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Design, Deployment and Performance of 4G-LTE Networks


Design, Deployment and Performance of 4G-LTE Networks

A Practical Approach
1. Aufl.

von: Ayman ElNashar, Mohamed A. El-saidny, Mahmoud Sherif

84,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 13.03.2014
ISBN/EAN: 9781118703458
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 608

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Beschreibungen

This book provides an insight into the key practical aspects and best practice of 4G-LTE network design, performance, and deployment Design, Deployment and Performance of 4G-LTE Networks addresses the key practical aspects and best practice of 4G networks design, performance, and deployment. In addition, the book focuses on the end-to-end aspects of the LTE network architecture and different deployment scenarios of commercial LTE networks. It describes the air interface of LTE focusing on the access stratum protocol layers: PDCP, RLC, MAC, and Physical Layer. The air interface described in this book covers the concepts of LTE frame structure, downlink and uplink scheduling, and detailed illustrations of the data flow across the protocol layers. It describes the details of the optimization process including performance measurements and troubleshooting mechanisms in addition to demonstrating common issues and case studies based on actual field results. The book provides detailed performance analysis of key features/enhancements such as C-DRX for Smartphones battery saving, CSFB solution to support voice calls with LTE, and MIMO techniques. The book presents analysis of LTE coverage and link budgets alongside a detailed comparative analysis with HSPA+. Practical link budget examples are provided for data and VoLTE scenarios. Furthermore, the reader is provided with a detailed explanation of capacity dimensioning of the LTE systems. The LTE capacity analysis in this book is presented in a comparative manner with reference to the HSPA+ network to benchmark the LTE network capacity. The book describes the voice options for LTE including VoIP protocol stack, IMS Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC). In addition, key VoLTE features are presented: Semi-persistent scheduling (SPS), TTI bundling, Quality of Service (QoS), VoIP with C-DRX, Robust Header Compression (RoHC), and VoLTE Vocoders and De-Jitter buffer. The book describes several LTE and LTE-A advanced features in the evolution from Release 8 to 10 including SON, eICIC, CA, CoMP, HetNet, Enhanced MIMO, Relays, and LBS. This book can be used as a reference for best practices in LTE networks design and deployment, performance analysis, and evolution strategy. Conveys the theoretical background of 4G-LTE networks Presents key aspects and best practice of 4G-LTE networks design and deployment Includes a realistic roadmap for evolution of deployed 3G/4G networks Addresses the practical aspects for designing and deploying commercial LTE networks. Analyzes LTE coverage and link budgets, including a detailed comparative analysis with HSPA+. References the best practices in LTE networks design and deployment, performance analysis, and evolution strategy Covers infrastructure-sharing scenarios for CAPEX and OPEX saving. Provides key practical aspects for supporting voice services over LTE, Written for all 4G engineers/designers working in networks design for operators, network deployment engineers, R&D engineers, telecom consulting firms, measurement/performance tools firms, deployment subcontractors, senior undergraduate students and graduate students interested in understanding the practical aspects of 4G-LTE networks as part of their classes, research, or projects.
