Details

Environmental Psychology


Environmental Psychology

An Introduction
BPS Textbooks in Psychology 2. Aufl.

von: Linda Steg, Judith I. M. de Groot

28,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 05.11.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119241119
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 448

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Beschreibungen

The updated edition of the essential guide to environmental psychology Thoroughly revised and updated, the second edition, Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers an overview of the interplay between humans and their environments. The text examines the influence of the environment on human experiences, behaviour and well-being and explores the factors influencing environmental behaviour, and ways to encourage pro-environmental behaviour. The revised edition is a state-of-the art review of relevant theories and research on each of these topics. With contributions from an international panel of noted experts, the text addresses a wealth of topics including the main research methods in environmental psychology; effects of environmental stress; emotional impacts and meanings of natural environment experience; aesthetic appraisals of architecture; how to measure environmental behaviour; cognitive, emotional and social factors explaining environmental behaviour; effects and acceptability of strategies to promote pro-environmental factors; and much more. This important book: Discusses the environmental factors that threaten and promote human wellbeing Explores a wide range of factors influencing actions that affect environmental conditions Discusses the effects and acceptability of approaches that aim to encourage pro-environmental behavior Presents research results conducted in different regions in the world Contains contributions from noted experts Written for scholars and practitioners in the field, the revised edition of Environmental Psychology offers a comprehensive review of the most recent research available in environmental psychology.
List of Figures xix List of Tables xxi List of Boxes xxii List of Contributors xxiv 1 Environmental Psychology: History, Scope, and Methods 1Linda Steg, Agnes E. van den Berg, and Judith I. M. de Groot 1.1 Introduction 2 1.2 History of the Field 2 1.2.1 Towards ‘Architectural’ Psychology 3 1.2.2 Towards a Green Psychology 4 1.3 Current Scope and Characteristics of the Field 4 1.3.1 Interactive Approach 4 1.3.2 Interdisciplinary Collaboration 5 1.3.3 Problem?Focused Approach 5 1.3.4 Diversity of Methods 6 1.4 Main Research Methods in Environmental Psychology 6 1.4.1 Questionnaire Studies 7 1.4.2 Laboratory Experiments 8 1.4.3 Computer Simulation Studies 8 1.4.4 Field Studies 9 1.4.5 Case Studies 9 1.5 Overview of the Book 10 Glossary 10 Suggestions for Further Reading 11 Review Questions 11 PART I ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON HUMAN BEHAVIOUR AND WELL-BEING 13 2 Environmental Risk Perception 15Gisela Böhm and Carmen Tanner 2.1 Introduction 16 2.2 What are Environmental Risks? 16 2.3 Subjective Risk Judgements 17 2.3.1 Heuristics and Biases in Risk Judgements 17 2.3.2 Temporal Discounting of Environmental Risks 19 2.3.3 The Psychometric Paradigm 19 2.4 Risk, Values, and Morality 19 2.4.1 Values 20 2.4.2 Morality and Ethics 21 2.5 Emotional Reactions to Environmental Risks 22 2.6 Summary 23 Glossary 23 Suggestions for Further Reading 24 Review Questions 25 3 Climate Change as a Unique Environmental Problem 26Janet K. Swim and Lorraine Whitmarsh 3.1 Introduction 27 3.2 Public Understanding of Climate Change 27 3.3 Assessing the Risk of Climate Change 28 3.3.1 Detecting a Problem 30 3.3.2 Interpretations of Problems 31 3.3.3 Accepting Responsibility and Taking Action 32 3.4 Summary 33 Glossary 