Details

Forensic Science


Forensic Science

A Multidisciplinary Approach
1. Aufl.

von: Evgeny Katz, Jan Halámek

115,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 08.03.2016
ISBN/EAN: 9783527693542
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 446

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Beschreibungen

Concentrating on the natural science aspects of forensics, top international authors from renowned universities, institutes, and laboratories impart the latest information from the field. In doing so they provide the background needed to understand the state of the art in forensic science with a focus on biological, chemical, biochemical, and physical methods. The broad subject coverage includes spectroscopic analysis techniques in various wavelength regimes, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, electrochemical detection approaches, and imaging techniques, as well as advanced biochemical, DNA-based identification methods. The result is a unique collection of hard-to-get data that is otherwise only found scattered throughout the literature.
List of Contributors XIII Preface XXI 1 Forensic Science – Chemistry, Physics, Biology, and Engineering – Introduction 1Evgeny Katz and Jan Halámek References 3 2 Forensic Applications of Vibrational Spectroscopy 5Claire K.Muro, Kyle C. Doty, Justin Bueno, Lenka Halámková, and Igor K. Lednev 2.1 Introduction 5 2.1.1 Chemometrics 6 2.2 Trace Evidence 8 2.2.1 Hair Analysis 8 2.2.2 Fibers 11 2.2.3 Paint Analysis 12 2.3 Ink Analysis 16 2.4 Forensic Biology and Anthropology 18 2.4.1 Body Fluids 18 2.4.2 Forensic Anthropology 22 2.5 Gunshot Residue 23 2.6 Controlled Substances 29 2.6.1 Illicit Drugs 29 2.6.2 Pharmaceuticals 32 2.7 Counterterrorism and Homeland Security 36 2.7.1 Explosives 36 2.7.2 Chemical Agents 39 2.7.3 Bioagents 39 2.8 Emerging Technologies 41 2.9 Conclusions 43 Acknowledgments 44 References 44 3 Applications of Internal Reflection Spectroscopy in Forensic Analysis 55Ali Koçak 3.1 Introduction 55 3.2 Principles andTheory 56 3.3 Accessories for ATR 59 3.4 Forensic Applications of ATR 60 3.4.1 Packing Materials and Adhesive Tapes 60 3.4.2 Paint Samples 61 3.4.3 Drugs 63 3.4.4 Explosives 65 3.4.5 Soil and Minerals 66 3.4.6 Other Developments 67 3.5 Conclusion 68 References 68 4 Applications of Mass Spectrometry in Forensic Science: A Brief Introduction 71Roshanak Aslebagh, Pooya Estifaee, Selma Mededovic Thagard, and Costel C. Darie 4.1 Introduction 71 4.2 Mass Spectrometry 72 4.2.1 Instrumentation 72 4.2.1.1 Ionization Source 73 4.2.1.2 Mass Analyzer 75 4.2.1.3 Detector 75 4.2.2 Tandem MS (MS/MS) 75 4.2.3 Combination of MS with Other Separation Techniques 76 4.2.4 Applications of MS 77 4.3 Applications of MS in Forensic Science 77 4.3.1 Drugs and Toxicology 77 4.3.2 ChemicalWarfare Agents and Explosives 79 4.3.3 Hair 79 4.3.4 Residues of Gunshots 80 4.3.5 Fingermarks 80 4.3.6 Dyes 80 4.3.7 Glass 81 4.3.8 Drug Packages 81 4.3.9 Paint Analysis 81 4.4 Conclusions 82 Acknowledgments 82 References 82 5 An Introduction to Forensic Electrochemistry 89Jamie P. Smith, Edward P. Randviir, and Craig E. Banks 5.1 Introduction 89 5.2 Electrochemical Methods 90 5.3 Voltammetric Methods 91 5.4 Electrochemical Methods in Forensic Science 93 5.4.1 Poisons 93 5.4.2 Gunshot Residues 94 5.4.3 Drugs 96 5.4.4 Fingerprinting 99 5.4.5 DNA 100 5.5 Outlook for Forensic Electrochemistry 101 References 101 6 Electrochemical Detection of Gunshot Residue for Forensic Analysis 103Joseph Wang and Aoife M. O’Mahony 6.1 Overview of Gunshot Residue Detection 103 6.2 Electrochemical Detection of Inorganic GSR 107 6.3 Electrochemical Detection of Organic GSR 115 6.4 Next Steps in GSR Analysis: Chemometric Data Treatment and Complementary Orthogonal Methods 118 6.5 