Authors’ Biographies xv Preface xvii Acknowledgments xix Abbreviations and Acronyms xxi 1 LTE Network Architecture and Protocols 1 Ayman Elnashar and Mohamed A. El-saidny 1.1 Evolution of 3GPP Standards 2 1.1.1 3GPP Release 99 3 1.1.2 3GPP Release 4 3 1.1.3 3GPP Release 5 3 1.1.4 3GPP Release 6 4 1.1.5 3GPP Release 7 4 1.1.6 3GPP Release 8 5 1.1.7 3GPP Release 9 and Beyond 5 1.2 Radio Interface Techniques in 3GPP Systems 6 1.2.1 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) 6 1.2.2 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) 6 1.2.3 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) 7 1.2.4 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) 7 1.3 Radio Access Mode Operations 7 1.3.1 Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) 8 1.3.2 Time Division Duplex (TDD) 8 1.4 Spectrum Allocation in UMTS and LTE 8 1.5 LTE Network Architecture 10 1.5.1 Evolved Packet System (EPS) 10 1.5.2 Evolved Packet Core (EPC) 11 1.5.3 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) 13 1.5.4 LTE User Equipment 13 1.6 EPS Interfaces 14 1.6.1 S1-MME Interface 14 1.6.2 LTE-Uu Interface 15 1.6.3 S1-U Interface 17 1.6.4 S3 Interface (SGSN-MME) 18 1.6.5 S4 (SGSN to SGW) 18 1.6.6 S5/S8 Interface 19 1.6.7 S6a (Diameter) 21 1.6.8 S6b Interface (Diameter) 21 1.6.9 S6d (Diameter) 22 1.6.10 S9 Interface (H-PCRF-VPCRF) 23 1.6.11 S10 Interface (MME-MME) 23 1.6.12 S11 Interface (MME–SGW) 23 1.6.13 S12 Interface 23 1.6.14 S13 Interface 24 1.6.15 SGs Interface 24 1.6.16 SGi Interface 25 1.6.17 Gx Interface 26 1.6.18 Gy and Gz Interfaces 27 1.6.19 DNS Interface 27 1.6.20 Gn/Gp Interface 27 1.6.21 SBc Interface 28 1.6.22 Sv Interface 28 1.7 EPS Protocols and Planes 29 1.7.1 Access and Non-Access Stratum 29 1.7.2 Control Plane 29 1.7.3 User Plane 30 1.8 EPS Procedures Overview 31 1.8.1 EPS Registration and Attach Procedures 31 1.8.2 EPS Quality of Service (QoS) 34 1.8.3 EPS Security Basics 36 1.8.4 EPS Idle and Active States 38 1.8.5 EPS Network Topology for Mobility Procedures 39 1.8.6 EPS Identifiers 44 References 44 2 LTE Air Interface and Procedures 47 Mohamed A. El-saidny 2.1 LTE Protocol Stack 47 2.2 SDU and PDU 48 2.3 LTE Radio Resource Control (RRC) 50 2.4 LTE Packet Data Convergence Protocol Layer (PDCP) 52 2.4.1 PDCP Architecture 53 2.4.2 PDCP Data and Control SDUs 53 2.4.3 PDCP Header Compression 54 2.4.4 PDCP Ciphering 54 2.4.5 PDCP In-Order Delivery 54 2.4.6 PDCP in LTE versus HSPA 55 2.5 LTE Radio Link Control (RLC) 55 2.5.1 RLC Architecture 56 2.5.2 RLC Modes 57 2.5.3 Control and Data PDUs 60 2.5.4 RLC in LTE versus HSPA 60 2.6 LTE Medium Access Control (MAC) 61 2.7 LTE Physical Layer (PHY) 61 2.7.1 HSPA(+) Channel Overview 61 2.7.2 General LTE Physical Channels 71 2.7.3 LTE Downlink Physical Channels 71 2.7.4 LTE Uplink Physical Channels 72 2.8 Channel Mapping of Protocol Layers 73 2.8.1 E-UTRAN Channel Mapping 73 2.8.2 UTRAN Channel Mapping 76 2.9 LTE Air Interface 76 2.9.1 LTE Frame Structure 76 2.9.2 LTE Frequency and Time Domains Structure 76 2.9.3 OFDM Downlink Transmission Example 80 2.9.4 Downlink Scheduling 81 2.9.5 Uplink Scheduling 88 2.9.6 LTE Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ) 89 2.10 Data Flow Illustration Across the Protocol Layers 90 2.10.1 HSDPA Data Flow 90 2.10.2 LTE Data Flow 91 2.11 LTE Air Interface Procedures 92 2.11.1 Overview 92 2.11.2 Frequency Scan and Cell Identification 92 2.11.3 Reception of Master and System Information Blocks (MIB and SIB) 93 2.11.4 Random Access Procedures (RACH) 94 2.11.5 Attach and Registration 95 2.11.6 Downlink and Uplink Data Transfer 96 2.11.7 Connected Mode Mobility 96 2.11.8 Idle Mode Mobility and Paging 99 References 100 3 Analysis and Optimization of LTE System Performance 103 Mohamed A. El-saidny 3.1 Deployment Optimization Processes 104 3.1.1 Profiling Device and User Behavior in the Network 105 3.1.2 Network Deployment Optimization Processes 107 3.1.3 Measuring the Performance Targets 108 3.1.4 LTE Troubleshooting Guidelines 119 3.2 LTE Performance Analysis Based on Field Measurements 123 3.2.1 Performance Evaluation of Downlink Throughput 127 3.2.2 Performance Evaluation of Uplink Throughput 131 3.3 LTE Case Studies and Troubleshooting 134 3.3.1 Network Scheduler Implementations 135 3.3.2 LTE Downlink Throughput Case Study and Troubleshooting 136 3.3.3 LTE Uplink Throughput Case Studies and Troubleshooting 139 3.3.4 LTE Handover Case Studies 146 3.4 LTE Inter-RAT Cell Reselection 153 3.4.1 Introduction to Cell Reselection 155 3.4.2 LTE to WCDMA Inter-RAT Cell Reselection 155 3.4.3 WCDMA to LTE Inter-RAT Cell