33 Suggestions for Further Reading 34 Review Questions 35 4 Environmental Stress 36Elena Bilotta, Uchita Vaid, and Gary W. Evans 4.1 Introduction 37 4.2 Conceptualizations of Stress 37 4.3 Effects of Environmental Stress 38 4.3.1 Noise 38 4.3.2 Crowding 40 4.3.3 Poor Housing Quality 41 4.3.4 Poor Neighbourhood Quality 42 4.3.5 Traffic Congestion 42 4.4 Summary 43 Glossary 43 Acknowledgements 44 Suggestions for Further Reading 44 Review Questions 44 5 Scenic Beauty: Visual Landscape Assessment and Human Landscape Perception 45Mari S. Tveit, Åsa Ode Sang, and Caroline M. Hagerhall 5.1 Introduction 46 5.2 Visual Quality Assessment 46 5.3 Theories Explaining Landscape Preferences as Innate or Learnt 47 5.4 Measuring and Mapping Scenic Beauty 50 5.5 Methodological Developments 51 5.6 Summary 52 Glossary 52 Suggestions for Further Reading 53 Review Questions 54 6 Health Benefits of Nature 55Agnes E. van den Berg,Yannick Joye, and Sjerp de Vries 6.1 Introduction 56 6.2 What is Health and How can it be Measured? 57 6.3 What is Nature and How can it be Measured? 57 6.4 Nature and Clinical Health 58 6.5 Green Space and Public Health 59 6.6 Mechanisms Linking Nature to Health 60 6.6.1 Air Quality 61 6.6.2 Physical Activity 61 6.6.3 Social Cohesion 62 6.6.4 Stress Reduction 62 6.7 Summary 63 Glossary 63 Suggestions for Further Reading 64 Review Questions 64 7 Restorative Environments 65Yannick Joye and Agnes E. van den Berg 7.1 Introduction 66 7.2 Restorative Environments Research 66 7.2.1 Stress Recovery Theory 67 7.2.2 Attention Restoration Theory 68 7.3 The Evolutionary Origins of Restorative Nature Experiences 69 7.4 Recent Theoretical and Empirical Developments 70 7.4.1 Perceptual Fluency Account 70 7.4.2 Connectedness to Nature 70 7.4.3 Micro?Restorative Experiences and Instorative Effects 72 7.5 Applications and Implications 72 7.6 Summary 73 Glossary 73 Suggestions for Further Reading 75 Review Questions 75 8 Ambivalence Towards Nature and Natural Landscapes 76Agnes E. van den Berg and Cecil C. Konijnendijk 8.1 Introduction 77 8.2 Historical Overview 77 8.3 Emotional Impacts and Meanings of Natural Environment Experience 78 8.4 Views of Nature and Landscape Preferences 79 8.5 The Role of Biodiversity 80 8.6 An Existential?Motivational Account 81 8.7 Practical Implications 82 8.8 Summary 83 Glossary 83 Suggestions for Further Reading 84 Review Questions 84 9 Human Dimensions of Wildlife 85Maarten H. Jacobs, Jerry J. Vaske, Tara L. Teel, and Michael J. Manfredo 9.1 Introduction 86 9.2 Early Work: Attitudes Towards Wildlife 86 9.3 The Cognitive Hierarchy 87 9.4 Wildlife Value Orientations 89 9.5 Predicting Norms and Attitudes Towards Wildlife 91 9.6 Emotions Towards Wildlife 91 9.7 Summary 93 Glossary 93 Suggestions for Further Reading 94 Review Questions 94 10 Children and the Natural Environment 95Karin Tanja?Dijkstra, Jolanda Maas, Janke van Dijk?Wesselius, and Agnes van den Berg 10.1 Introduction 96 10.2 Childhood Experiences with Nature 96 10.3 Nature and Children’s Health and Well?Being 98 10.3.1 Physical Health Benefits 99 10.3.2 Mental Health Benefits 99 10.3.3 Cognitive Benefits 100 10.4 Childhood Nature Experiences and Adult Environmentalism 101 10.5 Applications and Implications 101 10.6 Summary 102 Glossary 102 Suggestions for Further Reading 103 Review Questions 103 11 Appraising and Designing Built Environments that Promote Well?Being and Healthy Behaviour 104Robert Gifford and Lindsay J. McCunn 11.1 Introduction 105 11.2 Aesthetic Appraisals of Architecture 105 11.2.1 Uniformities in the Appraisal of Built Space 105 11.2.2 Observer Differences 107 11.2.3 Meaning in Architecture 108 11.3 Three Building Design Approaches that Promote Well?Being and Healthy Behaviour in Buildings 108 11.3.1 Social Design 108 11.3.2 Biophilic Design 110 11.3.3 Evidence?Based