Details

Food Safety for the 21st Century


Food Safety for the 21st Century

Managing HACCP and Food Safety Throughout the Global Supply Chain
2. Aufl.

von: Carol A. Wallace, William H. Sperber, Sara E. Mortimore

121,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 08.08.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119053583
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 496

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Beschreibungen

Revised to reflect the most recent developments in food safety, the second edition of Food Safety for the 21st Century offers practitioners an authoritative text that contains the essentials of food safety management in the global supply chain. The authors — noted experts in the field — reveal how to design, implement and maintain a stellar food safety programme. The book contains industry best-practices that can help businesses to improve their systems and accelerate the application of world-class food safety systems. The authors outline the key food safety considerations for individuals, businesses and organisations involved in today’s complex global food supply chains. The text contains the information needed to recognise food safety hazards, design safe products and processes and identify and manage effectively the necessary control mechanisms within the food business. The authors also include a detailed discussion of current issues and key challenges in the global food supply chain. This important guide: • Offers a thorough review of the various aspects of food safety and considers how to put in place an excellent food safety system• Contains the information on HACCP appropriate for all practitioners in the world-wide food supply chain• Assists new and existing business to meet their food safety goals and responsibilities• Includes illustrative examples of current thinking and challenges to food safety management and recommendations for making improvements to systems and practices Written for food safety managers, researchers and regulators worldwide, this revised guide offers a comprehensive text and an excellent reference for developing, implementing and maintaining world-class food safety programmes and shows how to protect and defend the food supply chain from threats.
About the Authors xvii Foreword xix Acknowledgements xxi Glossary of Terms and Acronyms xxiii How to Use This Book xxix Part I Food Safety Challenges in the 21st Century 1 1 Origin and Evolution of theModern Systemof Food Safety Management: HACCP and Prerequisite Programmes 3 1.1 Historical Perspectives 3 1.2 Origin and Evolution of HACCP 5 1.3 The Necessity of Prerequisite Programmes 11 1.4 Recent Regulatory Developments in the United States 11 1.5 The Future of HACCP 12 1.6 Conclusions 13 2 Lessons Learned from Food Safety Successes and Failures 15 2.1 Introduction 15 2.2 Benefits of Using HACCP: Lessons Learned from a Successful Implementation 15 2.3 Misconceptions or ‘Failure to Understand HACCP‘ 18 2.4 Barriers to Effective HACCP Use 20 2.5 Reasons for Failure 22 2.5.1 Lessons Learned from Major Food Safety Events 22 2.5.2 Commonly Observed Mistakes in the Implementation of HACCP and Management of Food Safety Programmes 28 2.6 Difficulties with Applying HACCP through the Entire Food Supply Chain 30 2.7 Roles and Responsibilities: Lessons Learned 32 2.7.1 Industry 33 2.7.2 Government 33 2.7.3 Retailers/Foodservice Establishments 34 2.7.4 Trade and Professional Associations 34 2.7.5 Academia 35 2.7.6 Consumers 35 2.7.7 The Media 36 2.7.8 Advocacy and Pressure Groups 36 2.7.9 Influencers and Experts 37 2.8 Conclusions 37 3 Food Safety Challenges in the Global Supply Chain 39 3.1 Introduction 39 3.2 Increased Complexity of the Global Supply Chain 41 3.2.1 Economic Factors 41 3.2.2 Environmental Factors 43 3.2.3 Social Factors 47 3.3 Food Safety Issues in Global Trade 49 3.3.1 Lack of