Details

Design and Development of Aircraft Systems


Design and Development of Aircraft Systems


Aerospace Series 3. Aufl.

von: Allan Seabridge, Ian Moir

106,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 10.12.2019
ISBN/EAN: 9781119611554
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 400

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Beschreibungen

Provides a significant update to the definitive book on aircraft system design This book is written for anyone who wants to understand how industry develops the customer requirement for aircraft into a fully integrated, tested, and qualified product that is safe to fly and fit for purpose. The new edition of Design and Development of Aircraft Systems fully expands its already comprehensive coverage to include both conventional and unmanned systems. It also updates all chapters to bring them in line with current design practice and technologies taught in courses at Cranfield, Bristol, and Loughborough universities in the UK. Design and Development of Aircraft Systems, 3rd Edition begins with an introduction to the subject. It then introduces readers to the aircraft systems (airframe, vehicle, avionic, mission, and ground systems). Following that comes a chapter on the design and development process. Other chapters look at design drivers, systems architectures, systems integration, verification of system requirements, practical considerations, and configuration control. The book finishes with sections that discuss the potential impact of complexity on flight safety, key characteristics of aircraft systems, and more. Provides a holistic view of aircraft system design, describing the interactions among subsystems such as fuel, navigation, flight control, and more Substantially updated coverage of systems engineering, design drivers, systems architectures, systems integration, modelling of systems, practical considerations, and systems examples Incorporates essential new material on the regulatory environment for both manned and unmanned systems Discussion of trends towards complex systems, automation, integration and the potential for an impact on flight safety  Design and Development of Aircraft Systems, 3rd Edition is an excellent book for aerospace engineers, researchers, and graduate students involved in the field.
About the Authors xiii Series Preface xv Acknowledgements xvii Glossary of Terms xix 1 Introduction 1 1.1 General 1 1.2 Systems Development 3 1.3 Skills 8 1.4 Human Aspects 9 1.4.1 Introduction 9 1.4.2 Design Considerations 10 1.4.3 Legislation 12 1.4.4 Summary of Legal Threats 12 1.4.5 Conclusions 13 1.5 Overview 14 Exercises 17 References 17 Further Reading 17 2 The Aircraft Systems 19 2.1 Introduction 19 2.2 Definitions 19 2.3 Everyday Examples of Systems 21 2.4 Aircraft Systems of Interest 24 2.4.1 Airframe Systems 28 2.4.2 Vehicle Systems 28 2.4.3 Interface Characteristics of Vehicle Systems 30 2.4.4 Avionics Systems 31 2.4.5 Interface Characteristics of Vehicle and Avionics Systems 31 2.4.5.1 Vehicle Systems 32 2.4.5.2 Avionics Systems 32 2.4.6 Mission Systems 32 2.4.7 Interface Characteristics of Mission Systems 33 2.5 Ground Systems 33 2.6 Generic System Definition 34 Exercises 37 References 37 Further Reading 37 3 The Design and Development Process 39 3.1 Introduction 39 3.2 Definitions 39 3.3 The Product Lifecycle 41 3.4 Concept Phase 46 3.4.1 Engineering Process 48 3.4.2 Engineering Skills 48 3.5 Definition Phase 50 3.5.1 Engineering Process 52 3.5.2 Engineering Skills 53 3.6 Design Phase 56 3.6.1 Engineering Process 56 3.6.2 Engineering Skills 57 3.7 Build Phase 58 3.7.1 Engineering Process 59 3.7.2 Engineering Skills 59 3.8 Test Phase 60 3.8.1 Engineering Process 60 3.8.2 Engineering Skills 60 3.9 Operate Phase 61 