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Energy Efficient Manufacturing


Energy Efficient Manufacturing

Theory and Applications
1. Aufl.

von: John W. Sutherland, David A. Dornfeld, Barbara S. Linke

173,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Scrivener
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 04.07.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119519812
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 400

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Beschreibungen

Over the last several years, manufacturers have expressed increasing interest in reducing their energy consumption and have begun to search for opportunities to reduce their energy usage. In this book, the authors explore a variety of opportunities to reduce the energy footprint of manufacturing. These opportunities cover the entire spatial scale of the manufacturing enterprise: from unit process-oriented approaches to enterprise-level strategies. Each chapter examines some aspect of this spatial scale, and discusses and describes the opportunities that exist at that level. Case studies demonstrate how the opportunity may be acted on with practical guidance on how to respond to these opportunities.
Preface xv 1 Introduction to Energy Efficient Manufacturing 1Barbara S. Linke and John W. Sutherland 1.1 Energy Use Implications  2 1.2 Drivers and Solutions for Energy Efficiency 3 References 9 2 Operation Planning & Monitoring 11Y.B. Guo 2.1 Unit Manufacturing Processes  11 2.2 Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of Unit Manufacturing Process 13 2.3 Energy Consumption in Unit Manufacturing Process 16 2.3.1 Basic Concepts of Energy, Power, and Work 16 2.3.2 Framework of Energy Consumption 17 2.4 Operation Plan Relevance to Energy Consumption 19 2.5 Energy Accounting in Unit Manufacturing Processes 20 2.6 Processing Energy in Unit Manufacturing Process 21 2.6.1 Cases of Processing Energy Modeling 21 2.6.1.1 Forging 21 2.6.1.2 Orthogonal Cutting 22 2.6.1.3 Grinding 24 2.6.1.4 Specific Energy vs. MRR 25 2.6.2 Energy Measurement 26 2.7 Energy Reduction Opportunities 26 2.7.1 Shortening Process Chain by Hard Machining 28 2.7.2 Substitution of Process Steps 28 2.7.3 Hybrid processes 29 2.7.4 Adaptation of Cooling and Flushing Strategies 29 2.7.5 Remanufacturing 30 References 30 3 Materials Processing 33Karl R. Haapala, Sundar V. Atre, Ravi Enneti, Ian C. Garretson, Hao Zhang 3.1 Steel 34 3.1.1 Steelmaking Technology 35 3.2 Aluminum 36 3.2.1 Aluminum Alloying 37 3.2.2 History of Aluminum Processing 37 3.2.3 Aluminum in Commerce 38 3.2.4 Aluminum Processing 41 3.2.5 Bayer Process 42 3.2.6 Preparation of Carbon 44 3.2.7 Hall-Heroult Electrolytic Process 44 3.3 Titanium 45 3.3.1 Titanium Alloying 46 3.3.2 History of Titanium Processing 47 3.3.3 Titanium in Commerce 48 3.3.4 Titanium Processing Methods 49 3.3.5 Sulfate Process 50 3.3.6 Chloride Process 51 3.3.7 Hunter Process and Kroll Process 51 3.3.8 Remelting Processes 52 3.3.9 Emerging Titanium Processing Technologies 52 3.4 Polymers 54 3.4.1 Life Cycle Environmental and Cost Assessment 59 3.4.2 An Application of Polymer-Powder Processes 59 References 61 4 Energy Reduction in Manufacturing via Incremental Forming and Surface Microtexturing 65Jian Cao and Rajiv Malhotra 4.1 Incremental Forming 66 4.1.1 Conventional Forming Processes 66 4.1.2 Energy Reduction via Incremental Forming 71 4.1.3 Challenges in Incremental Forming 77 4.1.3.1 Toolpath Planning for Enhanced Geometric Accuracy and Process Flexibility 78 4.1.3.2 Formability Prediction and Deformation Mechanics 87 4.1.3.3 Process Innovation and Materials Capability in DSIF 94 4.1.3.4 Future Challenges in Incremental Forming 97 4.2 Surface Microtexturing 98 4.2.1 Energy Based Applications of Surface Microtexturing 99 4.2.1.1 Microtexturing for Friction Reduction 99 4.2.1.2 Microtexturing Methods 101 4.2.1.3 Future Work in Microtexturing 116 4.3 Summary 117 4.4 Acknowledgement 117 References 118 5 An Analysis of Energy Consumption and Energy Efficiency in Material Removal Processes 123Tao Lu and I.S. Jawahir 5.1 Overview 123 5.2 Plant and workstation levels 125 5.3 Operation level 129 5.4 Process Optimization for Energy Consumption 134 5.4.1 Plant Level and Workstation Level 134 5.4.2 Operation Level 136 5.4.2.1 Turning Operation 137 5.4.2.2 Milling Operation 143 5.4.2.3 Drilling Operation 147 5.4.2.4 Grinding operation 148 5.5 Conclusions 151 Reference 151 6 Nontraditional Removal Processes 155Murali Sundaram and K.P. Rajurkar 6.1 Introduction 155 6.1.2 Working Principle 156 6.1.2.1 