Uniformity in Regulations and Requirements 52 3.3.2 Lack of Uniformity in Standards and Audit Requirements 54 3.4 Strategic Level Responses 55 3.4.1 Government Communications Systems 55 3.4.2 Global Food Safety Private Audit Standards and Schemes 56 3.4.3 Verification and Auditor Competency 57 3.4.4 Global Food Traceability Systems 57 3.4.5 Public-Private Partnerships 57 3.4.6 FoodWaste Reduction through Labelling Improvements 58 3.5 Tactical Level Responses 58 3.5.1 Supplier Audits and Approvals 59 3.5.2 Business Continuity Planning 60 3.5.3 Sharing Technology 60 3.5.4 Shared Training and Education Resources 61 3.5.5 Increased Awareness of Emerging Issues 61 3.6 Conclusions 61 4 The Future of Food Safety and HACCP in a ChangingWorld 63 4.1 Introduction 63 4.2 Food Safety Issues 64 4.2.1 Emerging Pathogens 64 4.2.2 Changes in Distribution of Pathogens 65 4.2.3 Additional Control Measures 65 4.2.4 Antibiotic-Resistant Pathogens 65 4.2.5 Allergens 65 4.2.6 Other Chemical Hazards 66 4.2.7 Physical Hazards 66 4.2.8 Economically Motivated Contamination 66 4.3 Technology Advancements: Processing and Laboratories 67 4.4 Food Safety Management 68 4.4.1 HACCP Preliminary Steps and Principles 68 4.4.2 Additions to Current Prerequisite Programmes (Codex Principles of Food Hygiene) 70 4.4.3 The Human Factor 70 4.4.4 Global Food Safety Assurance 74 4.5 Changes in Thinking/Policy Making 78 4.5.1 Food Safety Objectives 78 4.5.2 End Product Testing 79 4.5.3 Hazard Analysis versus Risk Assessment 79 4.6 Conclusions 80 Part II Foodborne Hazards and Their Control 81 5 Recognising Food Safety Hazards 83 5.1 Introduction 83 5.1.1 What is a Food Safety Hazard? 83 5.1.2 What is not a Food Safety Hazard? 83 5.2 Biological Hazards 84 5.2.1 Epidemiology and Morbidity Statistics 84 5.2.2 Characteristics of Foodborne Illnesses 86 5.2.3 Bacterial Pathogens: Special Considerations and Features 91 5.2.4 Viral Pathogens 94 5.2.5 Prions 96 5.2.6 Protozoan Parasites 98 5.2.7 ParasiticWorms 98 5.2.8 Biological Hazards, Zoonoses, and Food Chain Biosecurity Issues 98 5.3 Chemical Hazards 99 5.3.1 Allergens 99 5.3.2 Mycotoxins 100 5.3.3 Marine Foodborne Toxins 101 5.3.4 GeneticallyModified (GM) Foods 101 5.3.5 Antibiotics 102 5.3.6 Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) 102 5.3.7 Heavy Metals 103 5.3.8 Chemicals Used in Food Processing Environments 104 5.3.9 Chemicals Used in Food Packaging Materials 104 5.3.10 Unanticipated Potential Chemical Hazards 104 5.4 Physical Hazards 105 5.4.1 Sources of Foreign Material 105 5.4.2 Injuries Associated with Physical Hazards 106 5.5 Conclusions 106 6 Designing Safety into a Food Product 107 6.1 Introduction 107 6.2 Formulation Intrinsic Control Factors 107 6.2.1 Water Activity 108 6.2.2 pH 110 6.2.3 Chemical Food Preservatives 111 6.2.4 Oxidation-Reduction Potential 115 6.2.5 Interactions between Preservative Factors 116 6.3 Use of Experimental Design and Analysis 118 6.3.1 Challenge Testing 118 6.3.2 Accelerated Shelf Life Testing 121 6.3.3 Predictive Microbiology and Mathematical Modelling 122 6.3.4 Theory versus Reality 123 6.4 Ingredient Considerations 123 6.4.1 High-Risk Ingredients 124 6.4.2 Novel Ingredients 126 6.5 Considering the ‘Unintended’ Use 126 6.6 Conclusions 127 7 Designing a Safe Food Process 129 7.1 Introduction 129 7.2 Process Control of Microbiological Hazards 130 7.2.1 Destruction of Microorganisms 130 7.2.2 Prevention of Microbial Growth 137 7.2.3 Prevention of Contamination 140 7.3 Process Control of Chemical Hazards 143 7.3.1 Allergen Control 143 7.3.2 White Powder Control 144 7.3.3 Cleaning and Maintenance Chemicals 144 7.4 Process Control of Physical Hazards 145 7.4.1 Exclusion Techniques 145 7.4.2 Removal Techniques 146 7.4.3 Detection Techniques 147 7.5 Conclusion 147 Part III Systematic Food Safety Management in Practice 149 8 Overview of aWorld-Class Food Safety Programme 