Details

Fluorescent Nanodiamonds


Fluorescent Nanodiamonds


1. Aufl.

von: Huan-Cheng Chang, Wesley Wei-Wen Hsiao, Meng-Chih Su

107,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 11.09.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119477105
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 296

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Beschreibungen

The most comprehensive reference on fluorescent nanodiamond physical and chemical properties and contemporary applications Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) have drawn a great deal of attention over the past several years, and their applications and development potential are proving to be manifold and vast. The first and only book of its kind, Fluorescent Nanodiamonds is a comprehensive guide to the basic science and technical information needed to fully understand the fundamentals of FNDs and their potential applications across an array of domains. In demonstrating the importance of FNDs in biological applications, the authors bring together all relevant chemistry, physics, materials science and biology. Nanodiamonds are produced by powerful cataclysmic events such as explosions, volcanic eruptions and meteorite impacts. They also can be created in the lab by high-pressure high-temperature treatment of graphite or detonating an explosive in a reactor vessel. A single imperfection can give a nanodiamond a specific, isolated color center which allows it to function as a single, trapped atom. Much smaller than the thickness of a human hair, a nanodiamond can have a huge surface area that allows it to bond with a variety of other materials. Because of their non-toxicity, nanodiamonds may be useful in biomedical applications, such as drug delivery and gene therapy.  The most comprehensive reference on a topic of rapidly increasing interest among academic and industrial researchers across an array of fields Includes numerous case studies and practical examples from many areas of research and industrial applications, as well as fascinating and instructive historical perspectives Each chapter addresses, in-depth, a single integral topic including the fundamental properties, synthesis, mechanisms and functionalisation of FNDs First book published by the key patent holder with his research group in the field of FNDs Fluorescent Nanodiamonds is an important working resource for a broad range of scientists and engineers in industry and academia. It will also be a welcome reference for instructors in chemistry, physics, materials science, biology and related fields.
Preface xi Acknowledgements xv Part I Basics 1 1 Introduction to Nanotechnology 3 1.1 Nanotechnology: From Large to Small 3 1.1.1 Feynman: Plenty of Room at the Bottom 3 1.1.2 Nanotechnology Today 6 1.1.3 The Bottom?Up Approach 7 1.2 Nanocarbons: Now and Then 8 1.2.1 Classification 9 1.2.2 Fullerenes 9 1.2.3 Carbon Nanotubes 11 1.2.4 Graphenes 13 References 15 2 Nanodiamonds 19 2.1 Ah, Diamonds, Eternal Beautiful 19 2.2 Diamonds: From Structure to Classification 22 2.2.1 Structure 22 2.2.2 Classification 24 2.3 Diamond Synthesis 26 2.3.1 HPHT 27 2.3.2 CVD 29 2.3.3 Detonation 30 2.4 Nanodiamonds: A Scientist’s Best Friend 30 References 33 3 Color Centers in Diamond 37 3.1 Nitrogen Impurities 37 3.2 Crystal Defects 40 3.3 Vacancy?Related Color Centers 41 3.3.1 GR1 and ND1 41 3.3.2 NV0 and NV? 44 3.3.3 H3 and N3 46 3.3.4 SiV? 46 3.4 The NV? Center 47 References 50 4 Surface Chemistry of Nanodiamonds 55 4.1 Functionalization 56 4.2 Bioconjugation 61 4.2.1 Noncovalent Conjugation 61 4.2.2 Covalent Conjugation 64 4.3 Encapsulation 66 4.3.1 Lipid Layers 66 4.3.2 Silica Shells 67 References 69 5 Biocompatibility of Nanodiamonds 73 5.1 Biocompatibility Testing 73 5.1.1 Cytotoxicity 74 5.1.2 Genotoxicity 76 5.1.3 Hemocompatibility 76 5.2 In Vitro Studies 77 5.2.1 HPHT?ND 77 5.2.2 DND 80 5.3 Ex Vivo Studies 82 5.4 In Vivo Studies 83 References 86 Part II Specific Topics 91 6 Producing Fluorescent Nanodiamonds 93 6.1 Production 93 6.1.1 Theoretical Simulations 93 6.1.2 Electron/Ion Irradiation 96 6.1.3 Size Reduction 99 6.2 Characterization 101 6.2.1 Fluorescence Intensity 101 6.2.2 Electron Spin Resonance 104 6.2.3 Fluorescence Lifetime 105 6.2.4 Magnetically Modulated Fluorescence 107 References 110 7 Single Particle Detection and Tracking 113 7.1 Single Particle Detection 113 7.1.1 Photostability 113 7.1.2 Spectroscopic Properties 117 7.1.3 Color Center Numbers 118 7.2 Single Particle Tracking 120 7.2.1 Tracking in Solution 120 7.2.2 Tracking in Cells 122 7.2.3 Tracking in Organisms 127 References 130 8 Cell Labeling and Fluorescence Imaging 135 8.1 Cell Labeling 135 8.1.1 Nonspecific Labeling 136 8.1.2 Specific Labeling 139 8.2 Fluorescence Imaging 142 8.2.1 Epifluorescence and Confocal Fluorescence 142 8.2.2 Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence 144 8.2.3 Two?Photon Excitation Fluorescence 146 8.2.4 Time?Gated Fluorescence 147 References 150 