Design 111 11.4 Summary 111 Glossary 111 Suggestions for Further Reading 112 Review Questions 112 12 Urban Environmental Quality 113Mirilia Bonnes, Massimiliano Scopelliti, Ferdinando Fornara, and Giuseppe Carrus 12.1 Introduction 114 12.2 Urban Settings as a Source of Stress and Discomfort 115 12.3 Urban Settings as a Source of Well?Being and Restoration 116 12.4 Residential Satisfaction – A Multicomponent Concept 117 12.5 A Multidimensional Approach to Urban Environmental Quality 117 12.6 The Multi?Place Approach 120 12.7 Summary 121 Glossary 121 Suggestions for Further Reading 122 Review Questions 122 13 Environment and Quality of Life 123Goda Perlaviciute and Linda Steg 13.1 Introduction 124 13.2 QoL: Objective and Subjective Measures 125 13.3 QoL: Unidimensional and Multidimensional Measures 126 13.4 Environment and QoL: Research Overview 127 13.4.1 Which QoL Aspects are most Important? 127 13.4.2 To What Extent is QoL Sustained in Certain Situations? 129 13.4.3 How Does QoL Differ with Varying Environmental Conditions? 130 13.4.4 How Do Environmental Transformations Influence QoL? 131 13.5 Summary 133 Glossary 133 Suggestions for Further Reading 134 Review Questions 134 14 Place Attachment 135Lynne C. Manzo and Patrick Devine?Wright 14.1 Introduction 136 14.2 Theories and Models of Place Attachment 137 14.2.1 Components of Place Attachment 137 14.2.2 Types of Place Attachments 138 14.2.3 Place Attachments Involve an Array of Emotions 138 14.2.4 Place Attachments as Dynamic and Socially Produced 139 14.3 Applications of Place Attachment 140 14.4 Summary 142 Glossary 142 Suggestions for Further Reading 143 Review Questions 143 15 How Cues in the Environment Affect Normative Behaviour 144Siegwart Lindenberg 15.1 Introduction 145 15.2 Overarching Goals and their Relative Strengths 146 15.3 Environmental Cues that Directly Strengthen the Normative Goal 148 15.4 Environmental Cues that Directly Weaken the Normative Goal 149 15.5 Indirect Weakening of the Normative Goal by Environmental Cues that Strengthen the Gain Goal 150 15.6 Indirect Weakening of the Normative Goal by Environmental Cues that Strengthen the Hedonic Goal 151 15.7 Summary 152 Glossary 152 Suggestions for Further Reading 153 Review Questions 153 PART II FACTORS INFLUENCING ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOUR 155 16 Measuring Environmental Behaviour 157Birgitta Gatersleben 16.1 Introduction 158 16.2 What to Measure? Behaviour or Impact 158 16.2.1 Environmental Behaviour 158 16.2.2 Environmental Impact 159 16.3 How to Measure Environmental Behaviour? 162 16.4 Multidimensional or Unidimensional Measures of Environmental Behaviour 163 16.4.1 Multidimensional Measures of Environmental Behaviour 163 16.4.2 A Unidimensional Measure of Environmental Behaviour 164 16.5 Summary 165 Glossary 165 Suggestions for Further Reading 166 Review Questions 166 17 Values and Pro?Environmental Behaviour 167Judith I.M. de Groot and John Thøgersen 17.1 Introduction 168 17.2 Values 168 17.3 Value Theories 169 17.3.1 Social Value Orientations 169 17.3.2 Schwartz’s Value Theory 169 17.3.3 Four Key Values for Pro?Environmental Behaviour 171 17.4 How Values Affect Environmental Behaviour 173 17.5 Related Concepts 174 17.6 Practical Relevance of Value Research 176 17.7 Summary 176 Glossary 177 Suggestions for Further Reading 177 Review Questions 178 18 Social Norms and Pro?Environmental Behaviour 17Kees Keizer and P. Wesley Schultz 18.1 Introduction 180 18.2 What is a Social Norm? 180 18.3 How Influential are Norms on Behaviour? 181 18.4 Why Do People Conform to Norms? 182 18.5 When Do Norms Influence Behaviour? 