Details

Essentials of Thermal Processing


Essentials of Thermal Processing


2. Aufl.

von: Gary Tucker, Susan Featherstone

152,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 04.05.2021
ISBN/EAN: 9781119470328
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 400

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Beschreibungen

<b>ESSENTIALS OF THERMAL PROCESSING</b> <p><b>Explore this fully updated new edition of a practical reference on food preservation from two leading voices in the industry</b><p>Among all food preservation methods in use today, thermal processing remains the single most important technique used in the industry. The newly revised Second Edition of <i>Essentials of Thermal Processing</i> delivers a thorough reference on the science and applications of the thermal processing of a wide variety of food products. The book offers readers essential information on the preservation of food products by heat, including high-acid foods and low-acid sterilized foods requiring a full botulinum cook.<p>The accomplished authors—noted experts in their field—discuss all relevant manufacturing steps, from raw material microbiology through the various processing regimes, validation methods, packaging, incubation testing, and spoilage incidents.<p>Two new chapters on temperature and heat distribution, as well as heat penetration of foods, are included. More worked and practical examples are found throughout the book as well. Readers will also benefit from the inclusion of:<ul><li>A thorough introduction to the microbiology of heat processed foods, food preservation techniques, low acid canned foods, and high acid foods</li><li>An exploration of acidified products, heat extended shelf-life chilled foods, and processing methods</li><li>Discussions of cooking and process optimization, process validation, and heat penetration and process calculations</li><li>An examination of cooling and water treatment, how to handle process deviations, and packaging options for heat preserved foods</li></ul><p>Perfect for professionals working in the food processing and preservation industries, <i>Essentials of Thermal Processing</i> will also earn a place in the libraries of anyone seeking a one-stop reference on the subject of thermal processing for food products.
<p>Preface</p> <p>Glossary of Terms</p> <p><b>1 History of Thermal Processing </b></p> <p>1.1 A brief history of the science and technology of thermal processing</p> <p>1.2 Food Microbiology as a Science</p> <p>1.3 Packaging for Heat Preserved Foods</p> <p>1.3.1 Convenience – the can opener is invented</p> <p>1.3.2 Other forms of packing for “canned foods”</p> <p>1.4 Developments in Cannery Equipment</p> <p>1.5 Food Safety</p> <p><b>2 Microbiology of Heat Preserved Foods </b></p> <p>2.1 Food microbiology</p> <p>2.1.1 Fungi</p> <p>2.1.1.1 Moulds</p> <p>2.1.1.2 Yeasts</p> <p>2.1.2 Bacteria</p> <p>2.1.2.1 Growth and reproduction of bacteria</p> <p>2.2 Factors that affect the growth of microorganisms</p> <p>2.2.1 pH</p> <p>2.2.2 Moisture</p> <p>2.2.3 Nutrients</p> <p>2.2.4 Oxidation–reduction potential</p> <p>2.2.5 Antimicrobial resistance</p> <p>2.2.6 Biological structures</p> <p>2.2.7 Relative humidity</p> <p>2.2.8 Oxygen content/concentration of gases in the environment</p> <p>2.2.9 Temperature</p> <p>2.3 Description of some microorganisms of importance to thermal processing</p> <p>2.3.1 Moulds</p> <p>2.3.2 Yeasts</p> <p>2.3.3 Bacteria</p> <p>2.2.3.1 Thermophiles</p> <p>2.3.3.2 Mesophiles – spore-forming bacteria</p> <p>2.3.3.3 Mesophiles – non-spore forming pathogenic and spoilage bacteria</p> <p>2.3.3.4 Psychrophiles</p> <p>2.4 Risk of leaker spoilage from damaged or compromised packaging</p> <p>2.5 A guideline for identifying spoilage in canned foods</p> <p><b>3 Hurdles to Microbial Growth </b></p> <p>3.1 Control of the microorganism loading</p> <p>3.2 Use of restrictive pH levels</p> <p>3.3 Anaerobic environment or modified atmosphere environment</p> <p>3.4 Low temperatures</p> <p>3.5 Dehydration