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Friction and Wear of Ceramics


Friction and Wear of Ceramics

Principles and Case Studies
1. Aufl.

von: Bikramjit Basu, Mitjan Kalin, B. V. Manoj Kumar

142,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 19.05.2020
ISBN/EAN: 9781119538400
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 400

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Beschreibungen

<p>This book covers the area of tribology broadly, providing important introductory chapters to fundamentals, processing, and applications of tribology. The book is designed primarily for easy and cohesive understanding for students and practicing scientists pursuing the area of tribology with focus on materials. This book helps students and practicing scientists alike understand that a comprehensive knowledge about the friction and wear properties of advanced materials is essential to further design and development of new materials.</p> <p>The description of the wear micromechanisms of various materials will provide a strong background to the readers as how to design and develop new tribological materials. This book also places importance on the development of new ceramic composites in the context of tribological applications.</p> <p>Some of the key features of the book include: Fundamentals section highlights the salient issues of ceramic processing and mechanical properties of important oxide and non-oxide ceramic systems; State of the art research findings on important ceramic composites are included and an understanding on the behavior of silicon carbide (SiC) based ceramic composites in dry sliding wear conditions is presented as a case study; Erosion wear behavior of ceramics, in which case studies on high temperature erosion behavior of SiC based composites and zirconium diboride (ZrB2) based composites is also covered; Wear behavior of ceramic coatings is rarely discussed in any tribology related books therefore a case study explaining the abrasion wear behavior of WC-Co coating is provided. Finally an appendix chapter is included in which a collection of several types of questions including multiple choice, short answer and long answer are provided.</p>
<p>About the Authors xiii</p> <p>Foreword by <i>Dr. Sanak Mishra</i> xvii</p> <p>Foreword by <i>Prof. Koji Kato</i> xviii</p> <p>Preface xix</p> <p><b>Section I Fundamentals of Ceramics: Processing and Properties </b><b>1</b></p> <p><b>1 Introduction: Ceramics and Tribology </b><b>3</b></p> <p>1.1 Introduction 3</p> <p>1.2 Classification of Engineering Materials 6</p> <p>1.3 Engineering Ceramics 8</p> <p>1.4 Structural Ceramics: Typical Properties and Tribological Applications 9</p> <p>1.5 Structure of the Book 14</p> <p>1.6 Closure 17</p> <p>References 17</p> <p><b>2 Processing of Bulk Ceramics and Coatings </b><b>21</b></p> <p>2.1 Introduction 21</p> <p>2.2 Conventional Processing of Ceramics 21</p> <p>2.2.1 Sintering Mechanism 22</p> <p>2.2.2 Conventional Processing of Ceramics 24</p> <p>2.2.2.1 Powder Processing and Compaction 24</p> <p>2.2.2.2 Pressureless Sintering 27</p> <p>2.2.3 Advanced Processing of Ceramics 28</p> <p>2.2.3.1 Hot Pressing 28</p> <p>2.2.3.2 Microwave Sintering 28</p> <p>2.2.3.3 Spark Plasma Sintering 29</p> <p>2.3 Thermal Spray-Based Coating Deposition 30</p> <p>2.3.1 Basics of Thermal Spray Deposition 33</p> <p>2.3.1.1 Plasma Spray Deposition 33</p> <p>2.3.1.2 Flame Spray Deposition 34</p> <p>2.3.1.3 Wire Arc Spray Deposition 35</p> <p>2.3.1.4 High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spray Deposition 36</p> <p>2.3.1.5 Detonation Spray Coating 36</p> <p>2.3.2 Bond Strength of Thermal Spray Coatings 39</p> <p>2.3.2.1 Bond Mechanism 39</p> <p>2.3.2.2 Test Methods 40</p> <p>2.3.3 Coating Structure 42</p> <p>2.3.3.1 Particle and Substrate Material Properties 42</p> <p>2.3.3.2 Particle Temperature and Velocity 42</p> <p>2.3.4 Case Study: WC-Co Coatings 42</p> <p>2.4 Closure 49</p> <p>References 49</p> <p><b>3 Conventional and Advanced Machining Processes </b><b>53</b></p> <p>3.1 Introduction 53</p> <p>3.2 Conventional Machining 54</p> <p>3.3 