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Flight Dynamics and Control of Aero and Space Vehicles


Flight Dynamics and Control of Aero and Space Vehicles


Aerospace Series 1. Aufl.

von: Rama K. Yedavalli

77,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 01.11.2019
ISBN/EAN: 9781118934425
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 560

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Beschreibungen

Flight Vehicle Dynamics and Control Rama K. Yedavalli, The Ohio State University, USA A comprehensive textbook which presents flight vehicle dynamics and control in a unified framework  Flight Vehicle Dynamics and Control presents the dynamics and control of various flight vehicles, including aircraft, spacecraft, helicopter, missiles, etc, in a unified framework. It covers the fundamental topics in the dynamics and control of these flight vehicles, highlighting shared points as well as differences in dynamics and control issues, making use of the ‘systems level’ viewpoint. The book begins with the derivation of the equations of motion for a general rigid body and then delineates the differences between the dynamics of various flight vehicles in a fundamental way. It then focuses on the dynamic equations with application to these various flight vehicles, concentrating more on aircraft and spacecraft cases. Then the control systems analysis and design is carried out both from transfer function, classical control, as well as modern, state space control points of view. Illustrative examples of application to atmospheric and space vehicles are presented, emphasizing the ‘systems level’ viewpoint of control design. Key features: Provides a comprehensive treatment of dynamics and control of various flight vehicles in a single volume. Contains worked out examples (including MATLAB examples) and end of chapter homework problems. Suitable as a single textbook for a sequence of undergraduate courses on flight vehicle dynamics and control. Accompanied by a website that includes additional problems and a solutions manual. The book is essential reading for undergraduate students in mechanical and aerospace engineering, engineers working on flight vehicle control, and researchers from other engineering backgrounds working on related topics.
Preface xxi Perspective of the Book xxix Part I Flight Vehicle Dynamics 1 Roadmap to Part I 2 1 An Overview of the Fundamental Concepts of Modeling of a Dynamic System 5 1.1 Chapter Highlights 5 1.2 Stages of a Dynamic System Investigation and Approximations 5 1.3 Concepts Needed to Derive Equations of Motion 8 1.4 Illustrative Example 15 1.5 Further Insight into Absolute Acceleration 20 1.6 Chapter Summary 20 1.7 Exercises 21 Bibliography 22 2 Basic Nonlinear Equations of Motion in Three Dimensional Space 23 2.1 Chapter Highlights 23 2.2 Derivation of Equations of Motion for a General Rigid Body 23 2.3 Specialization of Equations of Motion to Aero (Atmospheric) Vehicles 32 2.4 Specialization of Equations of Motion to Spacecraft 43 2.5 Flight Vehicle DynamicModels in State Space Representation 52 2.6 Chapter Summary 58 2.7 Exercises 58 Bibliography 60 3 Linearization and Stability of Linear Time Invariant Systems 61 3.1 Chapter Highlights 61 3.2 State Space Representation of Dynamic Systems 61 3.3 Linearizing a Nonlinear State Space Model 63 3.4 Uncontrolled, Natural Dynamic Response and Stability of First and Second Order Linear Dynamic Systems with State Space Representation 66 3.5 Chapter Summary 73 3.6 Exercises 74 Bibliography 75 4 Aircraft Static Stability and Control 77 4.1 Chapter Highlights 77 4.2 Analysis of Equilibrium (Trim) Flight for Aircraft: Static Stability and Control 77 4.3 Static Longitudinal Stability 79 4.4 Stick Fixed Neutral Point and CG Travel Limits 86 4.5 Static Longitudinal Control with Elevator Deflection 92 4.6 Reversible Flight Control Systems: Stick Free, Stick Force Considerations 99 4.7 Static Directional Stability and Control 105 4.8 Engine Out Rudder/Aileron Power Determination: Minimum Control Speed, VMC 107 4.9 Chapter Summary 111 4.10 Exercises 111 Bibliography 114 5 Aircraft Dynamic Stability and Control via Linearized Models 117 5.1 Chapter Highlights 117 5.2 Analysis of Perturbed Flight from Trim: Aircraft Dynamic Stability and Control 117 5.3 Linearized Equations of Motion in Terms of Stability Derivatives For the Steady, Level Equilibrium Condition 122 5.4 State Space Representation for Longitudinal Motion and Modes of Approximation 124 5.5 State Space Representation for Lateral/Directional Motion and Modes of Approximation 131 5.6 Chapter Summary 