Emerging Technologies for Health and MedicineVirtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, Robotics, Industry 4.0
With the current advances in technology innovation, the field of medicine and healthcare is rapidly expanding and, as a result, many different areas of human health diagnostics, treatment and care are emerging. Wireless technology is getting faster and 5G mobile technology allows the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) to greatly improve patient care and more effectively prevent illness from developing. This book provides an overview and review of the current and anticipated changes in medicine and healthcare due to new technologies and faster communication between users and devices. This groundbreaking book presents state-of-the-art chapters on many subjects including: A review of the implications of VR and AR healthcare applications A review of current augmenting dental care An overview of typical human-computer interaction (HCI) that can help inform the development of user interface designs and novel ways to evaluate human behavior to responses in virtual reality (VR) and other new technologies A review of telemedicine technologies Building empathy in young children using augmented reality AI technologies for mobile health of stroke monitoring & rehabilitation robotics control Mobile doctor brain AI App An artificial intelligence mobile cloud computing tool Development of a robotic teaching aid for disabled children Training system design of lower limb rehabilitation robot based on virtual reality
List of Figures xiii List of Tables xv Foreword xix Preface xxiii Acknowledgments xxix Acronyms xxxi Part I Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality Technologies and Applications for Health And Medicine 1 Reviews of the Implications of VR/AR Health Care Applications 3Muhammad Sharif, Ghulam Jillani Ansari, Mussarat Yasmin, Steven Lawrence Fernandes 1.1 Introduction 4 1.2 Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality 5 1.2.1 Virtual Realty 5 1.2.2 Augmented Reality or Mixed Reality 6 1.2.3 Line of Difference between VR/AR 6 1.2.4 Formats and Design Elements of VR/AR Technology 7 1.2.5 Presence, Reality and Realism 8 1.3 Features of VR/AR Technology in Health Care 9 1.3.1 Implications of VR/AR Technology in Health Care Services and Applications 9 1.3.2 Health Care Services 9 1.3.3 Health Care Applications 11 1.4 Future Assessments in VR/AR Technology 14 1.5 Key Challenges for Adopting VR/AR Technology 14 1.6 Conclusion 15 References 15 2 Using 3D Simulation in Medical Education: A Comparative Test of Teaching Anatomy using VR 21Chung Van Le, J.G. Tromp, Vikram Puri 2.1 Introduction 22 2.2 Literature Review of Training with Medical VR 23 2.3 Methodology of this Study 24 2.4 Results 26 2.5 Discussion 29 References 30 3 Building Empathy in Young Children using Augmented Reality: A Case Study in Malaysia 35N.Zamin, F.A.Khairuddin, D.R.A.Rambli, E.N.M.Ibrahim, M.S.A.Soobni 3.1 Introduction 36 3.2 Motivations 36 3.3 Literature Review 36 3.4 Proposed Approach 38 3.5 Results and Discussions 38 3.6 Conclusions 41 References 41 4 Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Mock Interview Training 43J. Garcia, J. Tromp, H. Seaton 4.1 Introduction 44 4.2 Virtual Reality Training Literature Review 44 4.3 Methodology 45 4.3.1 Participants 45 4.3.2 Materials 46 4.3.3 Procedure 47 4.4 Results 47 4.5 Disscussion 48 4.6 Conclusions 49 References 50 5 Augmenting Dental Care: A Current Perspective 52Anand Nayyar, Gia Nhu Nguyen 5.1 Introduction 51 5.1.1 Origin of Augmented Reality 52 5.1.2 History of Augmented Reality 53 5.2 Augmented Reality Technology in Medical Technology 53 5.3 Existing Technologies in Medical/Healthcare Technology 55 5.4 Augmenting Dental Care-AR Technologies assisting Dentists for Dental Care 55 5.4.1 Augmented Reality Technologies in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 56 5.4.2 Augmented Reality Technologies in Dental Implant Surgery 58 5.4.3 Augmented Reality Technologies in Orthognathic Surgery 59 5.4.4 Augmented Reality Apps in Dental Applications 61 5.5 Augmented Reality in Dental