151 8.1 Introduction 151 8.2 Preliminary Concepts and Definitions 152 8.2.1 The EvolvingWorld-Class Food Safety Programme 152 8.2.2 Key Definitions of Relevance toWorld-Class Food Safety Programmes 153 8.3 World-Class Food Safety Programmes: System Elements 155 8.3.1 Safe Product/Process Design 155 8.3.2 Prerequisite Programmes 156 8.3.3 HACCP 156 8.3.4 Food Fraud and Food Defence 156 8.4 World-Class Food Safety Programmes: Fundamental Supporting Elements 157 8.4.1 Essential Management Practices 157 8.4.2 Food Safety Culture 158 8.5 World-Class Food Safety Programmes: Further Supporting Elements 158 8.6 World-Class Food Safety Programmes in the Global Food Supply Chain 159 8.7 Continuous Improvement of theWorld-Class Food Safety Programme 160 8.8 Conclusions 161 9 Building the Foundations of a World-Class Food Safety Management Programme: Essential Steps and Practices 163 9.1 Introduction 163 9.2 Essential Management Practices 165 9.2.1 Management Commitment and its Role in Food Safety Culture 165 9.2.2 Assignment of Roles and Responsibilities 166 9.2.3 Training and Education 166 9.2.4 Resource Management 172 9.2.5 Documentation 173 9.2.6 Supplier/Customer Partnerships 173 9.2.7 Continuous Improvement 173 9.3 Food Safety Culture 174 9.4 Preparation Activities for Food Safety Programmes 175 9.4.1 Preparing a Project Plan 175 9.4.2 Structure the HACCP Programme 176 9.4.3 Carry out a Gap Assessment 176 9.5 Prioritisation of Corrective Actions 183 9.6 Conclusions 185 10 Formalised Prerequisite Programmes in Practice 187 10.1 Introduction 187 10.2 Prerequisite Definitions and Standards 188 10.3 Prerequisite Programmes: The Essentials 189 10.3.1 Primary Production 189 10.3.2 Establishment: Design and Facilities 192 10.3.3 Control of Operation 194 10.3.4 Establishment: Maintenance and Sanitation 198 10.3.5 Establishment: Personal Hygiene 206 10.3.6 Transportation 207 10.3.7 Product Information and Consumer Awareness 207 10.3.8 Training 209 10.4 Prerequisite Programmes and Operational Prerequisites 210 10.5 Validation and Verification of Prerequisite Programmes 212 10.6 Further Reading on Prerequisite Programmes 213 10.7 Conclusions 214 11 Conducting a Product Safety Assessment 215 11.1 Introduction 215 11.1.1 Who Is Involved in Product Safety Assessments? 215 11.1.2 Timing of the Product Safety Assessment Process 217 11.1.3 Product Safety Assessment Process 217 11.2 Training for Research and Development Personnel 218 11.3 Example of a Product Safety Assessment 219 11.3.1 Process Flow Diagram 221 11.4 Conclusions and Principles for Effective Product Safety Assessment 223 12 Developing and Implementing a HACCP Plan 225 12.1 Introduction 225 12.2 Preliminary Concepts 226 12.2.1 HACCP Principles 226 12.2.2 The HACCP Plan and Documentation Approaches 226 12.2.3 HACCP Application Process 228 12.2.4 Codex Logic Sequence 228 12.3 Applying the Codex Logic Sequence to Develop a HACCP Plan 230 12.3.1 HACCP Study Terms of Reference and Scope 230 12.3.2 Codex Logic Sequence Step 1: HACCP Teams 230 12.3.3 Codex Logic Sequence Step 2: Product/Process Descriptions 232 12.3.4 Codex Logic Sequence Step 3: Identify Intended Use 233 12.3.5 Codex Logic Sequence Step 4: Construct Process Flow Diagram(s) 234 12.3.6 Codex Logic Sequence Step 5: On-Site Confirmation of Flow Diagram 237 12.3.7 Codex Logic Sequence Step 6: List All Potential Hazards, Conduct a Hazard Analysis, and Consider Control Measures (Apply HACCP Principle 1) 238 12.3.8 Codex Logic Sequence Step 7: Determine CCPs (HACCP Principle 2) 249 12.3.9 Codex Logic Sequence Step 8: Establish Critical Limits for each CCP (HACCP Principle 3) 252 12.3.10 Codex Logic Sequence Step 9: Establish a Monitoring System for each CCP (HACCP Principle 4) 252 12.3.11 Codex Logic Sequence Step 10: Establish Corrective Actions (HACCP Principle 5) 255 12.3.12 Codex Logic Sequence Step 11: Establish Verification