Advanced Machining Processes 57</p> <p>3.3.1 Electro-Discharge Machining 57</p> <p>3.3.1.1 Working Principle 59</p> <p>3.3.1.2 EDM Process Variables 61</p> <p>3.3.1.3 EDM Parameters 62</p> <p>3.3.1.4 Surface Analysis 63</p> <p>3.3.1.5 EDM of Ceramic-Based Composites 64</p> <p>3.4 Closure 66</p> <p>References 66</p> <p><b>4 Mechanical Properties of Ceramics </b><b>71</b></p> <p>4.1 Defining Stress and Strain 71</p> <p>4.2 Comparison of Tensile Behavior 78</p> <p>4.3 Brittle Fracture of Ceramics 80</p> <p>4.4 Cracking in Brittle Materials 84</p> <p>4.5 Experimental Assessment of Mechanical Properties 87</p> <p>4.5.1 Hardness 87</p> <p>4.5.2 Compressive Strength 88</p> <p>4.5.3 Flexural Strength 89</p> <p>4.5.4 Tensile Strength 91</p> <p>4.5.5 Elastic Modulus 91</p> <p>4.5.6 Fracture Toughness 95</p> <p>4.5.6.1 Notched Beam Test 96</p> <p>4.5.6.2 Indentation Microfracture Method 97</p> <p>4.5.7 Practical Guidelines for Reliable Measurements 98</p> <p>4.6 Closure 99</p> <p>References 100</p> <p><b>Section II Fundamentals of Tribology </b><b>103</b></p> <p><b>5 Contact Surface Characteristics </b><b>105</b></p> <p>5.1 Nature and Roughness of Contact Surfaces 105</p> <p>5.2 Surface Roughness Measurement 108</p> <p>5.2.1 Stylus Method 108</p> <p>5.2.2 Atomic Force Microscopy 109</p> <p>5.2.3 Optical Interferometry 110</p> <p>5.2.4 Laser Surface Profilometry 111</p> <p>5.2.5 Scanning Electron Microscopy 111</p> <p>5.3 Bearing Area Curve and Cumulative Distribution Function 111</p> <p>5.4 Nominal Versus Real Contact Area 112</p> <p>5.5 Hertzian Contact Stress 115</p> <p>5.6 Closure 116</p> <p>References 118</p> <p><b>6 Friction and Interface Temperature </b><b>119</b></p> <p>6.1 Theory of Friction 119</p> <p>6.1.1 Friction Laws and Mechanisms 120</p> <p>6.2 Types of Friction 125</p> <p>6.2.1 Static and Kinetic Friction 125</p> <p>6.2.2 Slip-Stick Friction 126</p> <p>6.2.3 Rolling Friction 126</p> <p>6.3 Friction of Engineering Material Classes 127</p> <p>6.4 Frictional Heating and Temperature at the Interface 139</p> <p>6.4.1 Heating Due to Friction 140</p> <p>6.4.2 Understanding the Temperature in the Contact: The Bulk and Flash Temperatures 141</p> <p>6.5 Analytical Models Used to Predict the Temperatures in the Contact 145</p> <p>6.6 Implications of the Important Contact Temperature Models 146</p> <p>6.6.1 Archard Model 147</p> <p>6.6.2 Kong–Ashby Model 148</p> <p>6.7 Closure 149</p> <p>References 150</p> <p><b>7 Wear of Ceramics and Lubrication </b><b>155</b></p> <p>7.1 Introduction 155</p> <p>7.2 Testing Methods and Quantification of Wear of Materials 157</p> <p>7.3 Classification of Wear Mechanisms 158</p> <p>7.3.1 Tribomechanical Wear 159</p> <p>7.3.1.1 Adhesive Wear 159</p> <p>7.3.1.2 Abrasive Wear 161</p> <p>7.3.1.3 Fatigue Wear 164</p> <p>7.3.1.4 Fretting Wear 165</p> <p>7.3.1.5 Erosive Wear 167</p> <p>7.3.2 Tribochemical Wear 171</p> <p>7.3.2.1 Oxidative Wear 174</p> <p>7.4 Lubrication 175</p> <p>7.4.1 Regimes of Lubrication and the Stribeck Curve 175</p> <p>7.4.2 Influence of Lubricant Composition, Contact Pressure, and Temperature on Lubrication 178</p> <p>7.5 Closure 181</p> <p>References 182</p> <p><b>Section III Case Study: Sliding Wear of Ceramics 185</b></p> <p><b>8 Sliding Wear of SiC Ceramics </b><b>187</b></p> <p>8.1 Introduction 187</p> <p>8.2 Materials and Experiments 188</p> <p>8.3 Friction and Wear Behavior of SiC Ceramics Sintered with a Small Amount of Yttria Additive 189</p> <p>8.4 Influence of Mechanical Properties on Sliding Wear of SiC Ceramics 191</p> <p>8.5 Wear Mechanisms 191</p> <p>8.6 Closure 192</p> <p>References 193</p> <p><b>9 Sliding Wear of SiC-WC Composites </b><b>195</b></p> <p>9.1 Introduction 195</p> <p>9.2 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of SiC-WC Composites 196</p> <p>9.3 Influence of Mating Material and WC Content on Tribological Properties 197</p> <p>9.3.1 Friction and Wear Behavior 197</p> <p>9.3.2 Mechanisms of Material Removal 198</p> <p>9.3.3 Friction and Wear of SiC-WC Composites: System-Dependent Properties 202</p> <p>9.3.4 Wear Mechanisms 202</p> <p>9.4 Reciprocated Sliding Wear Behavior of SiC-WC