Details

Diatom Gliding Motility


Diatom Gliding Motility


1. Aufl.

von: Stanley A. Cohn, Kalina M. Manoylov, Richard Gordon

191,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 02.08.2021
ISBN/EAN: 9781119526605
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 480

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Beschreibungen

<b>DIATOM GLIDING MOTILITY</b> <p><b>Moving photosynthetic organisms are still a great mystery for biologists and this book summarizes what is known and reports the current understanding and modeling of those complex processes. </b> <p>The book covers a broad range of work describing our current state of understanding on the topic, including: historic knowledge and misconceptions of motility; evolution of diatom motility; diatom ecology & physiology; cell biology and biochemistry of diatom motility, anatomy of motile diatoms; observations of diatom motile behavior; diatom competitive ability, unique forms of diatom motility as found in the genus <i>Eunotia</i>; and models of motility. <p>This is the first book attempting to gather such information surrounding diatom motility into one volume focusing on this single topic. Readers will be able to gather both the current state of understanding on the potential mechanisms and ecological regulators of motility, as well as possible models and approaches used to help determine how diatoms accomplish such varied behaviors as diurnal movements, accumulation into areas of light, niche partitioning to increase species success. Given the fact that diatoms remain one of the most ecologically crucial cells in aquatic ecosystems, we hope that this volume will act as a springboard towards future research into diatom motility and even better resolution of some of the issues in motility. <p><b>Audience</b> <p>Diatomists, phycologists, aquatic ecologists, cellular physiologists, environmental biologists, biophysicists, diatom nanotechnologists, algal ecologists, taxonomists.
<p>Preface xxvii</p> <p><b>1 Some Observations of Movements of Pennate Diatoms in Cultures and Their Possible Interpretation 1<br /></b><i>Thomas Harbich</i></p> <p>1.1 Introduction 2</p> <p>1.2 Kinematics and Analysis of Trajectories in Pennate Diatoms with Almost Straight Raphe along the Apical Axis 3</p> <p>1.3 Curvature of the Trajectory at the Reversal Points 9</p> <p>1.4 Movement of Diatoms in and on Biofilms 13</p> <p>1.5 Movement on the Water Surface 16</p> <p>1.6 Formation of Flat Colonies in <i>Cymbella lanceolata </i>23</p> <p>1.7 Conclusion 29</p> <p>References 29</p> <p><b>2 The Kinematics of Explosively Jerky Diatom Motility: A Natural Example of Active Nanofluidics 33<br /></b><i>Ahmet C. Sabuncu, Richard Gordon, Edmond Richer, Kalina M. Manoylov and Ali Beskok</i></p> <p>2.1 Introduction 34</p> <p>2.2 Material and Methods 35</p> <p>2.2.1 Diatom Preparation 35</p> <p>2.2.2 Imaging System 35</p> <p>2.2.3 Sample Preparation 36</p> <p>2.2.4 Image Processing 36</p> <p>2.3 Results and Discussion 41</p> <p>2.3.1 Comparison of Particle Tracking Algorithms 41</p> <p>2.3.2 Stationary Particles 42</p> <p>2.3.3 Diatom Centroid Measurements 43</p> <p>2.3.4 Diatom Orientation Angle Measurements 46</p> <p>2.3.5 Is Diatom Motion Characterized by a Sequence of Small Explosive Movements? 