3.9.1 Engineering Process 62 3.9.2 Engineering Skills 63 3.10 Disposal or Retirement Phase 63 3.10.1 Engineering Process 65 3.10.2 Engineering Skills 65 3.11 Refurbishment Phase 65 3.11.1 Engineering Process 66 3.11.2 Engineering Skills 66 3.12 Whole Lifecycle Tasks 66 3.13 Summary 67 Exercises 69 References 70 Further Reading 70 4 Design Drivers 73 4.1 Introduction 73 4.2 Design Drivers in the Business Environment 75 4.2.1 Customer 76 4.2.2 Market and Competition 76 4.2.3 Capacity 77 4.2.4 Financial Issues 77 4.2.5 Defence Policy 78 4.2.6 Leisure and Business Interests 78 4.2.7 Politics 79 4.2.8 Technology 79 4.2.9 Global Economy 80 4.3 Design Drivers in the Project Environment 80 4.3.1 Standards and Regulations 80 4.3.2 Availability 81 4.3.3 Cost 81 4.3.4 Programme 82 4.3.5 Performance 82 4.3.6 Skills and Resources 82 4.3.7 Health, Safety, and Environmental Issues 83 4.3.8 Risk 84 4.4 Design Drivers in the Product Environment 84 4.4.1 Functional Performance 84 4.4.2 Human–Machine Interface 85 4.4.3 Crew and Passengers 86 4.4.4 Stores and Cargo 86 4.4.5 Structure 87 4.4.6 Safety 87 4.4.7 Quality 87 4.4.8 Environmental Conditions 87 4.5 Design Drivers in the Product Operating Environment 88 4.5.1 Heat 88 4.5.2 Noise 89 4.5.3 RF Radiation 89 4.5.4 Solar Energy 90 4.5.5 Altitude 91 4.5.6 Temperature 91 4.5.7 Contaminants, and Destructive and Hazardous Substances 92 4.5.8 Lightning 92 4.5.9 Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Contamination 92 4.5.10 Vibration 93 4.5.11 Shock 93 4.6 Interfaces with the Sub-system Environment 93 4.6.1 Physical Interfaces 94 4.6.2 Power Interfaces 94 4.6.3 Data Communication Interfaces 95 4.6.4 Input/Output Interfaces 95 4.6.5 Status/Discrete Data 95 4.7 Obsolescence 96 4.7.1 Introduction 96 4.7.2 The Threat of Obsolescence in the Product Lifecycle 97 4.7.2.1 Requirements Specification 98 4.7.2.2 People 99 4.7.2.3 Regulations 101 4.7.2.4 Design, Development, and Manufacture 101 4.7.2.5 The Supply Chain 103 4.7.3 Managing Obsolescence 103 4.8 Ageing Aircraft 106 4.8.1 Introduction 106 4.8.2 Some Examples 107 4.8.3 Systems Issues 108 4.8.4 Certification Issues 109 Exercises 109 References 110 Further Reading 110 5 System Architectures 113 5.1 Introduction 113 5.2 Definitions 114 5.3 System Architectures 115 5.3.1 Vehicle Systems 117 5.3.2 Avionic Systems 118 5.3.3 Mission Systems 118 5.3.4 Cabin Systems 119 5.3.5 Data Bus 119 5.4 Architecture Modelling and Trade-off 120 5.5 Example of a Developing Architecture 123 5.6 Evolution of Avionics Architectures 126 5.6.1 Distributed Analogue Architecture 127 5.6.2 Distributed Digital Architecture 128 5.6.3 Federated Digital Architecture 130 5.6.4 Integrated Modular Architecture 132 5.7 Example Architectures 135 5.7.1 Example 1: System Architecture 135 5.7.2 Example 2: Flight Control System 136 5.7.3 Example 3: Radar System 138 5.7.4 Example 4: Vehicle Systems Management 139 Exercises 149 References 149 Further Reading 149 6 System Integration 151 6.1 Introduction 151 6.2 Definitions 153 6.3 Examples of System Integration 153 6.3.1 Integration at the Component Level 153 6.3.2 Integration at the System Level 154 6.3.3 Integration at the Process Level 160 6.3.4 Integration at the Functional Level 163 6.3.5 Integration at the Information Level 166 6.3.6 Integration at the Prime Contractor Level 166 6.3.7 Integration Arising from Emergent Properties 167 6.3.8 Further Examples of Integrated Systems 169 6.3.8.1 The Airframe 169 6.3.8.2 Propulsion 171 6.3.8.3 Air Systems 171 6.4 System Integration Skills 172 6.5 Management of System Integration 175 6.5.1 Major Activities 175 6.5.2 Major Milestones 175 6.5.3 Decomposition and Definition Process 178 6.5.4 Integration and Verification Process 178 6.5.5 Component Engineering 178 6.6 Highly