Future Prospects for Electroanalytical Detection of GSR 121 References 122 7 From Optical to Hyperspectral Imaging Techniques in Forensic Sciences 125Maria Ángeles Fernández de la Ossa, María Lopez-López, Matías Calcerrada, and Carmen García-Ruiz 7.1 Added Value of Imaging Techniques in Forensic Sciences 125 7.2 Optical Examination in Forensic Sciences: A Step Before Hyperspectral Imaging 126 7.3 Hyperspectral Imaging: A Flourishing Technique in Forensic Sciences 130 7.3.1 Fundamentals 131 7.3.2 Hyperspectral Imaging Applied in Forensic Sciences 139 7.4 Conclusions and Future Prospects of Hyperspectral Imaging in Forensic Sciences 145 References 146 8 Biochemical Analysis of Biomarkers for Forensic Applications 151Evgeny Katz, Jan Halámek, Lenka Halámková, Saira Bakshi, Juliana Agudelo, and Crystal Huynh 8.1 Introduction 151 8.2 Biocatalytic Analysis of Biomarkers for Forensic Identification of Ethnicity Between Caucasian and African American 152 8.3 Biocatalytic Analysis of Biomarkers for Forensic Identification of Sex 160 8.4 Biocatalytic Assay to Determine Age of Blood Sample 166 8.5 Conclusions 173 Acknowledgment 173 References 173 9 Processing Skeletal Samples for Forensic DNA Analysis 177Stacey Klempner, DesireeWilliams, Kelsha Sanchez, and Richard Li 9.1 Introduction 177 9.2 Bone Evidence in Forensic Investigations 178 9.3 The Sources of DNA from Skeletal Remains 179 9.4 Postmortem Taphonomic Effects of Skeletal Remains 181 9.5 Contamination of Challenged Bone Specimens 183 9.6 Sample Preparation and Processing of Bone Evidence for Forensic DNA Analysis 184 References 188 10 DNA Damage and Repair in Forensic Science 193Ashley Hall, Lynn Sims, Ashley Foster, and Jack Ballantyne 10.1 Mechanisms of DNA Damage 193 10.1.1 Ultraviolet Radiation-Mediated and Oxidative DNA Damage 194 10.1.2 DNA Damage in Forensic-Type Samples 197 10.2 DNA Damage in Forensic Samples 198 10.2.1 DNA Damage at the Molecular Level 199 10.3 DNA Repair Mechanisms 206 10.3.1 Base Excision Repair/Single Strand Break Repair (BER/SSBR) 206 10.4 DNA Repair in Forensic Science 208 10.4.1 Commercialization of DNA 209 References 211 11 Biosensors in Forensic Analysis 215Paloma Yáñez-Sedeño, Lourdes Agüí, and José Manuel Pingarrón 11.1 Introduction 215 11.2 The Use of Biosensors in Forensic Toxicological Analysis 216 11.2.1 Inorganic Poisons 216 11.2.1.1 Cyanide 219 11.2.2 Organic Toxins: Alcohol, Drugs, Doping Agents 222 11.2.2.1 Alcohol 222 11.2.2.2 Illicit Drugs 224 11.2.3 Doping 230 11.2.4 Toxins 233 11.2.5 Microorganisms 238 11.3 Biosensors for Chemical and Biological Weapons 241 11.3.1 ChemicalWarfare Agents (CWAs) 241 11.3.2 Explosives 245 11.3.3 Biological Weapons 248 11.4 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 254 Acknowledgments 257 References 257 12 Recent Advances in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis 263Bethany A. J. Larkin and Craig E. Banks 12.1 Introduction 263 12.1.1 Blood Components 264 12.1.2 Blood Drying 266 12.1.3 Bloodstain Formation 269 12.1.4 Surfaces Interactions 273 12.1.5 Surface Manipulation 274 12.1.6 Blood Aging 277 12.1.7 Future Research 279 References 279 13 Detection of Cocaine on Paper Currency 283Susan van der Heide and David A. Russell 13.1 Cocaine 283 13.2 Cocaine on Banknotes as Forensic Evidence 284 13.3 Methods of Analysis 287 Acknowledgments 296 References 297 14 The Forensic Analysis of Glass Evidence: Past, Present, and Future 299BrookeWeinger Kammrath, Andrew C. Koutrakos, Meghann E. McMahon, and John A. Reffner 14.1 Glass as Forensic Evidence 299 14.2 A Brief History of Forensic Glass Analysis 300 14.2.1 Physical Properties 301 14.2.2 Optical Properties 305 14.2.3 Chemical Composition 313 14.3 Current Methods of Forensic Glass Analysis 317 14.4 Future Directions of Forensic Glass Analysis 320 14.4.1 New Developments inWindows 320 14.4.2 Future Methods of Glass Analysis 325 14.5 Conclusions 329 Acknowledgment 329 References 329 15 Forensic Examination of Trace Evidence 337Virginia M. Maxwell 15.1 What Is Trace Evidence? 