138 5.7 Exercises 139 Bibliography 140 6 Spacecraft Passive Stabilization and Control 143 6.1 Chapter Highlights 143 6.2 Passive Methods for Satellite Attitude Stabilization and Control 143 6.3 Stability Conditions for Linearized Models of Single Spin Stabilized Satellites 146 6.4 Stability Conditions for a Dual Spin Stabilized Satellite 149 6.5 Chapter Summary 151 6.6 Exercises 152 Bibliography 152 7 Spacecraft Dynamic Stability and Control via Linearized Models 155 7.1 Chapter Highlights 155 7.2 Active Control: Three Axis Stabilization and Control 155 7.3 Linearized Translational Equations of Motion for a Satellite in a Nominal Circular Orbit for Control Design 158 7.4 Linearized Rotational (Attitude) Equations of Motion for a Satellite in a Nominal Circular Orbit for Control Design 160 7.5 Open Loop (Uncontrolled Motion) Behavior of Spacecraft Models 161 7.6 External Torque Analysis: Control Torques Versus Disturbance Torques 161 7.7 Chapter Summary 162 7.8 Exercises 162 Bibliography 163 Part II Fight Vehicle Control via Classical Transfer Function Based Methods 165 Roadmap to Part II 166 8 Transfer Function Based Linear Control Systems 169 8.1 Chapter Highlights 169 8.2 Poles and Zeroes in Transfer Functions and Their Role in the Stability and Time Response of Systems 174 8.3 Transfer Functions for Aircraft Dynamics Application 179 8.4 Transfer Functions for Spacecraft Dynamics Application 183 8.5 Chapter Summary 184 8.6 Exercises 184 Bibliography 186 9 Block Diagram Representation of Control Systems 187 9.1 Chapter Highlights 187 9.2 Standard Block Diagram of a Typical Control System 187 9.3 Time Domain Performance Specifications in Control Systems 192 9.4 Typical Controller Structures in SISO Control Systems 196 9.5 Chapter Summary 200 9.6 Exercises 201 Bibliography 202 10 Stability Testing of Polynomials 203 10.1 Chapter Highlights 203 10.2 Coefficient Tests for Stability: Routh–Hurwitz Criterion 204 10.3 Left Column Zeros of the Array 208 10.4 Imaginary Axis Roots 208 10.5 Adjustable Systems 209 10.6 Chapter Summary 210 10.7 Exercises 210 Bibliography 211 11 Root Locus Technique for Control Systems Analysis and Design 213 11.1 Chapter Highlights 213 11.2 Introduction 213 11.3 Properties of the Root Locus 214 11.4 Sketching the Root Locus 218 11.5 Refining the Sketch 219 11.6 Control Design using the Root Locus Technique 223 11.7 Using MATLAB to Draw the Root Locus 225 11.8 Chapter Summary 226 11.9 Exercises 227 Bibliography 229 12 Frequency Response Analysis and Design 231 12.1 Chapter Highlights 231 12.2 Introduction 231 12.3 Frequency Response Specifications 232 12.4 Advantages of Working with the Frequency Response in Terms of Bode Plots 235 12.5 Examples on Frequency Response 238 12.6 Stability: Gain and Phase Margins 240 12.7 Notes on Lead and Lag Compensation via Bode Plots 246 12.8 Chapter Summary 248 12.9 Exercises 248 Bibliography 250 13 Applications of Classical Control Methods to Aircraft Control 251 13.1 Chapter Highlights 251 13.2 Aircraft Flight Control Systems (AFCS) 252 13.3 Longitudinal Control Systems 252 13.4 Control Theory Application to Automatic Landing Control System Design 259 13.5 Lateral/Directional Autopilots 265 13.6 Chapter Summary 267 Bibliography 267 14 Application of Classical Control Methods to Spacecraft Control 269 14.1 Chapter Highlights 269 14.2 Control of an Earth Observation Satellite Using a Momentum Wheel and Offset Thrusters: Case Study 269 14.3 Chapter Summary 281 Bibliography 281 Part III Flight Vehicle Control via Modern State Space Based Methods 283 Roadmap to Part III 284 15 Time Domain, State Space Control Theory 287 15.1 Chapter Highlights 287 15.2 Introduction to State Space Control Theory 287 15.3 State Space Representation in Companion Form: Continuous Time Systems 291 15.4 State Space Representation of Discrete Time (Difference) Equations 292 15.5 State Space Representation of Simultaneous Differential Equations 294 15.6 State Space Equations from Transfer Functions 296 15.7 Linear Transformations of State Space Representations 297 15.8 Linearization of Nonlinear State Space Systems 300 15.9 Chapter Summary 304 15.10 Exercises 305 Bibliography 306 16 Dynamic Response of Linear State Space Systems (Including Discrete Time Systems and Sampled Data Systems) 307 16.1 Chapter Highlights 307 16.2 Introduction to Dynamic Response: Continuous Time Systems 307 16.3 Solutions of Linear Constant Coefficient Differential Equations in State Space Form 309 16.4 Determination of State Transition Matrices Using the Cayley–Hamilton Theorem 310 16.5 Response of a Constant Coefficient (Time