Integrated Systems 178 6.6.1 Integration of Primary Flight Control Systems 179 6.7 Discussion 182 Exercises 184 References 186 Further Reading 186 7 Verification of System Requirements 187 7.1 Introduction 187 7.2 Gathering Qualification Evidence in the Lifecycle 189 7.3 Test Methods 191 7.3.1 Inspection of Design 192 7.3.2 Calculation 192 7.3.3 Analogy 193 7.3.4 Modelling and Simulation 193 7.3.4.1 Modelling Techniques 197 7.3.5 Test Rigs 206 7.3.6 Environmental Testing 207 7.3.7 Integration Test Rigs 207 7.3.8 Aircraft Ground Testing 209 7.3.9 Flight Test 210 7.3.10 Trials 211 7.3.11 Operational Test 212 7.3.12 Demonstrations 212 7.4 An Example Using a Radar System 212 7.5 Summary 214 Exercises 215 References 215 Further Reading 216 8 Practical Considerations 217 8.1 Introduction 217 8.2 Stakeholders 218 8.2.1 Identification of Stakeholders 218 8.2.2 Classification of Stakeholders 219 8.3 Communications 220 8.3.1 The Nature of Communication 222 8.3.2 Examples of Organisation Communication Media 223 8.3.2.1 Mechanisms for Generating Information 225 8.3.2.2 Unauthorised Access 225 8.3.2.3 Data Storage and Access 226 8.3.2.4 Data Discipline 227 8.3.3 The Cost of Poor Communication 227 8.3.4 A Lesson Learned 228 8.4 Giving and Receiving Criticism 230 8.4.1 The Need for Criticism in the Design Process 230 8.4.2 The Nature of Criticism 230 8.4.3 Behaviours Associated with Criticism 231 8.4.4 Conclusions 232 8.5 Supplier Relationships 232 8.6 Engineering Judgement 234 8.7 Complexity 234 8.8 Emergent Properties 235 8.9 Aircraft Wiring and Connectors 236 8.9.1 Aircraft Wiring 236 8.9.2 Aircraft Breaks 237 8.9.3 Wiring Bundle Definition 238 8.9.4 Wiring Routing 239 8.9.5 Wiring Sizing 239 8.9.6 Aircraft Electrical Signal Types 241 8.9.7 Electrical Segregation 242 8.9.8 The Nature of Aircraft Wiring and Connectors 242 8.9.9 Use of Twisted Pairs and Quads 244 8.10 Bonding and Grounding 246 Exercise 248 References 248 Further Reading 248 9 Configuration Control 249 9.1 Introduction 249 9.2 Configuration Control Process 249 9.3 A Simple Portrayal of a System 250 9.4 Varying System Configurations 252 9.4.1 System Configuration A 252 9.4.2 System Configuration B 253 9.4.3 System Configuration C 254 9.5 Forwards and Backwards Compatibility 255 9.5.1 Forwards Compatibility 255 9.5.2 Backwards Compatibility 256 9.6 Factors Affecting Compatibility 256 9.6.1 Hardware 257 9.6.2 Software 257 9.6.3 Wiring 258 9.7 System Evolution 258 9.8 Configuration Control 259 9.8.1 Airbus A380 Example 261 9.9 Interface Control 264 9.9.1 Interface Control Document 264 9.9.2 Aircraft-level Data Bus Data 266 9.9.3 System Internal Data Bus Data 266 9.9.4 Internal System Input/Output Data 267 9.9.5 Fuel Component Interfaces 267 9.10 Control of Day-to-Day Documents 267 Exercise 268 10 Aircraft System Examples 269 10.1 Introduction 269 10.2 Design Considerations 269 10.3 Safety and Economic Considerations 271 10.4 Failure Severity Categorisation 272 10.5 Design Assurance Levels 272 10.6 Redundancy 273 10.6.1 Architecture Options 274 10.6.1.1 Simplex Architecture 274 10.6.1.2 Duplex Architecture 276 10.6.1.3 Dual/Dual Architecture 276 10.6.1.4 Triplex Architecture 276 10.6.1.5 Quadruplex Architecture 276 10.6.2 System Examples 277 10.6.2.1 Major Systems Event 277 10.6.2.2 Flight Critical Event 278 10.7 Integration of Aircraft Systems 280 10.7.1 Engine Control System 282 10.7.2 Flight Control System 283 10.7.3 Attitude Measurement System 284 10.7.4 Air Data System 284 10.7.5 Electrical Power System 285 10.7.6 Hydraulic Power System 286 10.8 Integration of Avionics Systems 287 References 290 11 Integration and Complexity: The Potential Impact on Flight Safety 291 11.1 Introduction 291 11.2 Integration 291 11.3 Complexity 294 11.4 Automation 298 11.5 Impact on