337 15.2 Major Types of Trace Evidence 342 15.2.1 Hairs 342 15.2.2 Fibers 347 15.2.3 Paint 351 15.2.4 Glass 355 15.2.5 Soil 357 15.2.6 Tape 360 15.2.7 Structural Materials 362 15.2.8 Lamp Filaments 363 15.2.9 Physical Match 364 15.2.10 Miscellaneous Trace Materials 365 15.3 Limitations and Significance of Trace Evidence 365 References 366 16 Fingerprint Spoofing and Liveness Detection 373Peter Johnson and Stephanie Schuckers 16.1 Introduction 373 16.2 Fingerprint Spoofing 374 16.2.1 Spoofing Methods 374 16.2.2 Spoofing AFIS 376 16.2.3 Spoofing in Forensics 376 16.2.4 Documented Spoof Attempts in the Field 377 16.3 Liveness Detection 377 16.3.1 Hardware-Based Liveness Detection 379 16.3.2 Software-Based Liveness Detection 380 16.4 Summary 381 References 381 17 Engineering as a Forensic Science 383Steven C. Batterman and Scott D. Batterman 17.1 Introduction 383 17.2 Accident Reconstruction 385 17.3 Biomechanics of Injuries 388 17.4 Products Liability 391 17.4.1 Design Defects 392 17.4.2 Manufacturing Defects 394 17.4.3 Failure toWarn and Instruct 394 17.4.4 General Product Design Considerations 395 17.5 Conclusion 397 References 397 Further Reading 398 18 Unmanned Systems Technology Use by Law Enforcement 401Anthony Hallett and Victor Weedn 18.1 Evolution and Anatomy of Unmanned Systems 402 18.2 Law Enforcement Applications 403 18.2.1 Bomb Disposal Applications 404 18.2.2 Search and Rescue Applications 404 18.2.3 Standoff and Hostage Negotiation Applications 405 18.2.4 Crime Scene Imaging and Reconstruction Applications 405 18.3 Legal Issues 405 18.3.1 Regulations 406 18.3.2 Privacy 407 18.3.3 Weaponization 408 18.4 Unmanned Systems Deployment 409 18.4.1 Top Reasons Law Enforcement Agencies Hesitate to Deploy Drones 409 18.4.2 Deployment Models 410 18.4.3 SIDEBAR – Law Enforcement Applications 411 References 412 19 Forensic Science – Conclusions and Perspectives 415Evgeny Katz and Jan Halámek Index 417
Evgeny Katz is Milton Kerker Chaired Professor at the Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, NY, USA. He obtained his PhD in Chemistry from the Frumkin Institute of Electrochemistry, Moscow, in 1983 and then was a senior researcher at the Institute of Photosynthesis, Pushchino, Russian Academy of Sciences, for eight years. He was a Humboldt fellow at the Technische Universitat Munchen, Germany, from 1992 to 1993, and a research associate professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem from 1993 to 2006. Evgeny Katz has (co)authored more than 400 papers in the areas of biocomputing, bioelectronics, biosensors and biofuel cells. Thomson Reuters included him in the list of the world's top 100 chemists over the past 10 years as ranked by the impact of their published research. Jan Halamek is Assistant Professor in the Department of Chemistry at the University at Albany, State University of New York, USA. He received his PhD in Biochemistry from the Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic. From 2003 to 2005 he worked as a postdoctoral fellow, earning the Marie Curie Individual Fellowship, at the University of Potsdam, Germany. Before joining the University at Albany, he was postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Biophysical Engineering at Twente University, The Netherlands, and research associate in the Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, NY, USA. Jan Halamek has contributed more than 70 scientific publications and book chapters and holds three patents.

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