Invariant) Discrete Time State Space System 314 16.6 Discretizing a Continuous Time System: Sampled Data Systems 317 16.7 Chapter Summary 319 16.8 Exercises 320 Bibliography 321 17 Stability of Dynamic Systems with State Space Representation with Emphasis on Linear Systems 323 17.1 Chapter Highlights 323 17.2 Stability of Dynamic Systems via Lyapunov Stability Concepts 323 17.3 Stability Conditions for Linear Time Invariant Systems with State Space Representation 328 17.4 Stability Conditions for Quasi-linear (Periodic) Systems 337 17.5 Stability of Linear, Possibly Time Varying, Systems 338 17.6 Bounded Input–Bounded State Stability (BIBS) and Bounded Input–Bounded Output Stability (BIBO) 344 17.7 Chapter Summary 345 17.8 Exercises 345 Bibliography 346 18 Controllability, Stabilizability, Observability, and Detectability 349 18.1 Chapter Highlights 349 18.2 Controllability of Linear State Space Systems 349 18.3 State Controllability Test via Modal Decomposition 351 18.4 Normality or Normal Linear Systems 352 18.5 Stabilizability of Uncontrollable Linear State Space Systems 353 18.6 Observability of Linear State Space Systems 355 18.7 State Observability Test via Modal Decomposition 357 18.8 Detectability of Unobservable Linear State Space Systems 358 18.9 Implications and Importance of Controllability and Observability 361 18.10 A Display of all Three Structural Properties via Modal Decomposition 365 18.11 Chapter Summary 365 18.12 Exercises 366 Bibliography 368 19 Shaping of Dynamic Response by Control Design: Pole (Eigenvalue) Placement Technique 369 19.1 Chapter Highlights 369 19.2 Shaping of Dynamic Response of State Space Systems using Control Design 369 19.3 Single Input Full State Feedback Case: Ackermann’s Formula for Gain 373 19.4 Pole (Eigenvalue) Assignment using Full State Feedback: MIMO Case 375 19.5 Chapter Summary 379 19.6 Exercises 379 Bibliography 381 20 Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) Optimal Control 383 20.1 Chapter Highlights 383 20.2 Formulation of the Optimum Control Problem 383 20.3 Quadratic Integrals and Matrix Differential Equations 385 20.4 The Optimum Gain Matrix 387 20.5 The Steady State Solution 388 20.6 Disturbances and Reference Inputs 389 20.7 Trade-Off Curve Between State Regulation Cost and Control Effort 392 20.8 Chapter Summary 395 20.9 Exercises 395 Bibliography 396 21 Control Design Using Observers 397 21.1 Chapter Highlights 397 21.2 Observers or Estimators and Their Use in Feedback Control Systems 397 21.3 Other Controller Structures: Dynamic Compensators of Varying Dimensions 405 21.4 Spillover Instabilities in Linear State Space Dynamic Systems 408 21.5 Chapter Summary 410 21.6 Exercises 410 Bibliography 410 22 State Space Control Design: Applications to Aircraft Control 413 22.1 Chapter Highlights 413 22.2 LQR Controller Design for Aircraft Control Application 413 22.3 Pole Placement Design for Aircraft Control Application 414 22.4 Chapter Summary 421 22.5 Exercises 421 Bibliography 421 23 State Space Control Design: Applications to Spacecraft Control 423 23.1 Chapter Highlights 423 23.2 Control Design for Multiple Satellite Formation Flying 423 23.3 Chapter Summary 427 23.4 Exercises 428 Bibliography 428 Part IV Other Related Flight Vehicles 429 Roadmap to Part IV 430 24 Tutorial on Aircraft Flight Control by Boeing 433 24.1 Tutorial Highlights 433 24.2 System Overview 433 24.3 System Electrical Power 436 24.4 Control Laws and System Functionality 438 24.5 Tutorial Summary 441 Bibliography 442 25 Tutorial on Satellite Control Systems 443 25.1 Tutorial Highlights 443 25.2 Spacecraft/Satellite Building Blocks 443 25.3 Attitude Actuators 445 25.4 Considerations in Using Momentum Exchange Devices and Reaction Jet Thrusters for Active Control 445 25.5 Tutorial Summary 449 Bibliography 449 26 Tutorial on Other Flight Vehicles 451 26.1 Tutorial on Helicopter (Rotorcraft) Flight Control Systems 451 26.2 Tutorial on Quadcopter Dynamics and Control 462 26.3 Tutorial on Missile Dynamics and Control 465 26.4 Tutorial on Hypersonic Vehicle Dynamics and Control 468 Bibliography 470 Appendices 471 Appendix A Data for Flight Vehicles 472 A.1 Data for Several Aircraft 472 A.2 Data for Selected Satellites 476 Appendix B Brief Review of Laplace Transform Theory 479 B.1 Introduction 479 B.2 Basics of Laplace Transforms 479 B.3 Inverse Laplace Transformation using the Partial Fraction Expansion Method 482 B.4 Exercises 483 Appendix C A Brief Review of Matrix Theory and Linear Algebra 487 C.1 Matrix Operations, Properties, and Forms 487 C.2 Linear Independence and Rank 489 C.3 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 490 C.4 Definiteness of Matrices 492 C.5 Singular Values 493 C.6 Vector Norms 497 C.7 Simultaneous Linear Equations 499 C.8 Exercises 501 Bibliography 503 Appendix D Useful MATLAB Commands 505 D.1 Author Supplied Matlab Routine for Formation of Fuller Matrices 505 D.2 Available Standard Matlab Commands 507 Index 509
