Details

Efficient Petrochemical Processes


Efficient Petrochemical Processes

Technology, Design and Operation
1. Aufl.

von: Frank (Xin X.) Zhu, James A. Johnson, David W. Ablin, Gregory A. Ernst

126,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 17.10.2019
ISBN/EAN: 9781119487883
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 432

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Beschreibungen

A GUIDE TO THE DESIGN, OPERATION, CONTROL, TROUBLESHOOTING, OPTIMIZATION AS WELL AS THE RECENT ADVANCES IN THE FIELD OF PETROCHEMICAL PROCESSES Efficient Petrochemical Processes: Technology, Design and Operation is a guide to the tools and methods for energy optimization and process design. Written by a panel of experts on the topic, the book highlights the application of these methods on petrochemical technology such as the aromatics process unit. The authors describe practical approaches and tools that focus on improving industrial energy efficiency, reducing capital investment, and optimizing yields through better design, operation, and optimization. The text is divided into sections that cover the range of essential topics: petrochemical technology description; process design considerations; reaction and separation design; process integration; process system optimization; types of revamps; equipment assessment; common operating issues; and troubleshooting case analysis. This important book: Provides the basic knowledge related to fundamentals, design, and operation for petrochemical processes Applies process integration techniques and optimization techniques that improve process design and operations in the petrochemical process Provides practical methods and tools for industrial practitioners Puts the focus on improving industrial energy efficiency, reducing capital investment, and optimizing yields Contains information on the most recent advances in the field. Written for managers, engineers, and operators working in process industries as well as university students, Efficient Petrochemical Processes: Technology, Design and Operation explains the most recent advances in the field of petrochemical processes and discusses in detail catalytic and adsorbent materials, reaction and separation mechanisms.
Preface xix Acknowledgments xxi Part I Market, Design and Technology Overview 1 1 Overview of This Book 3 1.1 Why Petrochemical Products are Important for the Economy 3 1.2 Overall Petrochemical Configurations 8 1.3 Context of Process Designs and Operation for Petrochemical Production 11 1.4 Who is This Book Written For? 11 2 Market and Technology Overview 13 2.1 Overview of Aromatic Petrochemicals 13 2.2 Introduction and Market Information 13 2.3 Technologies in Aromatics Synthesis 21 2.4 Alternative Feeds for Aromatics 27 2.5 Technologies in Aromatic Transformation 28 2.6 Technologies in Aromatic Separations 35 2.7 Separations by Molecular Weight 39 2.8 Separations by Isomer Type: para?Xylene 39 2.9 Separations by Isomer Type: meta?Xylene 44 2.10 Separations by Isomer Type: ortho?Xylene and Ethylbenzene 45 2.11 Other Related Aromatics Technologies 46 2.12 Integrated Refining and Petrochemicals 57 References 61 3 Aromatics Process Description 63 3.1 Overall Aromatics Flow Scheme 63 3.2 Adsorptive Separations for para?Xylene 64 3.3 Technologies for Treating Feeds for Aromatics Production 68 3.4 para?Xylene Purification and Recovery by Crystallization 68 3.5 Transalkylation Processes 71 3.6 Xylene Isomerization 72 3.7 Adsorptive Separation of Pure meta?Xylene 76 3.8 para?Selective Catalytic Technologies for para?Xylene 78 References 81 Part II Process Design 83 4 Aromatics Process Unit Design 85 4.1 Introduction 85 4.2 Aromatics Fractionation 85 4.3 Aromatics Extraction 88 4.4 Transalkylation 96 4.5 Xylene Isomerization 101 4.6 para?Xylene Separation 105 4.7 Process Design Considerations: Design Margin Philosophy 106 4.8 Process Design Considerations: Operational Flexibility 108 4.9 Process Design Considerations: Fractionation Optimization 109 4.10 Safety Considerations 110 4.10.1 Reducing Exposure to Hazardous Materials 110 4.10.2 Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) 110 4.10.3 Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) Study 110 Further Reading 