Procedures (HACCP Principle 6) 255 12.3.13 Codex Logic Sequence Step 12: Establish Documentation and RecordKeeping (HACCP Principle 7) 257 12.4 Implementing a HACCP Plan 257 12.4.1 Activities for Implementation of a HACCP Plan 257 12.4.2 The Validated HACCP Plan 258 12.4.3 Implementation Action Planning 259 12.4.4 Training 259 12.4.5 CCP Management Systems 261 12.4.6 HACCP Required Activities 262 12.4.7 Verification of Implementation 263 12.4.8 Handover to Operations Staff 263 12.4.9 Considerations for Implementing Updates and Changes to an Existing HACCP System 263 12.5 Conclusions 264 13 Food Fraud and Food Defence 265 13.1 Introduction 265 13.2 Essential Definitions 265 13.2.1 Food Fraud 266 13.2.2 Food Terrorism 266 13.2.3 Food Defence 267 13.2.4 Food Protection 267 13.3 Food Fraud 268 13.3.1 The Food Fraud Problem 268 13.3.2 Learning from Examples of Food Fraud 269 13.4 Food Terrorism 275 13.4.1 Food Terrorism Examples 275 13.5 Food Defence 276 13.5.1 Food Fraud Prediction 276 13.5.2 Practical Food Defence Strategies 279 13.6 Conclusion 282 14 Maintaining and Improving a Food Safety Programme 283 14.1 Introduction 283 14.2 What Is Food Safety Programme Maintenance? 283 14.3 Responsibility for Food Safety Programme Maintenance 285 14.4 Maintenance of Prerequisite Programme Elements 285 14.5 Maintenance of HACCP System Elements 286 14.5.1 HACCP Verification Activities 286 14.5.2 HACCP Maintenance Activities 287 14.6 Maintenance of Food Fraud and Food Defence Systems 288 14.7 Use of Audit for Successful Food Safety System Maintenance 289 14.7.1 Audit Definitions 289 14.7.2 The Auditor and Audit Skills 290 14.7.3 Audit Checklists 292 14.7.4 Use of External Audit and Certification Schemes as Part of Food Safety Programme Maintenance 293 14.8 Incident Management 294 14.9 Conclusions 294 15 Food Safety Culture: Evaluate, Map, and Mature 297Lone Jespersen, Ph.D. 15.1 Introduction 297 15.1.1 Food Safety Culture: Accepted Assumptions, Not Malicious Intent 297 15.1.2 Essential Definitions 298 15.2 Supply Chain and Critical Food Safety Behaviours 298 15.2.1 Dimensions of Food Safety Culture 300 15.2.2 Follow the Leafy Greens… 300 15.3 Organisational Culture and Food Safety 302 15.4 Evaluate and Map Food Safety Maturity 303 15.4.1 Map to Food Safety Maturity 303 15.4.2 Walking the Food Safety Talk 303 15.4.3 Importance of Using Multiple Methods to Evaluate Food Safety Culture 307 15.5 Tactics to Mature Food Safety Culture 309 15.6 Conclusions 310 Part IV Food Safety Management in Practice: Current Issues and Challenges in Areas of the Global Food Supply Chain 313 16 Food Safety in Agriculture: Determining Farm-Derived Food Safety Risk 315Louise Manning and Pieternel Luning 16.1 Introduction 315 16.2 Notions of Food Quality and Food Safety 315 16.3 Value as a Food Attribute in Primary Agriculture 316 16.3.1 Case Study 1: BSE and the United Kingdom 318 16.4 Uncertainty and Ambiguity Affecting Risk Perceptions and Decisions 319 16.4.1 Case Study 2: Red Tractor Standards 320 16.5 Risks Inherent to Farmers’ Context Characteristics 320 16.5.1 Case Study 3: Quality Egg 325 16.6 Supply Chain Governance and Food Safety 326 16.7 Risk Mitigation at Farm Level 327 16.8 Conclusion 329 17 Helping to Overcome Food Safety Challenges in Developing Markets 331 17.1 Introduction 331 17.2 Sri Lanka Hygiene and Management Systems Development Projects 332 17.2.1 Context 332 17.2.2 Support for the Development and Implementation of Environmental Management Plans 332 17.2.3 A Manufacturer of Dairy-Based Curd and Popsicles 334 17.2.4 A Small Packaging Manufacturer in Sri Lanka 336 17.2.5 A Small Dairy (Ice-Cream) Processor 337 17.2.6 A Coconut Processor in Sri Lanka 339 17.2.7 Quality and GMP Training in Sri Lanka 340 17.3 Rwanda Dairy Development Projects 342 17.3.1 Context 342 17.3.2 A Growing Dairy Company in Northern Rwanda 342 17.3.3 Yogurt and