Rama K. Yedavalli is a Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Ohio State University. His research interests include systems level robust stability analysis and control design for uncertain dynamical systems with applications to mechanical and aerospace systems. He also works on robust control, distributed control, adaptive control, hybrid systems control and control of time delay systems with applications to mechanical and aerospace systems.
Flight Dynamics and Control of Aero and Space Vehicles "Different from most existing books on the subject, this book covers not only aircraft but also spacecraft via the frequency-domain transfer function based control theory as well as the time-domain state space based control theory, thereby providing important concepts of flight dynamics and control in an integral way, which is crucial for students in aerospace engineering who want to know how flight vehicles fly as intended." — Inseok Hwang, PhD, Professor, Aeronautics and Astronautics, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University "The book is a 'must have' for students as well as practicing engineers. I think that the book is unique and it is a complete guideline for two undergraduate courses. It is extremely well written, and it shows the high level scientific background of its author." — Mario Innocenti, PhD, Full Professor of Aerospace Dynamics and Control, Department of Information Engineering, University of Pisa Flight Dynamics and Control of Aero and Space Vehicles Rama K. Yedavalli, The Ohio State University, USA A comprehensive textbook which presents flight vehicle dynamics and control in a unified framework Flight Dynamics and Control of Aero and Space Vehicles presents the dynamics and control of various flight vehicles, including aircraft, spacecraft, helicopter, missiles, etc, in a unified framework. It covers the fundamental topics in the dynamics and control of these flight vehicles, highlighting shared points as well as differences in dynamics and control issues, making use of the 'systems level' viewpoint. The book begins with the derivation of the equations of motion for a general rigid body and then delineates the differences between the dynamics of various flight vehicles in a fundamental way. It then focuses on the dynamic equations with application to these various flight vehicles, concentrating more on aircraft and spacecraft cases. Then the control systems analysis and design is carried out both from transfer function, classical control, as well as modern, state space control points of view. Illustrative examples of application to atmospheric and space vehicles are presented, emphasizing the 'systems level' viewpoint of control design. Key features: Provides a comprehensive treatment of dynamics and control of various flight vehicles in a single volume. Contains worked out examples (including MATLAB examples) and end of chapter homework problems. Suitable as a single textbook for a sequence of undergraduate courses on flight vehicle dynamics and control. The book is essential reading for undergraduate students in mechanical and aerospace engineering, engineers working on flight vehicle control, and researchers from other engineering backgrounds working on related topics.
"Different from the most existing books on the subject, this book covers not only aircraft but also spacecraft via the frequency-domain transfer function based control theory as well as the time-domain state space based control theory, thereby providing important concepts of flight dynamics and control in an integral way, which is crucial for students in aerospace engineering who want to know how flight vehicles fly as intended."Inseok Hwang, PhD, Professor, Aeronautics and AstronauticsSchool of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University"The book is a “must have” for students as well as practicing engineers. I think that the book is unique and it is a complete guideline for two undergraduate courses. It is extremely well written, and it shows the high level scientific background of its author."Mario Innocenti, PhD, Full Professor of Aerospace Dynamics and ControlDepartment of Information Engineering, University of Pisa

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