Education 61 5.6 Augmented Reality based Education Technologies for Dentistry 62 5.6.1 DentSim 62 5.6.2 The Virtual Dental Patient: System for Virtual Teeth Drilling 63 5.6.3 Mobile AR Systems for Dental Morphology Learning 64 5.6.4 Periosim 64 5.7 Conclusion 65 References 65 6 Review of Virtual Reality Evaluation Methods and Psychophysiological Measurement Tools 69M.A. Munoz, J.G. Tromp, Cai Zhushun 6.1 Science Can Help Inform Virtual Reality Development 70 6.1.1 Objectives of Evaluations 71 6.1.2 Test Often and Test Early 73 6.1.3 Testing Options in the Early Pre-Prototype Phase 77 6.2 Virtual Reality Can Help Inform Psychology and Science 78 6.3 Types of Psychophysiological Measures and Tools 79 6.3.1 Electrodermal Activity 79 6.3.2 Cardiovascular activity 79 6.3.3 Muscular Activity: Facial Expressions 80 6.3.4 Electrical brain activity: Electroencephalography 81 6.4 Outcome of the Evaluation 82 6.5 Conclusions 83 References 83 Part II Artificial Intelligence Technologies and Applications for Health and Medicine 7 AI Technologies for Mobile Health of Stroke Monitoring & Rehabilitation Robotics Control 89B.M. Elbagoury, M.B.H.B. Shalhoub, M.I. Roushdy, Thomas Schrader 7.1 Introduction 90 7.2 Research Chapter Objectives 92 7.3 Literature Review 92 7.3.1 Pervasive Computing and Mobile Health Technologies 92 7.3.2 Rehabilitation Robotics for Stroke Patients 93 7.4 Description of the Research Telemedicine Platform 94 7.4.1 A State of the Art Telemedicine Robot Rehabilitation System 94 7.4.2 Wireless telemedicine module with robot 96 7.4.3 Wireless intelligence sensor network extract user’s biofeedback signal 96 7.5 A proposed intelligent adaptive behavior control to rehabilitation robotics 96 7.6 Materials and Methods 98 7.7 Conclusion Summary: Artificial Intelligence Technologies 98 References 100 8 Artificial Intelligence for Smart Cancer Diagnosis 103M.H.B. Shalhoub, Naif M. Hassan Bin Shalhoub, Bassant M. Elbagoury, Abdel-Badeeh M. Salem 8.1 Introduction 104 8.2 Background and Related work 105 8.2.1 De-noising methods 105 8.2.2 Image Segmentation Overview 106 8.3 Proposed System Architecture 107 8.4 Telemedicine System Modules 109 8.4.1 Image Compression 109 8.4.2 Image Enhancement and Region of Interest Segmentation 110 8.5 Results and discussion 113 8.6 Conclusion and Future Work 114 References 114 9 Mobile Doctor Brain AI App: Artificial Intelligence for IoT HealthCare 117Bassant M.Elbagoury, Ahmed A.Bakr, Mohamed Roushdy, 9.4 Proposed Artificial Intelligence Techniques for New AI IoT Health-Care Solutions for Stroke Monitoring 122 9.4.1 Support vector machine (SVM) 122 9.4.2 Case-based Reasoning 125 9.4.3 Particle Swarm Intelligence and ARX Model for Stroke Motion Estimation and Optimization 126 9.5 Conclusion 126 References 126 10 An Artificial Intelligence Mobile Cloud Computing Tool 129M. Hassan Bin Shalhoub, Mohammed H. Bin Shalhoub, Mariam Marzouq Al-Otaibi, Bassant M. Elbagoury 10.1 Introduction 130 10.2 Background and State-of-the-Art 130 10.3 Development and Proposing a New Intelligent case-based Reasoning Decision Engine for Cacer Diagnosis 131 10.4 Experimental Results of The Proposed System 132 10.5 Conclusion 133 References 133 11 Advanced Intelligent Robot Control Interfaces for The VR Simulation 137Gal IonelAlexandru, Vladareanu Luige and Shuang Cang 11.1 Introduction 138 11.2 Proposed Mechanical Structure 138 11.3 Unit 3D Integration 139 11.4 Results 148 11.5 Conclusion 150 References 150 12 Analysis of Telemedicine Technologies 153Vikram Puri, Jolanda G Tromp, Noell C.L. Leroy, Chung Le Van, Nhu Gia Nguyen 12.1 Introduction 154 12.2 Literature Review 154 12.3 Architecture of Telemedicine Technologies 155 12.4 Enabling Technologies for Telemedicine 156 12.4.1 Telehealth for Congestive Heart Failure 156 12.4.2 Telemedicine for the Veterans 157 12.4.3 Tele-ICU (Intensive Care Unit) 157 12.4.4 Helping Patients Adhere to Medication Regimes 158 12.4.5 eReferral - reduces consultation time 158 12.5 Conclusion 159 References 159 Part III Robotics Technologies and Applications for Health and Medicine 13 Critical Position using Environment Model Applied onWalking Robots 