49</p> <p>2.3.6 Future Work 50</p> <p>2.4 Conclusions 51</p> <p>Appendix 52</p> <p>References 59</p> <p><b>3 Cellular Mechanisms of Raphid Diatom Gliding 65<br /></b><i>Yekaterina D. Bedoshvili and Yelena V. Likhoshway</i></p> <p>3.1 Introduction 65</p> <p>3.2 Gliding and Secretion of Mucilage 67</p> <p>3.3 Cell Mechanisms of Mucilage Secretion 68</p> <p>3.4 Mechanisms of Gliding Regulation 71</p> <p>3.5 Conclusions 72</p> <p>Acknowledgments 72</p> <p>References 73</p> <p><b>4 Motility of Biofilm-Forming Benthic Diatoms 77<br /></b><i>Karen Grace Bondoc-Naumovitz and Stanley A. Cohn</i></p> <p>4.1 Introduction 77</p> <p>4.2 General Motility Models and Concepts 86</p> <p>4.2.1 Adhesion 87</p> <p>4.2.2 Gliding Motility 89</p> <p>4.2.3 Motility and Environmental Responsiveness 91</p> <p>4.3 Light-Directed Vertical Migration 93</p> <p>4.4 Stimuli-Directed Movement 94</p> <p>4.4.1 Nutrient Foraging 94</p> <p>4.4.2 Pheromone-Based Mate-Finding Motility 97</p> <p>4.4.3 Prioritization Between Co-Occurring Stimuli 99</p> <p>4.5 Conclusion 99</p> <p>References 100</p> <p><b>5 Photophobic Responses of Diatoms – Motility and Inter-Species Modulation 111<br /></b><i>Stanley A. Cohn, Lee Warnick and Blake Timmerman</i></p> <p>5.1 Introduction 112</p> <p>5.2 Types of Observed Photoresponses 112</p> <p>5.2.1 Light Spot Accumulation 112</p> <p>5.2.2 High-Intensity Light Responses 114</p> <p>5.3 Inter-Species Effects of Light Responses 118</p> <p>5.3.1 Inter-Species Effects on High Irradiance Direction Change Response 119</p> <p>5.3.2 Inter-Species Effects on Cell Accumulation into Light Spots 123</p> <p>5.4 Summary 123</p> <p>References 131</p> <p><b>6 Diatom Biofilms: Ecosystem Engineering and Niche Construction 135<br /></b><i>David M. Paterson and Julie A. Hope</i></p> <p>6.1 Introduction 135</p> <p>6.1.1 Diatoms: A Brief Portfolio 135</p> <p>6.1.2 Benthic Diatoms as a Research Challenge 136</p> <p>6.2 The Microphytobenthos and Epipelic Diatoms 136</p> <p>6.3 The Ecological Importance of Locomotion 137</p> <p>6.4 Ecosystem Engineering and Functions 139</p> <p>6.4.1 Ecosystem Engineering 139</p> <p>6.4.2 Ecosystem Functioning 140</p> <p>6.5 Microphytobenthos as Ecosystem Engineers 141</p> <p>6.5.1 Sediment Stabilization 141</p> <p>6.5.2 Beyond the Benthos 143</p> <p>6.5.3 Diatom Architects 144</p> <p>6.5.4 Working with Others: Combined Effects 144</p> <p>6.5.5 The Dynamic of EPS 145</p> <p>6.5.6 Nutrient Turnover and Biogeochemistry 145</p> <p>6.6 Niche Construction and Epipelic Diatoms 146</p> <p>6.7 Conclusion 149</p> <p>Acknowledgments 150</p> <p>References 150</p> <p><b>7 Diatom Motility: Mechanisms, Control and Adaptive Value 159<br /></b><i>João Serôdio</i></p> <p>7.1 Introduction 159</p> <p>7.2 Forms and Mechanisms of Motility in Diatoms 160</p> <p>7.2.1 Motility in Centric Diatoms 160</p> <p>7.2.2 Motility in Pennate Raphid Diatoms 161</p> <p>7.2.3 Motility in Other Substrate-Associated Diatoms 162</p> <p>7.2.4 Vertical Migration in Diatom-Dominated Microphytobenthos 163</p> <p>7.3 Controlling Factors of Diatom Motility 164</p> <p>7.3.1 Motility Responses to Vectorial Stimuli 164</p> <p>7.3.1.1 Light Intensity 164</p> <p>7.3.1.2 Light Spectrum 165</p> <p>7.3.1.3 UV Radiation 166</p> <p>7.3.1.4 Gravity 166</p> <p>7.3.1.5 Chemical Gradients 167</p> <p>7.3.2 Motility Responses to Non-Vectorial Stimuli 167</p> <p>7.3.2.1 Temperature 167</p> <p>7.3.2.2 Salinity 168</p> <p>7.3.2.3 pH 168</p> <p>7.3.2.4 Calcium 168</p> <p>7.3.2.5 Other Factors 169</p> <p>7.3.2.6 Inhibitors of Diatom Motility 169</p> <p>7.3.3 Species-Specific Responses and Interspecies Interactions 169</p> <p>7.3.4 Endogenous Control of Motility 170</p> <p>7.3.5 A Model of Diatom Vertical Migration Behavior in Sediments 170</p> <p>7.4 Adaptive Value and Consequences of Motility 172</p> <p>7.4.1 Planktonic Centrics 172</p> <p>7.4.2 Benthic Pennates 173</p> <p>7.4.3 Ecological Consequences of Vertical Migration 175</p> <p>7.4.3.1 Motility-Enhanced Productivity 175</p> <p>7.4.3.2 Carbon Cycling and Sediment Biostabilization 176</p> <p>Acknowledgments 176</p> <p>References 176</p> <p><b>8 Motility in the Diatom Genus <i>Eunotia </i>Ehrenb. 