Composites 203</p> <p>9.4.1 Frictional and Wear Behavior 205</p> <p>9.4.2 Critical Analysis of Wear Mechanisms 206</p> <p>9.4.2.1 Wear Debris Analysis 206</p> <p>9.4.2.2 Effect of Temperature 208</p> <p>9.4.2.3 Effect of Test Configuration on Wear Behavior 208</p> <p>9.5 Closure 209</p> <p>References 210</p> <p><b>10 Sliding Wear of Zirconia-Toughened Alumina </b><b>215</b></p> <p>10.1 Introduction 215</p> <p>10.2 Mechanical Properties of ZTA 216</p> <p>10.3 Sliding Wear Properties of ZTA 219</p> <p>10.4 Correlation with Theoretical Analysis 222</p> <p>10.5 Closure 224</p> <p>References 225</p> <p><b>11 Abrasive Wear of Detonation Sprayed WC-12Co Coatings </b><b>227</b></p> <p>11.1 Introduction 227</p> <p>11.2 Coatings and Abrasive Wear 228</p> <p>11.3 Abrasive Wear Results 230</p> <p>11.4 Surface and Subsurface Damage Mechanisms 231</p> <p>11.5 Closure 233</p> <p>References 234</p> <p><b>12 Solid–Lubricant Interaction and Friction at Lubricated Contacts </b><b>237</b></p> <p>12.1 Introduction 237</p> <p>12.2 Materials and Sliding Wear Experiments 239</p> <p>12.3 Wetting and Spreading Properties 240</p> <p>12.4 Surface Energies of Different Classes of Materials 242</p> <p>12.5 Wetting Evaluation of Engineering Surfaces 242</p> <p>12.6 Effect of Wetting on EHL Friction 246</p> <p>12.7 Correlation Between Spreading Parameter and Friction 247</p> <p>12.8 Closure 249</p> <p>References 250</p> <p><b>Section IV Case Study: Erosive Wear of Ceramics 253</b></p> <p><b>13 Erosive Wear of SiC-WC Composites </b><b>255</b></p> <p>13.1 Introduction 255</p> <p>13.2 Materials and Erosion Tests 256</p> <p>13.3 Influence of Type of Erodent on Erosive Wear Behavior 256</p> <p>13.4 Influence of Impingement Angle and WC Content on Erosive Wear Behavior 258</p> <p>13.5 Correlating Erosive Wear Behavior with Microstructural Characteristics 259</p> <p>13.6 Correlating Erosive Wear Behavior with Mechanical Properties 259</p> <p>13.7 Erosive Wear Behavior at High Temperature 260</p> <p>13.8 Closure 262</p> <p>References 263</p> <p><b>14 Thermo-Erosive Behavior of ZrB<sub>2</sub>-SiC Composites </b><b>265</b></p> <p>14.1 Introduction 265</p> <p>14.2 High-Temperature Erosion Tests and Computational Modeling 267</p> <p>14.3 Computational Modeling of Thermo-Erosive Behavior 269</p> <p>14.4 High-Temperature Erosion Test Results 270</p> <p>14.5 Transient Thermal Studies Using FE Analysis 271</p> <p>14.6 Coupled Thermo-Structural Analysis 271</p> <p>14.7 Thermo-Erosive Behavior 273</p> <p>14.8 Closure 274</p> <p>References 275</p> <p><b>15 Erosive Wear of WC-Co Coating </b><b>279</b></p> <p>15.1 Introduction 279</p> <p>15.2 Materials and Erosion Experiments 280</p> <p>15.3 Erosive Wear Mechanisms (Surface Damage) 282</p> <p>15.4 Erosive Wear Mechanisms (Subsurface Damage) 287</p> <p>15.5 Correlating Wear Mechanism with Erodent and Coating Properties 290</p> <p>15.6 Closure 293</p> <p>References 293</p> <p><b>Section V Case Study: Machining-Induced Wear of Cermets 295</b></p> <p><b>16 Crater Wear of TiCN Cermets in Conventional Machining </b><b>297</b></p> <p>16.1 Introduction 297</p> <p>16.2 TiCN Cermets and Machining Conditions 298</p> <p>16.3 Wear Mechanisms of TiCN-WC-Ni Cermets 299</p> <p>16.4 Machining with TiCN-WC-TaC-Ni-Co Cermet Tools 300</p> <p>16.5 Correlating Cermet Composition, Microstructure, and Wear During</p> <p>Machining 304</p> <p>16.6 Closure 306</p> <p>References 306</p> <p><b>17 Wear of TiCN-Based Cermets in Electrodischarge Machining </b><b>309</b></p> <p>17.1 Introduction 309</p> <p>17.2 Materials and EDM Tests 310</p> <p>17.3 Wear of TiCN-Cermets During EDM 310</p> <p>17.4 Mechanisms of Material Removal During EDM 311</p> <p>17.5 Closure 313</p> <p>References 313</p> <p><b>Section VI Future Scope </b><b>317</b></p> <p><b>18 Perspective </b><b>319</b></p> <p>18.1 Innovation Cycle for Wear-Resistant Materials 319</p> <p>18.2 <i>In Situ </i>Diagnosis of Tribological Interaction 321</p> <p>18.3 High-Temperature Wear Testing 321</p> <p>18.4 Modeling and Simulation in Tribology 322</p> <p>18.5 Tribomaterialomics– A New Concept 323</p> <p>18.6 Education and Mentoring of Next-Generation Researchers 327</p> <p>References 328</p> <p><b>Appendix: Appraisal </b><b>329</b></p> <p>A.I Multiple Choice Questions 329</p> <p>A.II Select the Appropriate Combination 350</p> <p>A.III Fill in the Blanks with the Most Appropriate Response 352</p> <p>A.IV Mention the Appropriate Material/Equipment in the Blank 353</p> <p>A.V Identify Whether the Following Statements are True/False 354</p> <p>A.VI Short Review Questions and Descriptive Questions 354</p> <p>A.VII Analytical Questions 363</p> <p>A.VIII Model Answers 366</p> <p>Index 369</p>