111 5 Aromatics Process Revamp Design 113 5.1 Introduction 113 5.2 Stages of Revamp Assessment and Types of Revamp Studies 113 5.3 Revamp Project Approach 115 5.4 Revamp Study Methodology and Strategies 116 5.5 Setting the Design Basis for Revamp Projects 118 5.6 Process Design for Revamp Projects 121 5.7 Revamp Impact on Utilities 123 5.8 Equipment Evaluation for Revamps 124 5.9 Economic Evaluation 147 5.10 Example Revamp Cases 152 Further Reading 154 Part III Process Equipment Assessment 155 6 Distillation Column Assessment 157 6.1 Introduction 157 6.2 Define a Base Case 157 6.3 Calculations for Missing and Incomplete Data 159 6.4 Building Process Simulation 161 6.5 Heat and Material Balance Assessment 162 6.6 Tower Efficiency Assessment 164 6.7 Operating Profile Assessment 166 6.8 Tower Rating Assessment 168 6.9 Guidelines for Existing Columns 169 Nomenclature 170 Greek Letters 170 References 170 7 Heat Exchanger Assessment 171 7.1 Introduction 171 7.2 Basic Calculations 171 7.3 Understand Performance Criterion: U?Values 173 7.4 Understand Fouling 176 7.5 Understand Pressure Drop 178 7.6 Effects of Velocity on Heat Transfer, Pressure Drop, and Fouling 178 7.7 Improving Heat Exchanger Performance 185 7.A TEMA Types of Heat Exchangers 186 References 188 8 Fired Heater Assessment 189 8.1 Introduction 189 8.2 Fired Heater Design for High Reliability 189 8.3 Fired Heater Operation for High Reliability 194 8.4 Efficient Fired Heater Operation 197 8.5 Fired Heater Revamp 201 References 202 9 Compressor Assessment 203 9.1 Introduction 203 9.2 Types of Compressors 203 9.3 Impeller Configurations 205 9.4 Type of Blades 207 9.5 How a Compressor Works 207 9.6 Fundamentals of Centrifugal Compressors 208 9.7 Performance Curves 209 9.8 Partial Load Control 210 9.9 Inlet Throttle Valve 212 9.10 Process Context for a Centrifugal Compressor 212 9.11 Compressor Selection 213 References 213 10 Pump Assessment 215 10.1 Introduction 215 10.2 Understanding Pump Head 215 10.3 Define Pump Head: Bernoulli Equation 216 10.4 Calculate Pump Head 218 10.5 Total Head Calculation Examples 219 10.6 Pump System Characteristics: System Curve 221 10.7 Pump Characteristics: Pump Curve 222 10.8 Best Efficiency Point (BEP) 224 10.9 Pump Curves for Different Pump Arrangement 225 10.10 NPSH 226 10.11 Spillback 229 10.12 Reliability Operating Envelope (ROE) 230 10.13 Pump Control 230 10.14 Pump Selection and Sizing 231 Nomenclature 233 Greek Letters 233 References 233 Part IV Energy and Process Integration 235 11 Process Integration for Higher Efficiency and Low Cost 237 11.1 Introduction 237 11.2 Definition of Process Integration 237 11.3 Composite Curves and Heat Integration 238 11.4 Grand Composite Curves (GCC) 244 11.5 Appropriate Placement Principle for Process Changes 244 11.6 Systematic Approach for Process Integration 249 11.7 Applications of the Process Integration Methodology 251 References 261 12 Energy Benchmarking 263 12.1 Introduction 263 12.2 Definition of Energy Intensity for a Process 263 12.3 The Concept of Fuel Equivalent (FE) for Steam and Power 264 12.4 Calculate Energy Intensity for a Process 265 12.5 Fuel Equivalent for Steam and Power 267 12.6 Energy Performance Index (EPI) Method for Energy Benchmarking 271 12.7 Concluding Remarks 272 References 273 13 Key Indicators and Targets 275 13.1 Introduction 275 13.2 Key Indicators Represent Operation Opportunities 275 13.3 Defining Key Indicators 277 13.4 Set Up Targets for Key Indicators 280 13.5 Economic Evaluation for Key Indicators 283 13.6 Application 1: Implementing Key Indicators into an “Energy Dashboard” 285 13.7 Application 2: Implementing Key Indicators to Controllers 287 13.8 It is Worth the Effort 287 References 288 14 Distillation System Optimization 289 14.1 Introduction 289 14.2 Tower Optimization Basics 289 14.3 Energy Optimization for Distillation System 293 14.4 Overall Process Optimization 296 14.5 Concluding Remarks 302 References 302 15 Fractionation and Separation Theory and Practices 303 15.1 Introduction 303 15.2 Separation Technology Overview 303 15.3 Distillation Basics 305 15.4 Advanced Distillation Topics 311 15.5 Adsorption 316 15.6 Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) 317 15.7 Crystallization 320 15.8 Liquid–Liquid