Reselection 160 3.5 Inter-RAT Cell Reselection Optimization Considerations 165 3.5.1 SIB-19 Planning Strategy for UTRAN to E-UTRAN Cell Reselection 165 3.5.2 SIB-6 Planning Strategy for E-UTRAN to UTRAN Cell Reselection 167 3.5.3 Inter-RAT Case Studies from Field Test 168 3.5.4 Parameter Setting Trade-off 174 3.6 LTE to LTE Inter-frequency Cell Reselection 177 3.6.1 LTE Inter-Frequency Cell Reselection Rules 177 3.6.2 LTE Inter-Frequency Optimization Considerations 177 3.7 LTE Inter-RAT and Inter-frequency Handover 180 3.7.1 Inter-RAT and Inter-Frequency Handover Rules 187 3.7.2 Inter-RAT and Inter-Frequency Handover Optimization Considerations 188 References 189 4 Performance Analysis and Optimization of LTE Key Features: C-DRX, CSFB, and MIMO 191 Mohamed A. El-saidny and Ayman Elnashar 4.1 LTE Connected Mode Discontinuous Reception (C-DRX) 192 4.1.1 Concepts of DRX for Battery Saving 193 4.1.2 Optimizing C-DRX Performance 195 4.2 Circuit Switch Fallback (CSFB) for LTE Voice Calls 204 4.2.1 CSFB to UTRAN Call Flow and Signaling 206 4.2.2 CSFB to UTRAN Features and Roadmap 216 4.2.3 Optimizing CSFB to UTRAN 231 4.3 Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO) Techniques 252 4.3.1 Introduction to MIMO Concepts 252 4.3.2 3GPP MIMO Evolution 256 4.3.3 MIMO in LTE 258 4.3.4 Closed-Loop MIMO (TM4) versus Open-Loop MIMO (TM3) 261 4.3.5 MIMO Optimization Case Study 267 References 270 5 Deployment Strategy of LTE Network 273 Ayman Elnashar 5.1 Summary and Objective 273 5.2 LTE Network Topology 273 5.3 Core Network Domain 276 5.3.1 Policy Charging and Charging (PCC) Entities 280 5.3.2 Mobility Management Entity (MME) 283 5.3.3 Serving Gateway (SGW) 286 5.3.4 PDN Gateway (PGW) 287 5.3.5 Interworking with PDN (DHCP) 289 5.3.6 Usage of RADIUS on the Gi/SGi Interface 291 5.3.7 IPv6 EPC Transition Strategy 293 5.4 IPSec Gateway (IPSec GW) 294 5.4.1 IPSec GW Deployment Strategy and Redundancy Options 299 5.5 EPC Deployment and Evolution Strategy 300 5.6 Access Network Domain 303 5.6.1 E-UTRAN Overall Description 303 5.6.2 Home eNB 305 5.6.3 Relaying 307 5.6.4 End-to-End Routing of the eNB 308 5.6.5 Macro Sites Deployment Strategy 312 5.6.6 IBS Deployment Strategy 317 5.6.7 Passive Inter Modulation (PIM) 319 5.7 Spectrum Options and Guard Band 327 5.7.1 Guard Band Requirement 327 5.7.2 Spectrum Options for LTE 327 5.8 LTE Business Case and Financial Analysis 333 5.8.1 Key Financial KPIs [31] 334 5.9 Case Study: Inter-Operator Deployment Scenario 341 References 347 6 Coverage and Capacity Planning of 4G Networks 349 Ayman Elnashar 6.1 Summary and Objectives 349 6.2 LTE Network Planning and Rollout Phases 349 6.3 LTE System Foundation 351 6.3.1 LTE FDD Frame Structure 351 6.3.2 Slot Structure and Physical Resources 353 6.3.3 Reference Signal Structure 356 6.4 PCI and TA Planning 360 6.4.1 PCI Planning Introduction 360 6.4.2 PCI Planning Guidelines 361 6.4.3 Tracking Areas (TA) Planning 362 6.5 PRACH Planning 370 6.5.1 Zadoff-Chu Sequence 371 6.5.2 PRACH Planning Procedures 372 6.5.3 Practical PRACH Planning Scenarios 373 6.6 Coverage Planning 375 6.6.1 RSSI, RSRP, RSRQ, and SINR 375 6.6.2 The Channel Quality Indicator 378 6.6.3 Modulation and Coding Scheme and Link Adaptation 381 6.6.4 LTE Link Budget and Coverage Analysis 385 6.6.5 Comparative Analysis with HSPA+ 401 6.6.6 Link Budget for LTE Channels 405 6.6.7 RF Propagation Models and Model Tuning 409 6.7 LTE Throughput and Capacity Analysis 418 6.7.1 Served Physical Layer Throughput Calculation 418 6.7.2 Average Spectrum Efficiency Estimation 418 6.7.3 Average Sector Capacity 419 6.7.4 Capacity Dimensioning Process 419 6.7.5 Capacity Dimensioning Exercises 423 6.7.6 Calculation of VoIP Capacity in LTE 426 6.7.7 LTE Channels Planning 431 6.8 Case Study: LTE FDD versus LTE TDD 437 References 443 7 Voice Evolution in 4G Networks 445 Mahmoud R. Sherif 7.1 Voice over IP Basics 445 7.1.1 VoIP Protocol Stack 445 7.1.2 VoIP Signaling (Call Setup) 449 7.1.3 VoIP Bearer Traffic (Encoded Speech) 449 7.2 Voice Options for LTE 451 7.2.1 SRVCC and CSFB 451 7.2.2 Circuit Switched Fallback (CSFB) 452 7.3 IMS Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC) 455 7.3.1 