Facing Hydrometeorological Extreme EventsA Governance Issue
Hydrometeorological Extreme Events 1. Aufl.
Provides an understanding of the relationship between social-ecological systems and multilevel governance so that readers can properly deal with hydrometeorological extreme events and hazards Based on field investigations from EU research projects, this book is the first to devote itself to scientific and policy-related knowledge concerning climate change-induced extreme events. It depicts national and international strategies, as well as tools used to improve multilevel governance for the management of hydrometeorological risks. It also demonstrates how these strategies play out over different scales of the decision-making processes. Facing Hydrometeorological Extreme Events: A Governance Issue offers comprehensive coverage of such events as floods, droughts, coastal storms, and wind storms. It showcases real-life success stories of multilevel governance and highlights the individuals involved and the resources mobilized in the decision-making processes. The book starts by presenting a synthesis of hydrometeorological extreme events and their impacts on society. It then demonstrates how societies are organizing themselves to face these extreme events, focusing on the strategies of integration of risk management in governance and public policy. In addition, it includes the results of several EU-funded projects such as CLIMB, STARFLOOD, and INTERREG IVB project DROP. The first book dedicated to hydrometeorological extreme events governance based on field investigations from EU research projects Offers a “multi-hazards” approach—mixing policy, governance, and field investigations’ main outputs Features the results of EU-funded projects addressing hydrometeorological extreme events Part of the Hydrometeorological Extreme Events series Facing Hydrometeorological Extreme Events is an ideal book for upper-graduate students, postgraduates, researchers, scientists, and policy-makers working in the field.
List of Contributors xvii Editors xxi The Series Editor xxiii Series Preface xxv Part I: Introduction 1 1 Governance Challenges Facing Hydrometeorological Extreme Events 3Isabelle La Jeunesse and Corinne Larrue 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Facing hydrometeorological extreme events 3 1.3 Floods 5 1.4 Drought 8 1.5 Coastal storms 11 1.6 Governance issues related to hydrometeorological extreme events 15 Notes 19 References 20 2 Overview of the Content of the Book 23Isabelle La Jeunesse and Corinne Larrue 2.1 Floods 24 2.2 Droughts 24 2.3 Coastal storms 24 Part II: Floods 27 II.1: Actors Involved in Flood Risk Management 29 3 European Actors Facing Floods Risks 31Thomas Schellenberger 3.1 European actors in the field of civil security: A competence which develops within a strict framework of cooperation between the Member States 32 3.2 European actors in the field of the environment: Powers that are paradoxically limited 34 3.3 European actors in the field of agriculture: Could there be specific powers to deal with floods? 37 3.4 Conclusion 39 Notes 39 References 40 4 Multi?actor, Multilevel Assessment of Social Capacity for Community Engagement in Flood Risk Preparedness: Results of Implementation in Five European Cases 41Lila Oriard Colin 4.1 Introduction 41 4.2 Social capacity building framework for community engagement 44 4.3 The capacity assessment tool 46 4.4 Indicators and case findings 47 4.5 Conclusions 52 References 53 II.2: Strategies, Instruments, and Resources Used to Face Floods 55 5 Flood Risks Perceptions and Goals/Ambitions 57Ann Crabbé 5.1 Introduction 57 5.2 The problem stream: Perceptions on increased flood risks 58 5.3 The policy stream: Perceptions on the solutions needed to deal with increased flood risks 60 5.4 The political stream: Willingness to take action 62 5.5 International policies 63 5.6 European directives and policy documents 64 5.7 Experiences with flood risk management in other countries 65 5.8 Research on impacts and adaptation 65 5.9 Economic costs (of inaction) 65 5.10 Facilitating factors 66 5.11 Factors contributing to agenda?setting 66 5.12 Conclusions 66 Note 68 References 68 6 Instruments for Strategies to Face Floods through Prevention, Mitigation, and Preparation in Europe: The Age of Alignment 71Mathilde Gralepois 6.1 Introduction 71 6.2 Conceptual framework 75 6.3 Comparison. Similarities and differences in flood instruments’ implementation in Europe 77 6.4 Discussion. Political effects, power relations, and governance choices in flood management: What do flood instruments teach? 