165M. Migdalovici, L. Vladareanu, N. Pop, H. Yu, M. Iliescu, V. Vladareanu, D. Baran, G. Vladeanu 13.1 Introduction 166 13.2 On the Environment’s Mathematical Model 166 13.3 Physical and Mathematical Models of The Walking Robot Leg 169 13.4 On Critical Positions of 3D Walking Robots 171 13.5 Mathematical model of beam without damping 173 13.6 Mathematical Model of Beam with Viscous Damping 175 13.7 Conclusion 175 References 176 14 The Walking Robot Equilibrium Recovery Applied on The NAO Robot 179N. Pop, L. Vladareanu, H.Wang, M. Ungureanu, M. Migdalovici, V. Vladareanu, Y. Feng, M. Lin, E. P. Mastan and I. El Emary 14.1 Introduction 180 14.2 The Choice of the Model 180 14.3 Mathematical Modeling of Twolink Biped Walking Robot 181 14.4 Linear Control Design 182 14.4.1 Linear Quadratic Regulator 183 14.4.2 Numerical Results using MATLAB 184 14.5 Results and Discussion 187 14.6 Conclusions 188 References 188 15 Development of A Robotic Teaching Aid for Disabled Children in Malaysia 191N.Zamin, N.I. Arshad, N. Rafiey and A.S. Hashim 15.1 Introduction 192 15.2 Case Study - Autism 192 15.3 Movitations 192 15.4 Proposed Approach 193 15.5 Results and Discussions 195 15.6 Robotic Intervention Enhance Autistic Students’ Engagement, Interaction and Focus 197 15.7 Conclusion 200 References 200 16 Training System Design of Lower Limb Rehabilitation Robot based on Virtual Reality 203H. Wang, M. Lin, Z. Jin, X. Wang, J. Niu, H. Yu, L. Zhang, L. Vladareanu 16.1 Introduction 204 16.2 Application Device 204 16.2.1 Lower Limb Rehabilitation Robot 204 16.2.2 Necessary Sensor Element 205 16.3 Trajectory Planning and Smooth Motion 206 16.3.1 Design of Training Velocity and Acceleration with Linear Path 206 16.3.2 Design of Training Velocity and Acceleration with Circle Path 208 16.3.3 Design of Training Velocity and Acceleration with Arbitrary Trajectory 209 16.3.4 The Analysis of Ambiguous Points 209 16.3.5 The Simulation of Training Velocity and Acceleration in the Planning Trajectory 209 16.4 Virtual Reality Training System 212 16.4.1 Design of Intention Judgment of Patients 213 16.4.2 Design of Adapting Training Posture Function 215 16.4.3 Interaction Control Strategy 215 16.5 Virtual Reality Software Design 216 16.5.1 Virtual Scene Build 216 16.5.2 Game Function Design 217 16.6 Virtual Reality Training Experiment 219 16.6.1 Model Synchronization Test 219 16.6.2 Feedback Terrains Test 219 16.7 Conclusion 220 References 220 Part IV Internet of Things Technologies and Applications for Health And Medicine 17 Automation of Appliances Using Electroencephalography 225Shivam Kolhe, Dhaval Khemani, Chintan Bhatt, and Nilesh Dubey 17.1 Introduction 226 17.2 Background, History and Future Aspects 226 17.3 Brain with Its Main Parts and Their Functions 227 17.3.1 Central Nervous System 228 17.3.2 Peripheral Nervous System 229 17.3.3 How are The Brain Signals Generated 230 17.3.4 What is Neuron Synapse? 232 17.4 Working of BCI 233 17.4.1 Types of Waves Generated and Detected by Brain 234 17.4.2 How to Perform Electroencephalogram 236 17.4.3 How to Take Measurements of the Head 237 17.4.4 How are EEG Signals Recorded 238 17.4.5 Methods to Display EEG on Screen 239 17.4.6 Eye Blink EEG Patterns 240 17.5 BCI Classes 241 17.5.1 Applications of BCI 242 17.5.2 Challenges BCI is facing 242 17.6 Conclusion 243 References 243 18 Designing a Beautiful Life for Indian Blind Peoples: A Smart Stick 245Aatrey Vyas, Dhaval Bhimani, Smit Patel, Hardik Mandora, Chintan Bhatt 18.1 Introduction 246 18.2 Internet of Things 246 18.3 Background 247 18.4 Purpose Approach 248 18.4.1 Ultrasonic Sensor 248 18.4.2 NodeMCU 249 18.4.3 Global positioning system (GPS) 249 18.4.4 Buzzer 250 18.4.5 Flow Diagram 251 18.5 Implementation 251 18.6 Advantages and Disadvantages 256 18.7 Conclusion 257 References 258 19 Smart Home: Personal Assistant And Baby Monitoring System 259Shivam Kolhe, Sonia Nagpal, Priya Makwana, Chintan Bhatt 19.1 Introduction 260 19.2 Background 261 19.3 Proposed Design and Implementation 261 19.3.1 Smart Home Personal Assistant 262 19.3.2 Baby Monitoring System 265 19.4 Online Energy Meter 268 19.5 Sensors used and Their Working 269 19.5.1 Temperature Sensor 269 19.5.2 Soil Moisture Sensor 270 19.5.3 PIR (Passive InfraRed) Sensor 272 19.6 Conclusion 283 References 284