185<br /></b><i>Paula C. Furey</i></p> <p>8.1 Introduction 185</p> <p>8.2 Accounts of Movement in <i>Eunotia </i>188</p> <p>8.3 Motility in the Context of Valve Structure 194</p> <p>8.3.1 Motility and Morphological Characteristics in Girdle View 194</p> <p>8.3.2 Motility and Morphological Characteristics in Valve View 196</p> <p>8.3.3 Motility and the Rimoportula 198</p> <p>8.4 Motility and Ecology of <i>Eunotia </i>198</p> <p>8.4.1 Substratum-Associated Environments 199</p> <p>8.4.2 Planktonic Environments 201</p> <p>8.5 Motility and Diatom Evolution 202</p> <p>8.6 Conclusion and Future Directions 203</p> <p>Acknowledgements 204</p> <p>References 205</p> <p><b>9 A Free Ride: Diatoms Attached on Motile Diatoms 211<br /></b><i>Vincent Roubeix and Martin Laviale</i></p> <p>9.1 Introduction 211</p> <p>9.2 Adhesion and Distribution of Epidiatomic Diatoms on Their Host 213</p> <p>9.3 The Specificity of Host-Epiphyte Interactions 215</p> <p>9.4 Cost-Benefit Analysis of Host-Epiphyte Interactions 217</p> <p>9.5 Conclusion 219</p> <p>References 219</p> <p><b>10 Towards a Digital Diatom: Image Processing and Deep Learning Analysis of <i>Bacillaria paradoxa </i>Dynamic Morphology 223<br /></b><i>Bradly Alicea, Richard Gordon, Thomas Harbich, Ujjwal Singh, Asmit Singh and Vinay Varma</i></p> <p>10.1 Introduction 224</p> <p>10.1.1 Organism Description 224</p> <p>10.1.2 Research Motivation 227</p> <p>10.2 Methods 228</p> <p>10.2.1 Video Extraction 228</p> <p>10.2.2 Deep Learning 230</p> <p>10.2.3 DeepLabv3 Analysis 234</p> <p>10.2.4 Primary Dataset Analysis 234</p> <p>10.2.5 Data Availability 235</p> <p>10.3 Results 235</p> <p>10.3.1 Watershed Segmentation and Canny Edge Detection 235</p> <p>10.3.2 Deep Learning 236</p> <p>10.4 Conclusion 243</p> <p>Acknowledgments 245</p> <p>References 245</p> <p><b>11 Diatom Triboacoustics 249<br /></b><i>Ille C. Gebeshuber, Florian Zischka, Helmut Kratochvil, Anton Noll, Richard Gordon and Thomas Harbich</i></p> <p>Glossary 249</p> <p>11.1 State-of-the-Art 251</p> <p>11.1.1 Diatoms and Their Movement 251</p> <p>11.1.2 The Navier-Stokes Equation 252</p> <p>11.1.3 Low Reynolds Number 253</p> <p>11.1.4 Reynolds Number for Diatoms 254</p> <p>11.1.5 Further Thoughts About Movement of Diatoms 254</p> <p>11.1.6 Possible Reasons for Diatom Movement 255</p> <p>11.1.7 Underwater Acoustics, Hydrophones 256</p> <p>11.1.7.1 Underwater Acoustics 256</p> <p>11.1.7.2 Hydrophones 257</p> <p>11.2 Methods 257</p> <p>11.2.1 Estimate of the Momentum of a Moving Diatom 257</p> <p>11.2.2 On the Speed of Expansion of the Mucopolysaccharide Filaments 258</p> <p>11.2.2.1 Estimation of Radial Expansion 258</p> <p>11.2.2.2 Sound Generation 261</p> <p>11.2.3 Gathering Diatoms 266</p> <p>11.2.3.1 Purchasing Diatom Cultures 267</p> <p>11.2.3.2 Diatoms from the Wild 267</p> <p>11.2.4 Using a Hydrophone to Detect Possible Acoustic Signals from Diatoms 269</p> <p>11.2.4.1 First Setup 269</p> <p>11.2.4.2 Second Setup 271</p> <p>11.3 Results and Discussion 272</p> <p>11.3.1 Spectrograms 272</p> <p>11.3.2 Discussion 277</p> <p>11.4 