Flight Safety Discussion 299 11.6 Single-pilot Operations 302 11.7 Postscript: Chaos Discussion 303 Exercises 307 References 307 Further Reading 308 12 Key Characteristics of Aircraft Systems 309 12.1 Introduction 309 12.2 Aircraft Systems 311 12.3 Avionics Systems 326 12.4 Mission Systems 336 12.5 Sizing and Scoping Systems 343 12.6 Analysis of the Fuel Penalties of Aircraft Systems 345 12.6.1 Introduction 345 12.6.2 Basic Formulation of Fuel Weight Penalties of Systems 346 12.6.3 Application of Fuel Weight Penalties Formulation for Multi-phase Flight 349 12.6.4 Analysis of Fuel Weight Penalties Formulation for Multi-phase Flight 350 12.6.5 Use of Fuel Weight Penalties to Compare Systems 350 12.6.6 Determining Input Data for Systems Weight Penalties Analysis 351 12.6.6.1 Lift/Drag Ratio 351 12.6.6.2 Specific Fuel Consumption 352 12.6.6.3 System Mass 352 12.6.6.4 System Drag Increase 352 12.6.6.5 Increase in sfc Due to Systems Power Off-takes 352 Nomenclature 354 References 354 13 Conclusions 357 13.1 What’s Next? 359 13.2 A Historical Footnote 361 References 362 Index 363
Allan Seabridge has over 50 years of experience in aerospace systems engineering, business development, and research & development, and has developed systems and engineering courses at UK universities. He has retired from full time engineering and enjoys spending time at an aircraft company heritage group. Ian Moir spent 20 years as an Engineering Officer in the Royal Air Force and has broad and detailed experience working in aircraft avionics systems at a major UK avionics company. Ian has now retired from aerospace activities and is enjoying a life of leisure in the Cotswolds, whilst retaining an interest in aerospace.
Design and Development of Aircraft Systems Third Edition Provides a significant update to the definitive book on aircraft system design This book is written for anyone who wants to understand how industry develops the customer requirement for aircraft into a fully integrated, tested, and qualified product that is safe to fly and fit for purpose. The new edition of Design and Development of Aircraft Systems fully expands its already comprehensive coverage to include both conventional and unmanned systems. It also updates all chapters to bring them in line with current design practice and technologies taught in courses at Cranfield, Bristol, and Loughborough universities in the UK. Design and Development of Aircraft Systems, Third Edition begins with an introduction to the subject. It then introduces readers to the aircraft systems (airframe, vehicle, avionic, mission, and ground systems). Following that comes a chapter on the design and development process. Other chapters look at design drivers, systems architectures, systems integration, verification of system requirements, practical considerations, and configuration control. The book finishes with sections that discuss the potential impact of complexity on flight safety, key characteristics of aircraft systems, and more. Provides a holistic view of aircraft system design, describing the interactions among subsystems such as fuel, navigation, flight control, and more Substantially updated coverage of systems engineering, design drivers, systems architectures, systems integration, modelling of systems, practical considerations, and systems examples Incorporates essential new material on the regulatory environment for both manned and unmanned systems Discussion of trends towards complex systems, automation, integration and the potential for an impact on flight safety Design and Development of Aircraft Systems, Third Edition is an excellent book for aerospace engineers, researchers, and graduate students involved in the field.

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