182 18.5.1 Salience 182 18.5.2 Group Size 183 18.5.3 Reference Groups 184 18.5.4 Personal Norms 184 18.5.5 Norm Conflict and the Importance of Aligned Messages 185 18.6 Summary 187 Glossary 188 Suggestions for Further Reading 188 Review Questions 188 19 Emotions and Pro?Environmental Behaviour 189Danny Taufik and Leonie Venhoeven 19.1 Introduction 190 19.2 Emotions as a Motive for Action 191 19.3 Hedonic and Eudaimonic View on Emotions 192 19.4 Why Pro?Environmental Behaviour Elicits Positive Emotions: A Closer Look at the Eudaimonic View 194 19.5 Summary 196 Glossary 196 Suggestions for Further Reading 197 Review Questions 197 20 Symbolic Aspects of Environmental Behaviour 198Birgitta Gatersleben and Ellen van der Werff 20.1 Introduction 199 20.2 Identity 199 20.2.1 Environmental Self?Identity and Behaviour 200 20.2.2 Factors Influencing Identity 201 20.3 Impression Management 203 20.4 Summary 205 Glossary 205 Suggestions for Further Reading 206 Review Questions 206 21 Social Dilemmas: Motivational, Individual, and Structural Aspects Influencing Cooperation 207Chris von Borgstede, Lars?Olof Johansson, and Andreas Nilsson 21.1 Introduction 208 21.2 Defining Social Dilemmas 208 21.3 Types of Social Dilemmas 209 21.3.1 Large?Scale Dilemmas 209 21.3.2 Resource Dilemmas 209 21.3.3 Public Good Dilemmas 210 21.4 Motives in Social Dilemmas 210 21.4.1 Greed 210 21.4.2 Efficiency 211 21.4.3 Fairness 212 21.5 Factors Promoting Cooperation 212 21.5.1 Group Size 213 21.5.2 Communication 213 21.5.3 Response Efficacy 213 21.5.4 Environmental Uncertainty 214 21.5.5 Social Uncertainty 214 21.5.6 Norms in Large?Scale Dilemmas 214 21.6 Summary 215 Glossary 215 Suggestions for Further Reading 216 Review Questions 216 22 Theories to Explain Environmental Behaviour 217Linda Steg and Annika Nordlund 22.1 Introduction 218 22.2 Theory of Planned Behaviour 218 22.3 Protection Motivation Theory 220 22.4 The Norm Activation Model 221 22.5 The Value?Belief?Norm Theory of Environmentalism 223 22.6 Goal?Framing Theory 224 22.7 Summary 225 Glossary 226 Suggestions for Further Reading 227 Review Questions 227 23 The Role of Group Processes in Environmental Issues, Attitudes, and Behaviours 228Lise Jans and Kelly Fielding 23.1 Introduction 229 23.2 Why Should Environmental Psychologists be Interested in Group Processes? 229 23.3 How the Social Identity Approach Explains Environmental Conflict 230 23.4 Why Social Identity Guides Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours 231 23.4.1 Group Norms Guide Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours 232 23.4.2 Group Members Influence Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours 233 23.4.3 Group Identification Influences Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours 234 23.5 Why Social Identity can Affect Cooperation on Environmental Issues 234 23.6 How the Social Identity Approach Explains Environmental Group Formation 235 23.7 Summary 236 Glossary 236 Suggestions for Further Reading 237 Review Questions 237 24 Yesterday’s Habits Preventing Change for Tomorrow? About the Influence of Automaticity on Environmental Behaviour 238Christian A. Klöckner and Bas Verplanken 24.1 Introduction 239 24.2 Theoretical Background: How Habits are Acquired 240 24.3 Narrowing Down Decision?Making: How Habits Affect Information Use 241 24.4 Measuring Habits: A Challenge for Research 243 24.5 Breaking Bad Habits, Creating Good Habits: Interventions Changing Routine Behaviour 246 24.6 Summary 248 Glossary 248 Suggestions for Further Reading 249 Review Questions 250 25 Environmental Psychology in Latin America 251Javier Urbina?Soria and Emilio Moyano?Díaz 25.1 Introduction 252 25.2 Latin American Background 252 25.3 Past Reviews on Environmental Psychology in Latin America 253 25.4 Recent Developments in Environmental Psychology in Latin America 254 25.5 Key Issues for the Development of Research in Latin America 256 25.5.1 Lack of Collaboration 256 25.5.2 Few Possibilities to Publish in Spanish or Portuguese 