 Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) 430</p> <p>12.6 Sources of Functional Foods 430</p> <p>12.6.1 Plant-Based Functional Foods 430</p> <p>12.6.2 Animal-Based Functional Foods 431</p> <p>12.6.3 Microbial-Derived Functional Foods 432</p> <p>12.7 Effect of Processing on Functional Products 432</p> <p>12.8 Present Status and Future Aspects 434</p> <p>12.9 Conclusion 435</p> <p>References 436</p> <p><b>13 Double Emulsion for Controlled Delivery of Functional Food Ingredients 443<br /></b><i>Madhulekha Rakshit and P P Srivastav</i></p> <p>13.1 Introduction 444</p> <p>13.2 Double Emulsion Formation Mechanism 446</p> <p>13.3 Types of Functional Ingredient for Delivery 448</p> <p>13.4 Double Emulsion Particle Specification 457</p> <p>13.5 Double Emulsion Stability 458</p> <p>13.5.1 Physical Stability 458</p> <p>13.5.1.1 Gravitation Separation 458</p> <p>13.5.1.2 Particle Aggregation 460</p> <p>13.5.1.3 Flocculation and Coalescence 461</p> <p>13.5.1.4 Ostwald Ripening 462</p> <p>13.5.2 Chemical Stability 463</p> <p>13.6 Release Characteristics 463</p> <p>13.7 Gastrointestinal Properties 466</p> <p>13.7.1 Bioavailability and Bioaccessibility 466</p> <p>13.7.2 Variations in Delivery Properties 466</p> <p>13.8 Conclusion 468</p> <p>References 468</p> <p><b>14 Use of Biopolymers for Packaging of Functional Foods 477<br /></b><i>Bababode Adesegun Kehinde, Olakanmi Sunday Joy, Majid Ishrat, Oluwabusolami Kehinde and Tolulope Joshua Ashaolu</i></p> <p>14.1 Introduction 478</p> <p>14.2 Applications of Biopolymers in Scientific Fields 480</p> <p>14.2.1 Nanoscale Processing 480</p> <p>14.2.2 Biomedical Applications 480</p> <p>14.2.3 Cosmetic Functions 481</p> <p>14.2.4 Construction Engineering 481</p> <p>14.2.5 Pharmacology 482</p> <p>14.3 Food Product Processing 482</p> <p>14.3.1 Water Purification 486</p> <p>14.3.2 Enzymology 487</p> <p>14.3.3 Food Packaging 487</p> <p>14.4 Use of Biopolymers for Packaging of Functional Foods 490</p> <p>14.4.1 Antioxidant Packaging of Functional Foods 491</p> <p>14.4.2 Antimicrobial Packaging 496</p> <p>14.5 Biopolymers Used for Processing of Functional Foods 497</p> <p>14.5.1 Starch 497</p> <p>14.5.2 Poly Lactic Acid (PLA) 498</p> <p>14.5.3 Cellulose 498</p> <p>14.5.4 Chitosan 498</p> <p>14.5.5 Proteins 499</p> <p>14.5.6 Carrageenan 499</p> <p>14.5.7 Alginate 500</p> <p>14.6 Conclusion 500</p> <p>References 501</p> <p><b>15 Global Concepts and Regulations in Functional Foods 511<br /></b><i>Monta&ntilde;a C&aacute;mara, Virginia Fern&aacute;ndez-Ruiz, Laura Dom&iacute;nguez D&iacute;az, Rosa M&ordf; C&aacute;mara Hurtado and M&ordf; de Cortes S&aacute;nchez Mata</i></p> <p>15.1 Introduction 511</p> <p>15.2 Regulatory Framework of Functional Foods 513</p> <p>15.2.1 Concept 513</p> <p>15.2.2 Definition 514</p> <p>15.2.3 International Overview on Functional Food Classification 518</p> <p>15.2.4 Functional Ingredients of Functional Foods: Nutrients and Bioactive Compounds 522</p> <p>15.2.4.1 Regulatory Framework of Functional Ingredients Added to Functional Foods 528</p> <p>15.2.5 Nutrition and Health-Related Claims for Functional Foods Around the World 534</p> <p>15.2.6 Claims Related to the Absence of a Specific Allergens and/or Substances that can Cause Intolerance in the Human Organism 543</p> <p>15.3 Conclusions 546</p> <p>Acknowledgements 546</p> <p>References 547</p> <p>Index 555</p>
<p><b> Navnidhi Chhikara, PhD,</b> is an assistant professor in the Department of Food Technology at Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, India. She has eleven years of teaching and research experience and has taught various subjects, including health foods and food safety at the graduate and postgraduate levels. She has published more than sixty research papers in scientific and technical journals, is an editor and editorial board member of multiple international journals, and has received numerous awards for her scholarship. </p> <p><b> Anil Panghal, PhD,</b> is an assistant