Extraction 320 15.9 Extractive Distillation 321 15.10 Membranes 322 15.11 Selecting a Separation Method 323 References 324 16 Reaction Engineering Overview 325 16.1 Introduction 325 16.2 Reaction Basics 325 16.3 Reaction Kinetic Modeling Basics 326 16.4 Rate Equation Based on Surface Kinetics 328 16.5 Limitations in Catalytic Reaction 330 16.6 Reactor Types 333 16.7 Reactor Design 335 16.8 Hybrid Reaction and Separation 340 16.9 Catalyst Deactivation Root Causes and Modeling 341 References 343 Part V Operational Guidelines and Troubleshooting 345 17 Common Operating Issues 347 17.1 Introduction 347 17.2 Start?up Considerations 348 17.3 Methyl Group and Phenyl Ring Losses 349 17.4 Limiting Aromatics Losses 350 17.5 Fouling 356 17.6 Aromatics Extraction Unit Solvent Degradation 360 17.7 Selective Adsorption of para?Xylene by Simulated Moving Bed 363 17.8 Common Issues with Sampling and Laboratory Analysis 371 17.9 Measures of Operating Efficiency in Aromatics Complex Process Units 374 17.10 The Future of Plant Troubleshooting and Optimization 377 References 377 18 Troubleshooting Case Studies 379 18.1 Introduction 379 18.2 Transalkylation Unit: Low Catalyst Activity During Normal Operation 379 18.3 Xylene Isomerization Unit: Low Catalyst Activity Following Start?up 381 18.4 para?Xylene Selective Adsorption Unit: Low Recovery After Turnaround 384 18.5 Aromatics Extraction Unit: Low Extract Purity/Recovery 385 18.6 Aromatics Complex: Low para?Xylene Production 386 18.7 Closing Remarks 388 Reference 389 Index 391
FRANK (XIN X.) ZHU, PHD, is Senior Fellow at Honeywell UOP, Des Plaines, Illionis. He is a leading expert in industrial process design, modeling, and energy efficiency. He holds 60 US patents; is the co-founder for ECI International Conference: CO2 Summit and the recipient of AIChE Energy Sustainability Award. JAMES A. JOHNSON is the Director of Petrochemical Development in the R&D Department of Honeywell UOP. He has authored several publications and holds 36 US patents. DAVID W. ABLIN was a Fellow at the Aromatics Technology Center of Honeywell UOP before retiring in 2016. He holds 14 U.S. patents and earned several UOP Engineering awards. GREGORY A. ERNST is a Technology Specialist at Honeywell UOP, focusing on aromatics technologies with experience in commissioning, field services, and on-site troubleshooting of operating plants.
A GUIDE TO THE DESIGN, OPERATION, CONTROL, TROUBLESHOOTING, OPTIMIZATION AS WELL AS THE RECENT ADVANCES IN THE FIELD OF PETROCHEMICAL PROCESSES Efficient Petrochemical Processes: Technology, Design and Operation is a guide to the tools and methods for energy optimization and process design. Written by a panel of experts on the topic, the book highlights the application of these methods on petrochemical technology such as the aromatics process unit. The authors describe practical approaches and tools that focus on improving industrial energy efficiency, reducing capital investment, and optimizing yields through better design, operation, and optimization. The text is divided into sections that cover the range of essential topics: petrochemical technology description; process design considerations; reaction and separation design; process integration; process system optimization; types of revamps; equipment assessment; common operating issues; and troubleshooting case analysis. This important book: Provides the basic knowledge related to fundamentals, design, and operation for petrochemical processes Applies process integration techniques and optimization techniques that improve process design and operations in the petrochemical process Provides practical methods and tools for industrial practitioners Puts the focus on improving industrial energy efficiency, reducing capital investment, and optimizing yields Contains information on the most recent advances in the field. Written for managers, engineers, and operators working in process industries as well as university students, Efficient Petrochemical Processes: Technology, Design and Operation explains the most recent advances in the field of petrochemical processes and discusses in detail catalytic and adsorbent materials, reaction and separation mechanisms.

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