257 25.5.3 Academic Training in Environmental Psychology 257 25.6 Summary 258 Glossary 258 Suggestions for Further Reading 259 Review Questions 259 PART III ENCOURAGING PRO-ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOUR 261 26 Informational Strategies to Promote Pro?Environmental Behaviour: Changing Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes 263Wokje Abrahamse and Ellen Matthies 26.1 Introduction 264 26.2 Interventions: From Research to Implementation 264 26.3 Informational Strategies 265 26.3.1 Provision of Information 265 26.3.2 Goal Setting 266 26.3.3 Commitment 267 26.3.4 Prompting 268 26.3.5 Feedback 268 26.4 Intervention Research: Some General Issues 269 26.5 Summary 270 Glossary 271 Suggestions for Further Reading 271 Review Questions 272 27 Encouraging Pro?Environmental Behaviour with Rewards and Penalties 273Jan Willem Bolderdijk, Philip K. Lehman, and E. Scott Geller 27.1 Introduction 274 27.2 Analysis of Consequences 274 27.3 Natural Versus Extra Consequences 276 27.4 When is it Appropriate to Apply Extra Consequences? 277 27.5 How Should Extra Consequences be Announced and Delivered? 278 27.5.1 Negative Versus Positive Consequences 279 27.5.2 Monetary Versus Non?Monetary Consequences 279 27.6 Summary 281 Glossary 281 Suggestions for Further Reading 282 Review Questions 282 28 Persuasive Technology to Promote Pro?Environmental Behaviour 283Cees Midden and Jaap Ham 28.1 Introduction 284 28.2 Technology and Behaviour 284 28.3 Persuasive Technology 285 28.4 Approaches to Applying Persuasive Technology 286 28.5 Social Influence through Smart Systems 287 28.5.1 The Role of Social Cues 287 28.5.2 Reactance 288 28.6 Providing Persuasive Experiences 289 28.7 Persuasive Technology as a Tool to Promote Behaviour Change 289 28.7.1 Ambient Persuasion 290 28.7.2 Group Interventions 291 28.8 Summary 292 Glossary 293 Suggestions for Further Reading 293 Review Questions 294 29 Acceptability of Environmental Policies 295Geertje Schuitema and Cecilia J. Bergstad 29.1 Introduction 296 29.2 Acceptability as a Social Dilemma 296 29.3 Theoretical Framework to Explain the Acceptability of Policy Measures 297 29.3.1 Individual Policy Outcomes 298 29.3.2 Collective Policy Outcomes 298 29.3.3 Fair Distribution of Policy Outcomes 300 29.4 Procedural Fairness and Acceptability of Environmental Policies 302 29.5 How can Public Support Increase Over Time? An Illustration 303 29.6 Summary 305 Glossary 305 Suggestions for Further Reading 306 Review Questions 306 30 Processes of Change 307Sebastian Bamberg and Maxie Schulte 30.1 Introduction 308 30.2 Lewin’s Theory of Change 308 30.3 Behavioural Change: A Self?Regulation Process Steered by Feedback Loops 309 30.3.1 Goals as Reference Values in a Feedback Loop 309 30.3.2 Hierarchical Organization of Goals and Feedback Loops 309 30.3.3 The Importance of Self?Focus 311 30.4 Behavioural Change: It Takes Time to Overcome Resistance to Change 311 30.5 The Stage Model of Self?Regulated Behavioural Change 312 30.6 Implications for Interventions 314 30.7 Empirical Validation of the SSBC 315 30.8 Summary 316 Glossary 317 Suggestions for Further Reading 318 Review Questions 318 31 Simulating Social Environmental Systems 319Wander Jager and Nick Gotts 31.1 Introduction 320 31.2 An Introduction to Social Complexity 320 31.3 Social Simulation as a Methodology 321 31.4 Social Simulation of Environmental Behaviour 322 31.4.1 Using Theory in Simulation Models: Formalizing Processes of Attitude Change 322 31.4.2 Using Theory and Data in Models: Diffusion of Environmental Innovations 323 31.5 Integrating Social Simulation into Environmental Modelling 324 31.5.1 The Lakeland Study 324 31.5.2 Companion Modelling: A Study of Rice Production and Labour Migrations in North?East Thailand 325 31.5.3 Integrating Multiple Models of a