Fermented Milk Processor 343 17.4 Bangladesh Milk Supply Chain Development Project 346 17.4.1 Context 346 17.4.2 Project 347 17.4.3 Insights and Lessons Learned 347 17.5 Key Points Learned as Assignees to a Less-Developed Country 348 17.6 Kenya Development Project: InternationalWater and Health Alliance (IWHA) 349 17.6.1 Context 349 17.6.2 Challenges in Low-Income Countries 350 17.6.3 Addressing theWater-Testing Challenge in Low-Income Countries 351 17.6.4 Accomplishments 352 17.7 Conclusions 353 18 Consumer Food Safety 355 18.1 Introduction 355 18.2 Potential Hazards 356 18.3 Potential Control Measures 357 18.3.1 SafeWater and Raw Materials 357 18.3.2 Refrigeration 358 18.3.3 Heating (Cooking) 358 18.3.4 Separation, Cleaning, Sanitation, and Personal Hygiene 359 18.4 Potential CCPs and Preventive Controls (PCs) in the Home 360 18.5 Consumer Education 360 18.6 Good Consumer Practices (GCPs) 361 18.7 Case Studies 364 18.7.1 Fictional Case Study: Microbiological Food Safety 364 18.7.2 Real Life Case Study: Allergen Food Safety 366 18.8 Conclusion 369 19 Food Safety in Foodservice Operations 371 19.1 Introduction 371 19.2 Mapping the Foodservice Landscape 372 19.3 Quick-Service Restaurants 376 19.3.1 Challenges in Quick-Service Chain Restaurants 376 19.3.2 Ongoing Control of Food Safety in Quick-Serve Restaurants 378 19.4 Institutional Catering 380 19.5 Foodservice SMEs: Owner-led Restaurants, Cafés, and Snack Bars 381 19.6 Fine Dining, Star Ratings, and Celebrity Chefs 383 19.7 Mobile Foodservice: Market Stalls, Food Vans/Trucks, Festivals, and Pop-Up Facilities 385 19.8 Conclusions 386 Epilogue 387 References 391 Appendix 1 Manufacturing HACCP Case Study 417 Appendix 2 Global Food Safety Resources 439 Index 443
Carol A. Wallace, Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK. William H. Sperber, The Friendly Microbiologist LLC., Minnetonka, USA. Sara E. Mortimore, Land O'Lakes Inc, St Paul, Minnesota, USA.
The second edition of the acclaimed guide to food safety management, revised and updated Revised to reflect the most recent developments in food safety, the second edition of Food Safety for the 21st Century offers practitioners an authoritative text that contains the essentials of food safety management in the global supply chain. The authors outline the key food safety considerations for individuals, businesses and organisations involved in today’s complex global food supply chains. The authors — noted experts in the field — reveal how to design, implement and maintain a stellar food safety programme. The book contains industry best-practices that can help businesses to improve their systems and accelerate the application of world-class food safety systems. The text contains the information needed to recognise food safety hazards, design safe products and processes and identify and manage effectively the necessary control mechanisms within the food business. The authors also include a detailed discussion of current issues and key challenges in the global food supply chain. This important guide: Offers a thorough review of the various aspects of food safety and considers how to put in place an excellent food safety system Contains the information on HACCP appropriate for all practitioners in the world-wide food supply chain Assists new and existing business to meet their food safety goals and responsibilities Includes illustrative examples of current thinking and challenges to food safety management and recommendations for making improvements to systems and practices Written for food safety managers, researchers and regulators worldwide, this revised guide offers a comprehensive text and an excellent reference for developing, implementing and maintaining world-class food safety programmes and shows how to protect and defend the food supply chain from threats. 

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