Flexible GlassEnabling Thin, Lightweight, and Flexible Electronics
This book details flexible glass properties that enable use in emerging electronic and opto-electronic applications. Discussion includes flexible glass advantages compared to alternative substrate materials. Examples describe flexible glass in processes such as vacuum deposition, monolithic integration, printing, and roll-to-roll. Flexible glass demonstrations in emerging applications such as photovoltaics, flexible displays, and optical interconnects are also detailed. The reader will find in this unique book: Discussion of flexible glass processing and mechanical reliability. Demonstration of flexible glass in roll-to-roll (R2R) fabrication processes. Flexible glass substrate examples in displays, sensors, and photovoltaics. Flexible glass ecosystem description for identification of new applications.
Preface xi Part I: Flexible Glass & Flexible Glass Reliability 1 Introduction to Flexible Glass Substrates 3Sean M. Garner, Xinghua Li, and Ming-Huang Huang 1.1 Overview of Flexible Glass 3 1.2 Flexible Glass Properties 5 1.3 Flexible Glass Web for R2R Processing 21 1.4 Flexible Glass Laser Cutting 22 1.5 Summary 23 2 The Mechanical Reliability of Thin, Flexible Glass 35G. Scott Glaesemann 2.1 Introduction 35 2.2 The Mechanical Reliability of Glass 36 2.3 Applied Stress 49 2.4 The Strength of Thin Glass Sheets 52 3 Low Modulus, Damage Resistant Glass for Ultra-Thin Applications 63Timothy M. Gross and Randall E. Youngman 3.1 Introduction 64 3.2 Young’s Modulus and Basic Fracture Mechanics 64 3.3 Vickers Indentation Cracking Resistance of Calcium Aluminoborosilicate Glasses 77 Part II: Flexible Glass Device Fabrication 4 Roll-to-Roll Processing of Flexible Glass 87James C. Switzer III and Mark D. Poliks 4.1 Introduction 87 4.2 Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing Process Equipment 90 4.3 R2R Deposition and Patterning of ITO on Thin Flexible Glass and Plastic films 104 4.4 Conclusions 121 4.5 Future 122 5 Thin-Film Deposition on Flexible Glass by Plasma Processes 129Manuela Junghähnel and John Fahlteich 5.1 Introduction 130 5.2 Substrate Requirements for Vacuum Processes 130 5.3 Types of Vacuum Processes 133 5.4 Large Area Coatings onto Flexible Glass 159 5.5 Thermal Pre- and Post-Treatment for Flexible Glass 167 5.6 Future Trends in Vacuum Processing on Flexible Glass 173 6 Printed Electronics Solution-Based Processes with Flexible Glass 181Jukka Hast, Elina Jansson, Riikka Suhonen, Liisa Hakola, Markus Tuomikoski, Marja Vilkman, Kari Rönkä and Harri Kopola 6.1 Introduction 181 6.2 Printing Processes 183 6.3 Summary of Different Printing Processes 198 6.4 Example – Printed OPV Cell on Ultra-Thin Flexible Glass 198 6.5 Future 203 Part III: Flexible Glass Device Applications 7 Flexible Glass in Thin Film Photovoltaics 213Matthew O. Reese and Teresa M. Barnes 7.1 Introduction 213 7.2 General Substrate Requirements for Photovoltaic 215 7.3 Requirements for CdTe Superstrates 233 7.4 Standard CdTe device stack and processing 235 7.5 Flexible CdTe Device performance 236 7.6 Flex and Bend Testing of CdTe 238 8 Ultra-Thin Glass for Displays, Lighting and Touch Sensors 247Steffen Hoehla and Norbert Fruehauf 8.1 Introduction and Overview 247 8.2 Ultra Thin Glass Substrates for Flexible Displays 254 8.3 Thin Film Device Processing on Ultra Thin Glass 265 8.4 Thin Glass Displays 282 9 Guided-Wave Photonics in Flexible Glass 291Sheng Huang, Mingshan Li and Kevin P. Chen 9.1 Flexible Guided-Wave Photonics 292 9.2 Flexible Polymer Passive Waveguide Photonics 292 9.3 Flexible Polymer Active Waveguide Photonics 299 9.4 Flexible Polymer Waveguides for Electro-Optic Applications 301 9.5 Flexible Glass Optical Substrates 303 9.6 Ultrafast-Laser Fabrication of Embedded Waveguides 305 9.7 Embedded Waveguides in Flexible Glass 307 9.8 Prospective of Thermal Poling in Flexible Glass Waveguides 321 10 Flexible Glass for Microelectronics Integration 331Murat Okandan, Jose Luis Cruz-Campa, Gregory N. Nielson 10.1 Introduction 332 10.2 Integration Technology Description: Why Flexible Glass for Electronics/Sensor Integration (3 Dimensional Integrated Circuits – 3DIC) 332 10.3 Example of Microelectronics/Sensor Integration 333 10.4 Fabrication Techniques 336 10.5 Future Direction 345
Sean M. Garner received a B.Eng. degree in Engineering Physics (Applied Laser and Optics) from Stevens Institute of Technology in 1993 and a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering (Electrophysics) from the University of Southern California in 1998. Sean joined Corning Incorporated in 1998 working in the area of materials processing and device prototyping, and today he continues this work at the company's Science and Technology Center as a Senior Research Associate. Sean has co-authored over 190 journal articles and conference presentations, currently has 24 granted patents, and has received numerous professional awards such as from S3IP, IEEE, SID, FlexTech, AIMCAL, as well as from Corning. Sean has been actively involved in the research and development of Corning® Willow® Glass and receives frequent international invitations for invited talks and guest lectures.
Provides the reader how to apply flexible glass applications that are not possible or practical to address with alternative substrate materials. Examples of technology areas include displays, touch sensors, lighting, backplanes, and photovoltaics. Built on more than 10 years of valuable discussions and collaborations focused on truly defining what flexible glass means in the context of the emerging electronic and opto-electronic applications, this book provides a broad overview as well as detailed descriptions that cover flexible glass properties, device fabrication methods, and emerging applications. It provides the basis for identifying new device designs, applications, and manufacturing processes for which flexible glass substrates are uniquely suited and encourages and enables the reader to identify and pursue advanced flexible glass applications that do not exist today and provides a launching point for exciting future directions. The chapters are grouped into three sections. The first focuses on flexible glass and flexible glass reliability and has three chapters with authors from Corning. The second section focuses on flexible glass device fabrication which includes chapters on roll-to-roll processing, vacuum deposition, and printed electronics. These chapters are authored by established experts in their respective fields that have extensive experience in processing flexible glass substrates in toolsets that range from research to pilot scale. The third section focuses on flexible glass device applications and includes chapters on photovoltaics, displays, integrated photonics, and microelectronics integration. These are authored by experts with direct experience in fabricating and characterizing flexible glass devices. The diverse list of authors and their depth of experience in working with a variety of material systems, processes, and device technologies significantly adds valuable context to the overall flexible glass discussion. "This book represents a major contribution to the field. The long-incubated flexible glass revolution is upon us". Peter L. Bocko, from the Foreword AudienceThe core market for this book is scientists, engineers, professors and students working in the field of flexible electronics and opto-electronics. This includes personnel at university research labs, corporate research and development labs, and national labs.
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