or low water activity</p> <p>3.6 Chemical preservation</p> <p>3.6.1 Organic acids</p> <p>3.6.2 Sulphites and nitrites</p> <p>3.6.3 Antibiotics</p> <p>3.6.4 Antioxidants</p> <p>3.7 Irradiation</p> <p>3.8 Combination Treatments</p> <p><b>4 Low Acid Canned Foods </b></p> <p>4.1 Production of a thermally processed food</p> <p>4.2 F<sub>0</sub>3 sterilisation processes</p> <p>4.3 Commercial sterilisation</p> <p>4.4 Microorganism death kinetics</p> <p>4.5 Log reductions</p> <p><b>5 Acid and Other Pasteurized Products </b></p> <p>5.1 Background</p> <p>5.1.1 Naturally acid foods</p> <p>5.2 Pasteurisation</p> <p>5.2.1 Considerations when designing a safe pasteurisation process</p> <p>5.2.2 Calculation of pasteurisation values</p> <p>5.3 Inhibitory factors to microorganism growth</p> <p>5.4 P-value guidelines</p> <p>5.4.1 High acid: pH < 3.5</p> <p>5.4.2 Acid: pH 3.5–4.0</p> <p>5.4.3 Acid: pH 4.0-4.2</p> <p>5.4.4 Medium acid: pH 4.2–4.6</p> <p>5.5 Guidelines and General Recommendations</p> <p>5.5.1 Guidelines to critical factors in thermal processing of acid foods</p> <p>5.6 Thermal processing of fruit</p> <p> 5.3.1 Packaging selection</p> <p>5.3.2 Oxidation reactions inside an internally plain can of acid fruit</p> <p>5.3.3 Pigments that discolour in internally plain cans</p> <p>5.7 Thermal processing of products with low water activity</p> <p>5.7.1 Jam and high sugar preserves</p> <p>5.7.2 Canned cake and sponge pudding</p> <p>5.8 Thermal processing of cured meats</p> <p><b>6 Acidified Foods </b></p> <p>6.1 Background</p> <p>6.2 Acidity measurement using pH</p> <p>6.2.1 The history of pH</p> <p>6.2.2 The chemistry of pH</p> <p>6.2.3 Measurement of pH</p> <p>6.2.3.1 Potentiometric method</p> <p>6.2.3.2 Colorimetric measurement</p> <p>6.2.4 Equilibrium pH</p> <p>6.3 Acidification of foods</p> <p>6.4 Processing acidified foods</p> <p>6.5 Design of pasteurisation processes</p> <p>6.5.1 Medium acid range: pH 4.2–4.6</p> <p>6.5.2 Acid range: pH 3.5–4.2</p> <p>6.5.3 High acid range: pH below 3.5</p> <p>6.6 Hot fill and hold processing</p> <p>6.7 Critical control points in the production of acidified foods</p> <p>6.7.1 Ingredients</p> <p>6.7.2 Heat processing</p> <p>6.7.3 Post process equilibrated pH</p> <p>6.7.4 Container integrity</p> <p>6.7.5 pH during product shelf-life</p> <p><b>7 Heat Preserved Chilled Foods </b></p> <p>7.1 Understanding microorganism behaviour</p> <p>7.1.1 Pathogenic microorganisms relevant to chilled foods</p> <p>7.1.1.1 Clostridium botulinum</p> <p>7.1.1.2 <i>Bacillus cereus </i></p> <p>7.1.2 Microorganisms likely to be found in chilled foods</p> <p>7.2 Methods of manufacture</p> <p>7.2.1 Thermal process step applied prior to packaging</p> <p>7.2.1.1 Low care–high care factories</p> <p>7.2.2 Thermal process step applied after packaging</p> <p>7.2.2.1 Caution with latent heat for frozen protein</p> <p><b>8 Processing Systems </b></p> <p>8.1 In-pack processing: Retort systems</p> <p>8.1.1 Condensing steam retorts</p> <p>8.1.2 Crateless retorts</p> <p>8.1.3 Water immersion retorts</p> <p>8.1.4 Water spray and cascade</p> <p>8.1.5 Steam / air retorts</p> <p>8.1.6 Shaka retorts</p> <p>8.1.7 Reel & spiral retorts</p> <p>8.1.8 Hydrostatic retorts</p> <p>8.2 In-line processing: Heat exchangers</p> <p>8.2.1 Flow behaviour</p> <p>8.2.2 Choice of heat exchanger</p> <p>8.2.3 Maximising product recovery</p> <p>7.3 New thermal technologies</p> <p><b>9 Cook Values and Optimisation of Thermal Processes </b></p> <p>9.1 Mathematical analysis of cooking</p> <p>9.1.1 Cooking equations and kinetic data</p> <p>9.1.2 Competition between sterilisation and cooking</p> <p>9.1.3 Optimisation of temperature / time in processing</p> <p>9.2 Setting process targets</p> <p>9.2.1 How to select processing conditions without excess quality damage</p> <p><b>10 Process Validation: Temperature and Heat Distribution </b></p> <p>10.1 Temperature Distribution</p> <p>10.1.1 Temperature measurement systems</p> <p>10.2 Heat Distribution</p> <p>10.2.1 Modes of heat transfer</p> <p>10.2.1.1 