scientist in the Department of Processing and Food Engineering at CCS Haryana Agricultural University. Previously, he worked with Nestle as a production manager for nine years. His areas of expertise include bioprocessing, manufacturing, food chemistry, food science, and technology, FSMS, and nutrition. He obtained his PhD in food technology, focusing on the molecular and physicochemical quality aspects of commercial wheat varieties. He has published various research papers in reputed journals and chapters for international publishers. <p><b> Gaurav Chaudhary, PhD, </b> is an assistant professor in the Department of Renewable and Bio-Energy Engineering at the College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University in Hisar, India. He received PhD from the Indian Institute of Technology in Roorkee, India in the field of biofuel and bioenergy. He has more than seven years of experience in teaching and research in the fields of bioenergy and biochemical engineering and has published many research articles in scientific and technical journals.
<p><b>Presenting cutting-edge information on new and emerging food engineering processes, <i>Functional Foods</i>, the second volume in the groundbreaking new series, “Bioprocessing in Food Science,” is an essential reference on the modeling, quality, safety, and technologies associated with food processing operations today. </b> </p> <p><i>Functional Foods</i>, the second volume in series, “Bioprocessing in Food Science,” is an up-to-date, comprehensive volume covering the preparation, processes and health benefits of functional foods. Written and edited by a team of experts in the field, this important new volume provides readers extensive knowledge about different types of traditional and commercially available functional foods from different sources, such as milk, meat, cereals, millets and fruits and vegetables. <p>The main objective of this book is to disseminate knowledge about the recent technologies developed in the field of functional foods to students, researchers, and industry professionals. This will enable them to make crucial decisions regarding the adoption, implementation, economics, and constraints of the different technologies. As the demand for healthy food is increasing, manufacturers are searching for new possibilities for occupying a growing share in the rapidly changing food market. <p>Covering the use of conventional and non-conventional sources, prebiotics, probiotics and many other topics, with emphasis on their functionality in food systems, this volume also provides insights on the specific packaging requirements for functional foods with maximum illustrations of how to enhance shelf life and create superior quality products. The authors and editors discuss the need for regulatory frameworks, government bodies, guidelines, and their challenges within the context of the functional food market. Whether for the veteran engineer or scientist, the student, or a manager or other technician working in the field, this volume is a must-have for any library. <p><b>This outstanding new volume: </b> <ul><li>Discusses an overview of functional foods including global regulations, legislations and packaging requirements</li> <li>Provides knowledge of functional ingredients and health benefits of functional foods from different plants, animals, and microbes sources</li> <li>Acquaints the readers about technological aspects for functional ingredients delivery </li> <li>Addresses the basic to advanced aspects of different functional foods, combining the requirements, health benefits and regulations, showcasing the development of functional food products with potential functional benefits</li></ul> <p><b> Audience:</b> Process and chemical engineers, chemists, engineers in other disciplines, managers, researchers, scientists, students, and teachers working in the field of food engineering and processing

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