9 Cell Tracking and Deep Tissue Imaging 155 9.1 Cellular Uptake 155 9.1.1 Uptake Mechanism 155 9.1.2 Entrapment 158 9.1.3 Quantification 159 9.2 Cell Tracking 161 9.2.1 Tracking In Vitro 161 9.2.2 Tracking In Vivo 163 9.3 Deep Tissue Imaging 165 9.3.1 Wide?Field Fluorescence Imaging 165 9.3.2 Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance Imaging 169 9.3.3 Time?Gated Fluorescence Imaging 170 9.3.4 Magnetically Modulated Fluorescence Imaging 170 References 171 10 Nanoscopic Imaging 175 10.1 Diffraction Barrier 176 10.2 Superresolution Fluorescence Imaging 177 10.2.1 Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscopy 177 10.2.2 Saturated Excitation Fluorescence Microscopy 181 10.2.3 Deterministic Emitter Switch Microscopy 182 10.2.4 Tip?Enhanced Fluorescence Microscopy 183 10.3 Cathodoluminescence Imaging 184 10.4 Correlative Light?Electron Microscopy 188 References 191 11 Nanoscale Quantum Sensing 195 11.1 The Spin Hamiltonian 196 11.2 Temperature Sensing 197 11.2.1 Ultrahigh Precision Temperature Measurement 197 11.2.2 Time?Resolved Nanothermometry 200 11.2.3 All?Optical Luminescence Nanothermometry 203 11.2.4 Scanning Thermal Imaging 205 11.3 Magnetic Sensing 207 11.3.1 Continuous?Wave Detection 207 11.3.2 Relaxometry 210 References 211 12 Hybrid Fluorescent Nanodiamonds 215 12.1 Silica/Diamond Nanohybrids 215 12.2 Gold/Diamond Nanohybrids 217 12.2.1 Photoluminescence Enhancement 217 12.2.2 Dual?Modality Imaging 218 12.2.3 Hyperlocalized Hyperthermia 220 12.2.4 NV?Based Nanothermometry 224 12.3 Silver/Diamond Nanohybrids 226 12.4 Iron Oxide/Diamond Nanohybrids 228 12.4.1 Single?Domain Magnetization 228 12.4.2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 229 References 232 13 Nanodiamond?Enabled Medicine 235 13.1 NDs as Therapeutic Carriers 236 13.2 Drug Delivery 237 13.2.1 Small Molecules 237 13.2.2 Proteins 241 13.3 Gene Therapy 244 13.3.1 RNA 244 13.3.2 DNA 245 13.4 Animal Experiments 247 References 249 14 Diamonds in the Sky 253 14.1 Unidentified Infrared Emission 253 14.2 Extended Red Emission 258 14.3 Cosmic Events at Home on Earth 264 References 267 Further Reading 271 Index 273
Huan-Cheng Chang, PhD, Distinguished Research Fellow, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences (IAMS), Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. Academia Sinica is the national academy of the Republic of China. Wesley Wei-Wen Hsiao, PhD, LLM is CEO of FND Biotech, Inc., Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. Meng-Chih Su, PhD, Professor in Chemistry, Sonoma State University (SSU), Rohnert Park, California, USA. Dr. Su has served as Department Chair for the Chemistry Department and later the Engineering Science Department at SSU.
The Most Comprehensive Reference on Fluorescent Nanodiamond Physical and Chemical Properties and Contemporary Applications Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) have drawn a great deal of attention over the past several years, and their applications and development potential are proving to be manifold and vast. The first and only book of its kind, Fluorescent Nanodiamonds is a comprehensive guide to the basic science and technical information needed to fully understand the fundamentals of FNDs and their potential applications across an array of domains. In demonstrating the importance of FNDs in biological applications, the authors bring together all relevant chemistry, physics, materials science and biology. Nanodiamonds are produced by powerful cataclysmic events such as explosions, volcanic eruptions and meteorite impacts. They also can be created in the lab by high-pressure high-temperature treatment of graphite or detonating an explosive in a reactor vessel. A single imperfection can give a nanodiamond a specific, isolated color center which allows it to function as a single, trapped atom. Much smaller than the thickness of a human hair, a nanodiamond can have a huge surface area that allows it to bond with a variety of other materials. Because of their non-toxicity, nanodiamonds may be useful in biomedical applications, such as drug delivery and gene therapy. The most comprehensive reference on a topic of rapidly increasing interest among academic and industrial researchers across an array of fields Includes numerous case studies and practical examples from many areas of research and industrial applications, as well as fascinating and instructive historical perspectives Each chapter addresses, in-depth, a single integral topic including the fundamental properties, synthesis, mechanisms and functionalisation of FNDs First book published by the key patent holder with his research group in the field of FNDs Fluorescent Nanodiamonds is an important working resource for a broad range of scientists and engineers in industry and academia. It will also be a welcome reference for instructors in chemistry, physics, materials science, biology and related fields.

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