Conclusions and Outlook 277</p> <p>Acknowledgements 279</p> <p>References 279</p> <p><b>12 Movements of Diatoms VIII: Synthesis and Hypothesis 283<br /></b><i>Jean Bertrand</i></p> <p>12.1 Introduction 283</p> <p>12.2 Review of the Conditions Necessary for Movements 284</p> <p>12.3 Hypothesis 285</p> <p>12.4 Analysis – Comparison with Observations 288</p> <p>12.4.1 Translational Apical Movement 288</p> <p>12.4.2 The Transapical Toppling Movement 290</p> <p>12.4.3 Diverse Pivoting 290</p> <p>12.5 Conclusion 291</p> <p>Acknowledgments 292</p> <p>References 292</p> <p><b>13 Locomotion of Benthic Pennate Diatoms: Models and Thoughts 295<br /></b><i>Jiadao Wang, Ding Weng, Lei Chen and Shan Cao</i></p> <p>13.1 Diatom Structure 295</p> <p>13.1.1 Ultrastructure of Frustules 295</p> <p>13.1.2 Bending Ability of Diatoms 297</p> <p>13.2 Models for Diatom Locomotion 300</p> <p>13.2.1 Edgar Model for Diatom Locomotion 300</p> <p>13.2.2 Van der Waals Force Model (VW Model) for Diatom Locomotion 302</p> <p>13.2.2.1 Locomotion Behavior of Diatoms 302</p> <p>13.2.2.2 Moving Organelles and Pseudopods 304</p> <p>13.2.2.3 Chemical Properties of Mucilage Trails 307</p> <p>13.2.2.4 Mechanical Properties of Mucilage Trails 310</p> <p>13.2.2.5 VW Model for Diatom Locomotion 314</p> <p>13.3 Locomotion and Aggregation of Diatoms 319</p> <p>13.3.1 Locomotion Trajectory and Parameters of Diatoms 319</p> <p>13.4 Simulation on Locomotion, Aggregation and Mutual Perception of Diatoms 323</p> <p>13.4.1 Simulation Area and Parameters 323</p> <p>13.4.2 Diatom Life Cycle and Modeling Parameters 323</p> <p>13.4.3 Simulation Results of Diatom Locomotion Trajectory with Mutual Perception 326</p> <p>13.4.4 Simulation Results of Diatom Adhesion with Mutual Perception 327</p> <p>13.4.5 Adhesion and Aggregation Mechanism of Diatoms 331</p> <p>References 332</p> <p><b>14 The Whimsical History of Proposed Motors for Diatom Motility 335<br /></b><i>Richard Gordon</i></p> <p>14.1 Introduction 336</p> <p>14.2 Historical Survey of Models for the Diatom Motor 338</p> <p>14.2.1 Diatoms Somersault via Protruding Muscles (1753) 338</p> <p>14.2.2 Vibrating Feet or Protrusions Move Diatoms (1824) 338</p> <p>14.2.3 Diatoms Crawl Like Snails (1838) 342</p> <p>14.2.4 The Diatom Motor is a Jet Engine (1849) 344</p> <p>14.2.5 Rowing Diatoms (1855) 346</p> <p>14.2.6 Diatoms Have Protoplasmic Tank Treads (1865) 350</p> <p>14.2.7 Diatoms as the Flame of Life: Capillarity (1883) 354</p> <p>14.2.8 Bellowing Diatoms (1887) 355</p> <p>14.2.9 Jelly Powered Jet Skiing Diatoms (1896) 355</p> <p>14.2.10 Bubble Powered Diatoms (1905) 358</p> <p>14.2.11 Diatoms Win: “I Have No New Theory to Offer and See No Reason to Use Those Already Abandoned” (1940) 360</p> <p>14.2.12 Is Diatom Motility a Special Case of Cytoplasmic Streaming? (1943) 360</p> <p>14.2.13 Diatom Adhesion as a Sliding Toilet Plunger (1966) 365</p> <p>14.2.14 Diatom as a Monorail that Lays Its Own Track (1967) 366</p> <p>14.2.15 The Diatom as a “Compressed Air” Coanda Effect Gliding Vehicle (1967) 368</p> <p>14.2.16 The Electrokinetic Diatom (1974) 371</p> <p>14.2.17 The Diatom Clothes Line or Railroad Track (1980) 372</p> <p>14.2.18 Diatom Ion Cyclotron Resonance (1987) 374</p> <p>14.2.19 Diatoms Do Internal Treadmilling (1998) 375</p> <p>14.2.20 Surface Treadmilling, Swimming and Snorkeling Diatoms (2007) 376</p> <p>14.2.21 Acoustic Streaming: The Diatom as Vibrator or Jack Hammer (2010) 378</p> <p>14.2.22 Propulsion of Diatoms Via Many Small Explosions (2020) 379</p> <p>14.2.23 Diatoms Walk Like Geckos (2019) 380</p> <p>14.3 Pulling What We Know and Don’t Know Together, about the Diatom Motor 381</p> <p>14.4 Membrane Surfing: A New Working Hypothesis for the Diatom Motor (2020) 393</p> <p>Acknowledgments 397</p> <p>References 397</p> <p>Appendix 420</p> <p>Index 421</p>