Socioenvironmental System: Water Use in the Danube Basin 326 31.6 Key Steps in Building Agent?Based Models 327 31.6.1 Development of Models 327 31.6.2 Using Models 327 31.7 Summary 328 Glossary 328 Suggestions for Further Reading 329 Review Questions 329 32 Environmental Issues in Low? and Middle?Income Countries 330Nadja Contzen, Hans?Joachim Mosler, and Silvie Kraemer?Palacios 32.1 Introduction 331 32.2 Environmental Risk Perception, Environmental Concern, and Climate Change Perception 331 32.2.1 Environmental Risk Perception 331 32.2.2 Environmental Concern 332 32.2.3 Climate Change Perception 332 32.3 Residential Environment and Well?Being 333 32.3.1 Slums and Public Housing 333 32.3.2 Communal Spaces 334 32.3.3 Rural Communities 334 32.4 Behaviour and Behaviour Change 334 32.4.1 Resource Conservation 335 32.4.2 Sustainable Transportation 335 32.4.3 Recycling 335 32.4.4 Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene 337 32.5 Summary 338 Glossary 339 Suggestions for Further Reading 339 Review Questions 340 33 Conclusion: Summary, Trends, and Future Perspectives in Environmental Psychology 341Agnes E. van den Berg and Linda Steg 33.1 Summary and Key Findings 342 33.1.1 Part I: Environmental Influences on Human Behaviour and Well?Being 342 33.1.2 Part II: Factors Influencing Environmental Behaviour 343 33.1.3 Part III: Encouraging Pro?Environmental Behaviour 344 33.2 General Trends and Developments 345 33.2.1 Positive Interactions Between Humans and Environments 345 33.2.2 Integrative Approaches 346 33.2.3 From One Psychology to Multiple Psychologies 346 33.3 Challenges for Future Research 347 33.3.1 Further Integration 348 33.3.2 Further Development of Theories and Methods 349 33.3.3 Further Engagement 349 Glossary 351 Suggestions for Further Reading 351 Review Questions 351 References 352 Index 407  
Linda Steg is professor of Environmental Psychology at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. Judith I. M. de Groot is a Senior Lecturer in Sustainable Consumer Behaviour at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands.
THE UPDATED EDITION OF THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Thoroughly revised and updated, the second edition, Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers an overview of the interplay between humans and their environments. The text examines the influence of the environment on human experiences, behaviour and well-being and explores the factors influencing environmental behaviour, and ways to encourage pro-environmental behaviour. The revised edition is a state-of-the art review of relevant theories and research on each of these topics. With contributions from an international panel of noted experts, the text addresses a wealth of topics including the main research methods in environmental psychology; effects of environmental stressors; emotional impacts and meanings of natural environment experience; aesthetic appraisals of architecture; how to measure environmental behaviour; cognitive, emotional and social factors explaining environmental behaviour; effects and acceptability of strategies to promote pro-environmental factors; and much more. This important book: Discusses the environmental factors that threaten and promote human wellbeing Explores a wide range of factors influencing actions that affect environmental conditions Discusses the effects and acceptability of approaches that aim to encourage pro-environmental behaviour Presents research results conducted in different regions in the world Contains contributions from noted experts Written for scholars and practitioners in the field, the revised edition of Environmental Psychology offers a comprehensive review of the most recent research available in environmental psychology.

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