Dac-Nhuong Le obtained his PhD in computer science from Vietnam National University, Vietnam in 2015. He is Deputy-Head of Faculty of Information Technology, Haiphong University, Vietnam. His area of research includes: evaluation computing and approximate algorithms, network communication, security and vulnerability, network performance analysis and simulation, cloud computing, IoT and image processing in biomedicine. He has authored 4 computer science books and has multiple research articles in international journals. Chung Van Le is the Vice-Director at the Centre of Visualization and Simulation and Lead Software Developer for 3D virtual body system for teaching anatomy and virtual endoscopic techniques for medical students at Duy Tan University in Vietnam. Jolanda G. Tromp is a VR/AR/AI/IoT Human-Computer Interaction expert for user-centered design and evaluation for new technologies, with 20 years' experience as a principal Usability Investigator. She has a PhD in Systematic Usability Design and Evaluation for Collaborative Virtual Environments, 2001, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom and a BSc in Psychology (with honors) from the University of Amsterdam, Holland. She is a research consultant for the Center of Visualization and Simulation and the Duy Tan University, Vietnam; for the Mixed Reality Task Group of the State University of New York; and for the Global Simulations Working Group. Nguyen Gia Nhu, received his PhD degree in computer science from Ha Noi University of Science, Vietnam National University, Vietnam. He is now the Vice Dean of Graduate School at Duy Tan University. He has more than 40 publications in reputed international conferences, journals and book chapter contributions. His research interests include algorithm theory, network optimization and wireless security.
Showcases the latest trends in new virtual/augmented reality healthcare and medical applications and provides an overview of the economic, psychological, educational and organizational impacts of these new applications and how we work, teach, learn and provide care. With the current advances in technology innovation, the field of medicine and healthcare is rapidly expanding and, as a result, many different areas of human health diagnostics, treatment and care are emerging. Wireless technology is getting faster and 5G mobile technology allows the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) to greatly improve patient care and more effectively prevent illness from developing. This book provides an overview and review of the current and anticipated changes in medicine and healthcare due to new technologies and faster communication between users and devices. The groundbreaking book presents state-of-the-art chapters on many subjects including: A review of the implications of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) healthcare applications A review of current augmenting dental care An overview of typical human-computer interaction (HCI) that can help inform the development of user interface designs and novel ways to evaluate human behavior to responses in VR and other new technologies A review of telemedicine technologies Building empathy in young children using augmented reality AI technologies for mobile health of stroke monitoring & rehabilitation robotics control Mobile doctor brain AI App An artificial intelligence mobile cloud computing tool Development of a robotic teaching aid for disabled children Training system design of lower limb rehabilitation robot based on virtual reality Audience This book is intended for academic and industrial engineers exploring and developing applications in virtual/augmented reality, artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things in the healthcare and medical fields. The book is also suitable for course adoption because it showcases how to develop and evaluate complex novel technologies and how to establish good user-experience, user-interface and return on investment.