Electrical Discharge Machining 156 6.2.2.2 Electrochemical Machining 157 6.1.2.3 Electrochemical Ddischarge Machining 159 6.1.2.4 Electrochemical Grinding 160 6.2 Energy Efficiency 161 Acknowledgments 163 References 163 7 Surface Treatment and Tribological Considerations 165S.R. Schmid and J. Jeswiet 7.1 Introduction 166 7.2 Surface Treatment Techniques 169 7.2.1 Surface Geometry Modification 170 7.2.2 Microstructural Modification 171 7.2.3 Chemical Approaches 175 7.3 Coating Operations 175 7.3.1 Hard Facing 175 7.3.2 Vapor Deposition 179 7.3.3 Miscellaneous Coating Operations 181 7.4 Tribology 185 7.5 Evolving Technologies 187 7.5.1 Biomimetics – Biologically Inspired Design 187 7.6 Micro Manufacturing 188 7.7 Conclusions 190 References 190 8 Joining Processes 193Amber Shrivastava, Manuela Krones, Frank E. Pfefferkorn 8.1 Introduction 194 8.2 Sustainability in Joining 196 8.3 Taxonomy 199 8.4 Data Sources 201 8.5 Efficiency of Joining Equipment 204 8.6 Efficiency of Joining Processes 206 8.6.1 Fusion Welding 207 8.6.2 Chemical Joining Methods 210 8.6.3 Solid-State Welding 212 8.6.4 Mechanical Joining Methods 214 8.6.4.1 Mechanical Fastening 214 8.6.4.2 Adhesive Bonding 215 8.7 Process Selection 216 8.8 Efficiency of Joining Facilities 217 8.9 Case Studies 220 8.9.1 Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) 220 8.9.2 Friction Stir Welding (FSW) 224 Reference 231 9 Manufacturing Equipment 235M. Helu, N. Diaz-Elsayed, D. Dornfeld 9.1 Introduction 235 9.2 Power Measurement 236 9.3 Characterizing the Power Demand 238 9.3.1 Constant Power 238 9.3.2 Variable Power 239 9.3.3 Processing Power 240 9.4 Energy Model 240 9.5 Life Cycle Energy Analysis of Production Equipment 241 9.6 Energy Reduction Strategies 243 9.6.1 Strategies for Equipment with High Processing Power 244 9.6.2 Strategies for Equipment with High Tare Power 245 9.6.2.1 Process Time 245 9.6.2.2 Machine Design 246 9.7 Additional Life Cycle Impacts of Energy Reduction Strategies 248 9.8 Summary 250 References 252 10 Energy Considerations in Assembly Operations 257Camelio, J.A., McCullough, D., Prosch, S. and Rickli, J.L. 10.1 Introduction to Assembly Systems & Operations 258 10.2 Fundamentals of Assembly Operations 259 10.3 characterizing Assembly System Energy Consumption 260 10.3.1 Indirect Energy 261 10.3.2 Direct Energy 262 10.4 Direct Energy Considerations of Assembly Joining Processes 264 10.4.1 Mechanical Assembly 264 10.4.2 Adhesive Bonding 265 10.4.3 Welding, Brazing, and Soldering 268 10.5 Assembly System Energy Metrics 271 10.6 Case Study: Heavy Duty Truck Assembly 276 10.6.1 Case Study Energy Consumption Analysis Approach 276 10.6.2 Assembly Process Categorization 277 10.6.3 Case Study Energy Analysis Results 281 10.6.4 Discussion and Recommendations 288 10.7 Future of Energy Efficient Assembly Operations 289 References 290 Appendix 10.A 292 11 Manufacturing Facility Energy Improvement 295Chris Yuan, Junling Xie, John Nicol 11.1 Introduction 296 11.2 Auxiliary Industrial Energy Consumptions 299 11.2.1 Lighting 299 11.2.1.1 Lighting Technologies 300 11.2.1.2 Opportunities for Improving Energy Efficiency of Industrial Lighting 301 References 334 12 Energy Efficient Manufacturing Process Planning 335RuixueYin, Fu Zhao, John W. Sutherland 12.1 Introduction 335 12.2 The Basics of Process Planning 337 12.2.1 Types of Production 338 12.2.2 Process Planning Procedure 340 12.2.3 Process Planning Methods 342 12.3 Energy Efficient Process Planning 346 12.3.1 Energy Consumption and Carbon Footprint Models of Manufacturing Processes 12.3.2 A Semi-Generative Process Planning 346 Approach for Energy Efficiency 347 12.4 Case Study 349 12.5 Conclusions 353 Reference 353 13 Scheduling for Energy Efficient Manufacturing 355Nelson A. Uhan, Andrew Liu and Fu Zhao 13.1 Introduction 355 13.2 A Brief Introduction to Scheduling 356 13.3 Machine Environments 356 13.4 Job Characteristics 358 13.5 Feasible Schedules and Gantt Charts 358 13.6 Objective functions: classic time-based objectives 360 13.7 Objective Functions for Energy Efficiency 361 13.8 An Integer Linear Program for Scheduling an Energy-Efficient Flow Shop 363 13.9 A Very Brief Introduction to Mathematical Optimization 364 13.10 A Time-Indexed Integer Linear Program for the Energy-Efficient Flow Shop Problem 366 13.10.1 Algorithms for Solving IntegerLinear Programs 372 13.11 Conclusion and Additional Reading 373 References 375 14 Energy Efficiency in the Supply Chain 377Thomas J. Goldsby and Fazleena Badurdeen 14.1 Supply Chain Management 377 14.2 Supply Chain Structure 378 14.3 Supply Chain Processes 