<p><b>BIKRAMJIT BASU, P<small>H</small>D,</b> is a Professor at the Materials Research Center with joint appointment at the Centre for Biosystems Science and Engineering, and Interdisciplinary Center for Energy Research at Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Encompassing experimental and theoretical analysis, his research, at the intersection of Materials Science and Mechanical Engineering, has laid the foundation of next generation of wear resistant ceramics and provided deeper understanding into their wear mechanisms. <p><b>MITJAN KALIN, P<small>H</small>D,</b> is a Professor at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, where he is the Head of the Laboratory for Tribology and Interface Nanotechnology and the Chair for Tribology and Maintenance Technology. Dr Kalin's areas of research are the wear and friction mechanisms of advanced materials, nanoscale interface phenomena, and boundary films for novel green-lubrication technologies, including his widely recognized contribution to the lubrication of DLC coatings. <p><b>B. VENKATA MANOJ KUMAR, P<small>H</small>D,</b> is an Associate Professor at the Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. With the primary theme of understanding microstructure-property relations, Dr. Kumar has been actively involved in processing advanced ceramic systems and studying the influence of microstructural characteristics on their material removal mechanisms when subjected to varieties of wear and machining conditions.
<p><b>A comprehensive guide to the study of friction and wear of ceramics</b> <p>This book dives into the subject of tribology and focuses on the subject of ceramic tribology. Designed to enrich the knowledge of basic concepts of ceramic processing and tribology, it also upgrades the understanding of state-of-the-art research findings of advanced ceramics and ceramic coatings. <p><i>Friction and Wear of Ceramics: Principles and Case Studies</i> shows how the application of high-quality manufacturing and design principles can improve the friction and wear characteristics of the advanced ceramic systems. It provides a comprehensive view on the studies of friction and wear of ceramics, including subjects like the fundamentals of the processing of ceramics and ceramic coatings; mechanical behavior of ceramics; the ceramic wear mechanisms and wear behavior of important ceramic systems, such as bulk silicon carbide, alumina, zirconium diboride, titanium carbonitride-based cermets and tungsten carbide-cobalt coatings. In addition, the book includes a comprehensive Appendix featuring multiple review questions to allow the reader to test their progress and retention. <ul> <li>Provides basic understanding on tribology concepts</li> <li>Offers understanding on manufacturing of bulk ceramics and ceramic coatings, and their mechanical properties</li> <li>Presents the research findings from the authors' research groups on the tribological properties of ceramics, ceramic composites and coatings</li> <li>Covers microstructure-property-tribological performance relationship for important ceramic systems</li> <li>Includes a large collection of different types of qualitative and quantitative questions and answers as an Appendix section</li> </ul> <p><i>Friction and Wear of Ceramics: Principles and Case Studies</i> book is designed for beginners and students pursuing the tribology of ceramics, as well as for experienced researchers and practitioners engaged in understanding the science of tribology.

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