86 6.5 Conclusion 94 Notes 94 References 95 II.3: Lessons from Cases of Flood Governance 99 7 A House of Cards: The Challenge of Establishing Societal Resilience to Flooding Through Multi?Layered Governance in England 101Meghan Alexander and Sally Priest 7.1 Introduction 101 7.2 Deciphering multi?layered governance 102 7.3 Methodology 103 7.4 Flood?risk governance and implications for societal resilience 105 7.5 Reflections on the ‘house of cards’ of flood risk governance 110 Notes 111 References 111 8 Understanding Dutch Flood?Risk Management: Principles and Pitfalls 115Mark Wiering 8.1 Introduction 115 8.2 Historical background 116 8.3 The concept of public interest 117 8.4 Solidarity and subsidiarity 117 8.5 Resilience 120 8.6 Challenges and pitfalls 120 8.7 Conclusion and recommendations 121 References 123 9 Flood Governance in France: From Hegemony to Diversity in the French Flood?Risk Management Actors’ Network 125Marie Fournier 9.1 Flood?risk management governance: A stakeholders’ network still dominated by central government and municipalities 126 9.2 Inter?municipalities as new players within the French FRM governance 131 9.3 Where are citizens in FRM? 134 9.4 Conclusion 138 Notes 138 References 139 10 Flood?Risk Governance in Belgium: Towards a Resilient, Efficient, and Legitimate Arrangement? 141Hannelore Mees 10.1 Introduction 141 10.2 Evaluation framework 142 10.3 Methods 144 10.4 Flood risk governance in Belgium 144 10.5 Comparing intra?state developments 145 10.6 Evaluating resilience, efficiency, and legitimacy 149 10.7 Conclusion 152 Notes 153 References 153 Part III: Droughts 157 III.1: Actors Involved in Drought Risk Management 159 11 European Actors and Institutions Involved in Water Scarcity and Drought Policy 161Ulf Stein and Ruta Landgrebe 11.1 Introduction 161 11.2 Actors in the European Union related to WS&D policy 162 11.3 Roles and powers of European actors and institutions involved in WS&D policy 163 11.4 Mapping European actors and institutions involved in WS&D policy 165 11.5 Discussion 167 11.6 Conclusion 169 References 169 12 National and Local Actors of Drought Governance in Europe: A Comparative Review of Six Cases from North?West Europe 171Gül Özerol 12.1 Introduction 171 12.2 Methodology 172 12.3 Assessment of the national and local actors of drought governance 174 12.4 Conclusions and recommendations 182 References 186 III.2: Strategies, Instruments, and Resources Used to Face Droughts 189 13 Awareness of Drought Impacts in Europe: The Cause or the Consequence of the Level of Goal Ambitions? 191Isabelle La Jeunesse 13.1 Introduction 191 13.2 Drought governance analysis based on two methodological approaches 192 13.3 Case studies in NWE 194 13.4 Case studies in the Mediterranean region 196 13.5 Drought perceptions and goal ambitions in NWE 197 13.6 Drought perceptions and goal ambitions in the Mediterranean region 198 13.7 Conclusions 199 Acknowledgements 201 References 201 14 Strategies and Instruments to Face Drought and Water Scarcity 203Hans Bressers, Nanny Bressers, and Stefan Kuks 14.1 Introduction 203 14.2 Reactive measures 205 14.3 Preventive measures 208 14.4 Adaptive measures 210 14.5 Supportive measures 212 14.6 Discussion and overview 215 References 217 III.3: Lessons from Cases of Droughts Governance 219 15 Multilevel Governance for Drought Management in Flanders: Using a Centralized and Data Driven Approach 221Jenny Tröltzsch 15.1 Introduction 221 15.2 Water management in Flanders 222 15.3 Past and future drought events 224 15.4 Governance dimensions for Flemish drought management 225 15.5 Summary and recommendations 229 Notes 231 References 231 16 Drought Governance in the Eifel?Rur Region: The Interplay of Fixed Frameworks and Strong Working Relationships 233Rodrigo Vidaurre 16.1 Introduction 233 16.2 The water resources system in the Eifel?Rur region 234 16.3 Beyond the water board: The role of other governance levels in Eifel?Rur’s water management 236 16.4 The drought perspective on Eifel?Rur’s water governance 237 16.5 Conclusions: Factors for current and future success 241 Notes 243 References 244 17 Adaptation of Water Management to Face Drought and Water Scarcity: Lessons Learned from Two Italian Case Studies 245Claudia Cirelli and Isabelle La Jeunesse 17.1 Introduction 245 17.2 Water management in Italy and the autonomous regime 246 17.3 The Rio Mannu catchment 248 17.4 The Noce catchment 249 17.5 Comparative analysis and discussion 251 17.6 Conclusions 256 Acknowledgements 257 Notes 258 References 258 18 Power Asymmetries, Migrant Agricultural Labour, and Adaptation Governance in Turkey: A Political Ecology of Double Exposures 261Ethemcan Turhan, Giorgos Kallis, and Christos Zografos 18.1 Introduction 261 18.2 Double Exposures and political ecology of vulnerability 263 18.3 Case study and methods 265 18.4 A political ecology of Double Exposure in Kap? village 268 18.5 Discussion 273 18.6 Conclusion 275 Acknowledgements 276 Notes 276 References 277 19 Drought Governance in Catalonia: Lessons Learnt? 283Alba Ballester and Abel La Calle 19.1 Introduction 283 19.2 Drought management in Spain 284 19.3 Drought management in Catalonia 287 19.4 Drought crisis in Catalonia 2007–2008 289 19.5 Drought planning in Catalonia after the crisis 296 19.6 Deliberative public participation in drought management: Need, obligation, and opportunity 298 19.7 Conclusions 299 Notes 299 References 299 20 What Could Change Drought Governance in Europe?: A Comparative Analysis between Two Case Studies in France and the UK 301Isabelle La Jeunesse, Hans Bressers, and Alison Browne 20.1 Introduction 301 20.2 Vilaine catchment and Arzal dam 302 20.3 Somerset Levels and moors 303 20.4 Methodology 303 20.5 Results and discussion 306 20.6 Conclusions 310 Acknowledgements 311 References 311 Part IV: Coastal and Wind Storms 313 IV.1: Actors Involved in Coastal Risks Prevention and Management 315 21 Sustainable Communities and Multilevel Governance in the Age of Coastal Storms 317Yves Henocque 21.1 Introduction: Addressing a social?ecological system 317 21.2 Harmonizing coastal management, disaster risk reduction, and climate change adaptation goals through meaningful public participation 318 21.3 As a response, are national climate change strategies efficient enough? 322 21.4 Key principles and responses for building sustainable, hazard?resilient communities 327 21.5 Conclusion: ‘Hazard?resilient’ communities vs. ‘waves of adversity’ 335 Notes 336 References 337 IV.2: Strategies, Instruments, and Resources Used to Face Coastal Risks Prevention 339 22 European Challenges to Coastal Management from Storm Surges: Problem?Structuring Framework and Actors Implicated in Responses 341Suzanne Boyes and Michael Elliott 22.1 Storm surge threats in European coasts 341 22.2 European governance 346 22.3 Discussion and conclusions 354 22.4 Conclusions 357 References 358 23 Perceptions of Extreme Coastal Events: The Case of the French Atlantic and Mediterranean Coasts 363Lydie Goeldner?Gianella and Esmeralda Longépée 23.1 Contemporary society is increasingly unaware of risks related to the sea 365 23.2 Multiple factors behind the gradual dwindling of the ‘culture of coastal risks’ 374 23.3 What recommendations for public policy emerge from this research into the perceptions and representations of risks? 382 23.4 Conclusion 387 Acknowledgements 387 Notes 387 References 388 IV.3: Lessons from Cases of Coastal Risks Governance 391 24 After Xynthia on the Atlantic Coast of France: Preventive Adaptation Methods 393Denis Mercier, Axel Creach, Elie Chevillot?Miot, and Sophie Pardo 24.1 Introduction 393 24.2 A normal storm in terms of natural hazard but a major coastal flood due to the concomitance of the meteorological and marine agents 394 24.3 A tragic human and expensive material toll due to the addition of natural factors and management issues 396 24.4 Post?Xynthia policy: A new strategy for coastal management in France 397 24.5 Life?saving maps: New geographical tools for a better coastal management 400 24.6 Discussion about these different methods 405 24.7 Conclusion 407 Acknowledgements 408 References 408 25 Coastal Flooding and Storm Surges: How to Improve the Operational Response of the Risk Management Authorities: An Example of the CRISSIS Research Program on the French Coast of Languedoc 413Brice Anselme, Paul Durand, and