IMS Overview 456 7.3.2 VoLTE Call Flow and Interaction with IMS 460 7.3.3 Voice Call Continuity Overview 469 7.3.4 SRVCC from VoLTE to 3G/2G 471 7.3.5 Enhanced SRVCC (eSRVCC) 480 7.4 Key VoLTE Features 482 7.4.1 End-to-End QoS Support 482 7.4.2 Semi-Persistent Scheduler 486 7.4.3 TTI Bundling 488 7.4.4 Connected Mode DRX 491 7.4.5 Robust Header Compression (ROHC) 492 7.4.6 VoLTE Vocoders and De-Jitter Buffer 497 7.5 Deployment Considerations for VoLTE 503 References 505 8 4G Advanced Features and Roadmap Evolutions from LTE to LTE-A 507 Ayman Elnashar and Mohamed A. El-saidny 8.1 Performance Comparison between LTE’s UE Category 3 and 4 509 8.1.1 Trial Overview 512 8.1.2 Downlink Performance Comparison in Near and Far Cell Conditions 513 8.1.3 Downlink Performance Comparison in Mobility Conditions 515 8.2 Carrier Aggregation 516 8.2.1 Basic Definitions of LTE Carrier Aggregation 518 8.2.2 Band Types of LTE Carrier Aggregation 519 8.2.3 Impact of LTE Carrier Aggregation on Protocol Layers 520 8.3 Enhanced MIMO 520 8.3.1 Enhanced Downlink MIMO 522 8.3.2 Uplink MIMO 523 8.4 Heterogeneous Network (HetNet) and Small Cells 523 8.4.1 Wireless Backhauling Applicable to HetNet Deployment 524 8.4.2 Key Features for HetNet Deployment 528 8.5 Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC) 529 8.6 Coordinated Multi-Point Transmission and Reception 531 8.6.1 DL CoMP Categories 531 8.6.2 UL CoMP Categories 533 8.6.3 Performance Evaluation of CoMP 533 8.7 Self-Organizing, Self-Optimizing Networks (SON) 535 8.7.1 Automatic Neighbor Relation (ANR) 536 8.7.2 Mobility Robust Optimization (MRO) 537 8.7.3 Mobility Load Balancing (MLB) 539 8.7.4 SON Enhancements in LTE-A 540 8.8 LTE-A Relays and Home eNodeBs (HeNB) 540 8.9 UE Positioning and Location-Based Services in LTE 541 8.9.1 LBS Overview 541 8.9.2 LTE Positioning Architecture 543 References 544 Index 547
In 2008, when the professional paths of the authors crossed, they worked together on many projects including an end-to-end LTE and HSPA+ networks. Since then, they have teamed up to study, design and evaluate the technical aspects of the state-of-the-art cellular technologies. Combining their practical expertise in diverse topics, they bridge the theory and the best practice of 4G networks into this book. Written by experts in the field with vast hands-on experience in cellular technologies, this book delves deeper into the practical aspects of design and deployment of a commercial LTE network, combining compelling research and field results to cut through the end-to-end architecture, design, and deployment scenarios. The book presents the LTE network performance analysis and optimization and advanced features. Furthermore, the reader is provided with a detailed explanation for coverage and capacity planning of the LTE network. The book also provides an in-depth explanation on how to provision Carrier-Grade VoLTE with a comprehensive coverage of the IMS and RAN advanced features. The LTE analysis is presented in a comparative manner with reference to the HSPA+ network. Key Features: Conveys the theoretical background of 4G networks Presents key aspects and best practice of 4G networks design and deployment Addresses strategies for performance evaluation and troubleshooting processes Demonstrates assessments of various LTE features including C-DRX, CSFB, MIMO techniques, and VoLTE Provides practical examples and case studies on coverage prediction, link budget, and capacity dimensioning for voice and data services. Special focus on the essential capabilities necessary for any operator to test & deploy, before commercializing VoLTE Includes a realistic roadmap for evolution of a deployed 4G networks, including carrier aggregation, HetNet, enhanced MIMO and SON. Design, Deployment and Performance of 4G-LTE Networks will be an invaluable guide for 4G engineers in network operators and vendors, network deployment engineers, R&D engineers, planning and optimization engineers, measurement/performance tools firms, consulting firms, undergraduate and graduate students interested in understanding the LTE system.

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