381 14.3.1 Customer Relationship Management 383 14.3.2 Supplier Relationship Management 384 14.3.3 Customer Service Management 385 14.3.4 Demand Management 386 14.3.5 Manufacturing Flow Management 387 14.3.6 Order Fulfillment 388 14.3.7 Product Development and Commercialization 389 14.3.8 Returns Management 390 14.4 Supply Chain Management Components 391 14.5 Conclusion 392 References 392 Endnotes 396 15 Business Models and Organizational Strategies 397Omar Romero-Hernandez, David Hirsch, Sergio Romero, Sara Beckman 15.1 Introduction 398 15.2 Reference Framework for Selection of Energy Efficiency Projects 400 15.2.1 Mission and Drivers 401 15.2.2 Set Level of Assessment 401 15.2.3 Recognize Opportunities and Risk 402 15.2.4 Select Projects 402 15.2.5 Implementation and Communication 403 15.3 Common Energy Efficiency Opportunities 404 15.3.1 Building Envelope 404 15.3.2 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) 405 15.3.3 Efficient Lighting 406 15.3.4 Efficient Motors and Systems 407 15.3.5 Building Management Systems 408 15.4 Stakeholders 409 15.4.1 Tenants and Owners 409 15.4.2 Regulators 410 15.4.3 Banks/Lenders 410 15.4.4 Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) 411 15.4.5 Business Models 411 15.5 Conclusions 413 References 413 16 Energy Efficient or Energy Effective Manufacturing? 417S. A. Shade and J. W. Sutherland 16.1 Energy Efficiency: A Macro Perspective 418 16.1.1 Government Perspective 418 16.1.2 Company Perspective 419 16.2 The Basics of Energy Efficiency 421 16.3 Limitations of Energy Efficiency 429 16.4 Energy Effectiveness 432 16.4.1 Effectiveness – It’s Up to the Decision Maker 434 16.4.2 Effectiveness – A Choice on Where to Invest 435 16.4.3 Effectiveness – Is An Action Really Worthwhile? 435 16.5 Summary 438 16.6 Acknowledgments 439 References 439
John W. Sutherland received his PhD from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and is a Professor and holds the Fehsenfeld Family Headship of Environmental and Ecological Engineering (EEE) at Purdue University. He is one of the world’s leading authorities on the application of sustainability principles to design, manufacturing, and other industrial issues. He has published more than 300 papers in various journals and conference proceedings, authored several book chapters, and is co-author of the text "Statistical Quality Design and Control: Contemporary Concepts and Methods". He is a Fellow of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and CIRP (International Academy for Production Engineering). His honors and recognitions include the SME Outstanding Young Manufacturing Engineer Award, Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, SAE Ralph R. Teetor Award, SME Education Award, SAE International John Connor Environmental Award, and ASME William T. Ennor Manufacturing Technology Award. David A. Dornfeld received his Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from UW-Madison in 1976 and was Will C. Hall Family Professor and Chair of Mechanical Engineering at University of California Berkeley. He led the Laboratory for Manufacturing and Sustainability (LMAS) and the Sustainable Manufacturing Partnership studying green/sustainable manufacturing; manufacturing processes; precision manufacturing; process monitoring and optimization. He published over 400 papers, authored three research monographs, contributed chapters to several books and had seven patents. He was a Member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), a Fellow of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), recipient of ASME/SME M. Eugene Merchant Manufacturing Medal, 2015, Ennor Award, 2010 and Blackall Machine Tool and Gage Award, 1986, Fellow of Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME), recipient of 2004 SME Fredrick W. Taylor Research Medal, member Japan Society of Precision Engineering (JSPE) and recipient of 2005 JSPE Takagi Prize, Fellow of University of Tokyo Engineering and Fellow of CIRP (International Academy for Production Engineering). He passed away in March 2016. Barbara S. Linke obtained her diploma and doctoral degree in Mechanical Engineering from the RWTH Aachen University, Germany. She worked at the Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering WZL from 2002 – 2010 on grinding technology and tooling engineering. From 2010 - 2012, Barbara was a research fellow at the University of California Berkeley. Since November 2012, Barbara Linke has been an assistant professor at the University of California Davis.

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