Radiation</p> <p>10.2.1.2 Conduction</p> <p>10.2.1.3 Convection</p> <p>10.2.1.4 Broken heating or mixed heating</p> <p>10.3 Heat distribution testing</p> <p>10.3.1 Conducting a HD test</p> <p><b>11 Process Validation: Heat Penetration and Process Calculations </b></p> <p>11.1 Setting the target process value</p> <p>11.2 Selecting the conditions for the HP study</p> <p>11.3 Locating the product cold point</p> <p>11.4 Process establishment methods</p> <p>11.4.1 Log reduction methods for HP testing</p> <p>11.4.1.1 Microbiological spore methods</p> <p>11.4.1.2 Biochemical systems</p> <p>11.5 Process calculation methods</p> <p>11.5.1 General method</p> <p>11.5.2 Ball method</p> <p>11.5.3 Numerical methods</p> <p>11.5.3 Continuous flow with particulates</p> <p><b>12 Cooling and Water Treatment </b></p> <p>12.1 Chlorine</p> <p>12.1.1 Chlorine demand and residual chlorine</p> <p>12.1.2 Using chlorine</p> <p>12.2 Chlorine dioxide</p> <p>12.3 Bromine</p> <p>12.4 Ozone</p> <p>12.5 Ultraviolet light</p> <p>12.6 Membrane filtration</p> <p><b>13 Handling Processing Deviations </b></p> <p>13.1 What constitutes a process deviation</p> <p>13.2 What can go wrong</p> <p>13.3 Actions required</p> <p>13.3.1 TPA actions</p> <p>13.3.2 Process deviation analysis for broken heating products</p> <p>13.3.2 Reprocessing</p> <p><b>14 Packaging Options for Heat Preserved Foods </b></p> <p>14.1 Metal containers</p> <p>14.1.1 Tin plate</p> <p>14.1.2 Tin free steel (TFS or ECCS)</p> <p>14.1.3 Aluminium</p> <p>14.1.4 Protective coatings (lacquers)</p> <p>14.1.4.1 Vinyl lacquers 4</p> <p>14.1.4.2 Organosol lacquers</p> <p>14.1.4.3 Epoxy-phenolic lacquer</p> <p>14.1.4.4 Polyester lacquer</p> <p>14.1.4.5 Acrylic Lacquers</p> <p>14.1.4.6 Side stripe lacquers to cover the weld</p> <p>14.1.5 Internally plain (unlacquered) cans</p> <p>14.1.6 External covering</p> <p>14.2 Can construction and handling</p> <p>14.2.1 Product specification</p> <p>14.2.2 Storage and handling of empty unused cans and ends</p> <p>14.2.3 Cleaning of empty unused cans</p> <p>14.2.4 Double seam formation and inspection procedures</p> <p>14.2.5 Washing of filled cans</p> <p>14.2.6 Processing of cans</p> <p>14.2.7 Cooling of cans</p> <p>14.2.7.1 Corrosion prevention</p> <p>14.2.8 Secondary packaging</p> <p>14.3 Glass</p> <p>1.3.1 Glass manufacture</p> <p>14.3.2 Closures for sealing glass food containers</p> <p>14.3.3 Sealing mechanisms</p> <p>14.3.4 Inspection procedures</p> <p>14.3.5 Packing and processing</p> <p>14.3.5.1 Inspection and preparation of containers</p> <p>14.3.5.2 Filling</p> <p>14.3.5.3 Capping</p> <p>14.3.5.4 Atmospheric processing</p> <p>14.3.5.5 Pressure processing</p> <p>14.3.5.6 Cooling</p> <p>14.4 Plastics, flexibles and laminates</p> <p>14.4.1 Advantages of retortable plastics</p> <p>14.4.2 Disadvantages of retortable plastics</p> <p>14.4.3 Polymers used for retortable packaging</p> <p>14.4.3.1 Polypropylene (PP)</p> <p>14.4.3.2 Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)</p> <p>14.4.3.3 Ethylvinylalcohol (EVOH)</p> <p>14.4.3.4 Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC)</p> <p>14.4.3.5 Polyamide (PA)</p> <p>14.4.3.6 Aluminium</p> <p>14.4.3.7 Glass-coated barrier films</p> <p>14.4.4 Types of packages used for thermally processed foods</p> <p>14.4.4.1 Retort pouches</p> <p>14.4.4.2 Plastic cans and pots</p> <p>14.4.4.3 Retortable composite carton</p> <p>14.4.5 Processing considerations – control of headspace</p> <p><b>15 Incubation Testing </b></p> <p>15.1 Purpose of incubation tests</p> <p>15.2 Causes of spoilage</p> <p>15.2.1 Leaker spoilage</p> <p>15.2.2 Under-processing</p> <p>15.2.3 Thermophilic spoilage</p> <p>15.3 Descriptive terms for canned food spoilage</p> <p>15.4 Methods for incubation testing</p> <p>15.4.1 Sample size</p> <p>15.4.2 Temperatures and times for incubation</p> <p>15.4.2.1 Thermophilic organisms</p> <p>15.4.2.2 Mesophilic organisms</p> <p>15.4.3 Post incubation inspection of containers</p> <p>15.5 Biotesting</p> <p><b>16 Critical Factors in Thermal Processing </b></p> <p>16.1 Background</p> <p>16.2 Key aspects of hygiene control systems for food processing (from Codex Alimentarius)</p> <p>16.3 Identifying critical control points in thermal processing</p> <p>16.3.1 Microbial load or bio-burden</p> <p>16.3.2 pH of the product</p> <p>16.3.3 Water activity (a<sub>w</sub>)</p> <p>16.3.4 Consistency</p> <p>16.3.5 Presence, concentration and types of preservatives</p> <p>16.3.6 Rehydration</p> <p>16.3.7 Blanching</p> <p>16.3.8 Size and style of in-going ingredients</p> <p>16.3.9 Container, packing and filling considerations</p> <p>16.3.9.1 Headspace</p> <p>16.3.9.2 Container vacuum and exhausting of containers</p> <p>16.3.9.3 Container size and geometry</p> <p>16.3.9.4 Initial temperature of product</p> <p>16.3.10 Process related critical factors</p> <p>16.3.10.1 Processing method</p> <p>16.3.10.2 Processing medium</p> <p>16.3.10.3 Type and characteristics of heat processing system</p> <p>16.3.10.4 Processing temperature</p> <p>16.3.10.5 Processing time</p> <p>16.3.10.6 Processing at high altitudes</p> <p><b>17 Environmental Aspects of Thermal Processing </b></p> <p>17.1 Lifecycle Assessment (LCA)</p> <p>17.1.1 Impact categories</p> <p>17.1.1.1 Global warming potential (GWP)</p> <p>17.1.1.2 Pesticide use / ecotoxicity</p> <p>17.1.1.3 Abiotic resource use</p> <p>17.1.1.4 Acidification potential</p> <p>17.1.1.5 Eutrophication potential</p> <p>17.1.1.6 Land use</p> <p>17.1.1.7 Water use</p> <p>17.2 Greenhouse gas emissions</p> <p>17.2.1 Case study: Bottled apple juice</p> <p>17.2.1.1 Raw materials (0.407 kg CO<sub>2</sub>e/PU)</p> <p>17.2.1.2 Manufacture (0.061 kg CO<sub>2</sub>e/PU)</p> <p>17.2.1.3 Transportation (0.057 kg CO<sub>2</sub>e/PU)</p> <p>17.2.1.4 Waste (0 kg CO<sub>2</sub>e/PU)</p> <p>17.2.1.5 Overall carbon footprint (0.525 kg CO<sub>2</sub>e/PU)</p> <p>17.2.1.6 GHG emissions for other food products</p> <p>Index</p>
<p><b>Gary Tucker</b>, Campden BRI in the United Kingdom.</p><p><b>Susan Featherstone</b> is a Director at Safe Food Consulting in South Africa.</p>
<p><b>Explore this fully updated new edition of a practical reference on food preservation from two leading voices in the industry</b></p><p>Among all food preservation methods in use today, thermal processing remains the single most important technique used in the industry. The newly revised Second Edition of <i>Essentials of Thermal Processing</i> delivers a thorough reference on the science and applications of the thermal processing of a wide variety of food products. The book offers readers essential information on the preservation of food products by heat, including high-acid foods and low-acid sterilized foods requiring a full botulinum cook.</p><p>The accomplished authors—noted experts in their field—discuss all relevant manufacturing steps, from raw material microbiology through the various processing regimes, validation methods, packaging, incubation testing, and spoilage incidents.</p><p>Two new chapters on temperature and heat distribution, as well as heat penetration of foods, are included. More worked and practical examples are found throughout the book as well. Readers will also benefit from the inclusion of:</p><ul><li>A thorough introduction to the microbiology of heat processed foods, food preservation techniques, low acid canned foods, and high acid foods</li><li>An exploration of acidified products, heat extended shelf-life chilled foods, and processing methods</li><li>Discussions of cooking and process optimization, process validation, and heat penetration and process calculations</li><li>An examination of cooling and water treatment, how to handle process deviations, and packaging options for heat preserved foods</li></ul><p>Perfect for professionals working in the food processing and preservation industries, <i>Essentials of Thermal Processing</i> will also earn a place in the libraries of anyone seeking a one-stop reference on the subject of thermal processing for food products.</p>

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