Alexandre Nicolae?Lerma 25.1 Introduction 413 25.2 The coastal flood hazard and its likely evolution 417 25.3 Vulnerability of the stakes 420 25.4 Social representations and perceptions of the coastal flooding risk 423 25.5 Crisis management 425 25.6 Conclusion 428 References 430 26 Lessons Learnt from Coastal Risks Governance on Reunion Island, Indian Ocean, France 433Virginie K.E. Duvat and Alexandre K. Magnan 26.1 Introduction 433 26.2 Context of the study 435 26.3 Impacts of TC Bejisa and post?cyclone stakeholders’ responses 442 26.4 Key findings and challenges for adaptation to climate change 452 26.5 Conclusion 455 Acknowledgements 457 References 457 27 Lessons from Cases of Coastal Risks Governance in the United Kingdom 461Brian Golding, Thomas Waite, and Virginia Murray 27.1 Introduction: Windstorms and their impacts in the UK 461 27.2 Events that have shaped governance of natural disasters in the UK 464 27.3 New developments in the warning environment 471 27.4 How the warning systems work now 473 27.5 Current and future issues 477 References 479 Part V: Conclusions, Perspectives 483 28 Hydrometeorological Extreme Events’ Effects on Populations: A Cognitive Insight on Post?Traumatic Growth, Resilience Processes and Mental Well?Being 485Mauro Galluccio 28.1 Introduction 485 28.2 Resilient ecological systems for a psychological concept 487 28.3 Psychosocial factors and post?traumatic growth 487 28.4 Building resilience to mitigate social vulnerability 488 28.5 Post?traumatic growth: Training for preventive psychological strategies 490 28.6 Modern initiatives to coordinate a global governance 491 28.7 The EU coordination to build up integrated resilient governance to decrease impacts on health and wellbeing due to hydrometeorological extreme events 494 28.8 Elements of conclusion 495 References 496 29 Overview of Multilevel Governance Strategies for Hydrometeorological Extreme Events 499Corinne Larrue and Isabelle La Jeunesse 29.1 Governance specificities depending on hydrometeorological extreme events 500 29.2 Actor systems facing hydrometeorological extreme events 502 29.3 Perception and strategies 504 Note 504 Index 505
Isabelle La Jeunesse, PhD HDR, is Lecturer in Environmental Geography at the University of Tours and the laboratory CNRS Citeres, Tours, France. Her research focuses on the impacts of human activities on geochemical cycles and on local adaptation to global changes. Corinne Larrue, PR, is full Professor of Urban and Environmental Planning at the Université Paris-Est Créteil, Créteil, France, and was co-director of the Paris School of Planning, one of the most important institutes for urban planning in France. She was also Chairwoman of the scientific committee of Seine Normandie Waterboard.
AN IMPORTANT STUDY OF HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL EVENTS, THEIR IMPACT UPON SOCIETY, AND THE STRATEGIES WITH WHICH THEY MAY BE MANAGED Based on field investigations from EU research projects, this book is the first to devote itself to scientific and policy-related knowledge concerning climate change-induced extreme events. It depicts national and international strategies, as well as tools used to improve multilevel governance for the management of hydrometeorological risks. It also demonstrates how these strategies play out over different scales of the decision-making processes. Facing Hydrometeorological Extreme Events: A Governance Issue offers comprehensive coverage of such events as floods, droughts, coastal storms, and wind storms. It showcases real-life success stories of multilevel governance and highlights the individuals involved and the resources mobilized in the decision-making processes. The book starts by presenting a synthesis of hydrometeorological extreme events and their impacts on society. It then demonstrates how societies are organizing themselves to face these extreme events, focusing on the strategies of integration of risk management in governance and public policy. In addition, it includes the results of several EU-funded projects such as CLIMB, STARFLOOD, and INTERREG IVB project DROP. Facing Hydrometeorological Extreme Events is an ideal book for upper-graduate students, postgraduates, researchers, scientists, and policy-makers working in the field.
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