<p><b>Stanley Cohn</b> is a Professor Emeritus of Biology at DePaul University, Chicago. His lab has been studying ecological conditions affecting diatom cell movement for over 30 years, focusing on the responses to changes in light, temperature, surface, and other ecological factors. He received the Royal Society of Arts Silver Medal and the DePaul University Excellence in Teaching Award.</p> <p><b>Kalina Manoylov</b> is professor in Biology at Georgia College and State University and visiting professor at the University of Iowa Lakeside lab. She has a PhD in Zoology and Ecology, Evolutionary Biology and Behavior from Michigan State University. She uses algal-community data to understand environmental changes and anthropogenic effects in different aquatic environments. Her area of expertise is algal and diatom taxonomy and algal ecology. She has published more than 30 peer-reviewed articles, half of them with her students. She is the editor for <i>PhytoKeys and Frontiers Plant Science. </i> <p><B>Richard Gordon</b>’s involvement with diatoms goes back to 1970 with his capillarity model for their gliding motility, published in the <i>Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.</i>He later worked on a diffusion limited aggregation model for diatom morphogenesis, which led to the first paper ever published on diatom nanotechnology in 1988. He organized the first workshop on diatom nanotech in 2003. His other research is on computed tomography algorithms, HIV/AIDS prevention, and embryogenesis.
<p><b>Moving photosynthetic organisms are still a great mystery for biologists and this book summarizes what is known and reports the current understanding and modeling of those complex processes. </b></p> <p>The book covers a broad range of work describing our current state of understanding on the topic, including: historic knowledge and misconceptions of motility; evolution of diatom motility; diatom ecology & physiology; cell biology and biochemistry of diatom motility, anatomy of motile diatoms; observations of diatom motile behavior; diatom competitive ability, unique forms of diatom motility as found in the genus <i>Eunotia</i>; and models of motility. <p>This is the first book attempting to gather such information surrounding diatom motility into one volume focusing on this single topic. Readers will be able to gather both the current state of understanding on the potential mechanisms and ecological regulators of motility, as well as possible models and approaches used to help determine how diatoms accomplish such varied behaviors as diurnal movements, accumulation into areas of light, niche partitioning to increase species success. Given the fact that diatoms remain one of the most ecologically crucial cells in aquatic ecosystems, we hope that this volume will act as a springboard towards future research into diatom motility and even better resolution of some of the issues in motility. <p><b>Audience</b> <p>Diatomists, phycologists, aquatic ecologists, cellular physiologists, environmental biologists, biophysicists, diatom nanotechnologists, algal ecologists, taxonomists.

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