Details

Critical Infrastructure Protection in Homeland Security


Critical Infrastructure Protection in Homeland Security

Defending a Networked Nation
3. Aufl.

von: Ted G. Lewis

104,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 26.11.2019
ISBN/EAN: 9781119614562
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 464

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Beschreibungen

Covers critical infrastructure protection, providing a rigorous treatment of risk, resilience, complex adaptive systems, and sector dependence Wide in scope, this classroom-tested book is the only one to emphasize a scientific approach to protecting the key infrastructures components of a nation. It analyzes the complex network of entities that make up a nation's infrastructure, and identifies vulnerabilities and risks in various sectors by combining network science, complexity theory, risk analysis, and modeling and simulation. This approach reduces the complex problem of protecting water supplies, energy pipelines, telecommunication stations, power grid, and Internet and Web networks to a much simpler problem of protecting a few critical nodes. The new third edition of Critical Infrastructure Protection in Homeland Security: Defending a Networked Nation incorporates a broader selection of ideas and sectors than the previous book. Divided into three sections, the first part looks at the historical origins of homeland security and critical infrastructure, and emphasizes current policy. The second examines theory and foundations, highlighting risk and resilience in the context of complexity theory, network science, and the prevailing theories of catastrophe. The last part covers the individual sectors, including communications, internet, cyber threats, information technology, social networks, SCADA, water and water treatment, energy, and more. Covers theories of catastrophes, details of how sectors work, and how to deal with the problem of critical infrastructure protection’s enormity and complexity Places great emphasis on computer security and whole-community response Includes PowerPoint slides for use by lecturers, as well as an instructor's guide with answers to exercises Offers five robust appendices that augment the non-mathematical chapters with more rigorous explanations and mathematics Critical Infrastructure Protection in Homeland Security, Third Edition is an important book for upper-division undergraduates and first-year graduate students in political science, history, public administration, and computer technology. It will also be of great interest to professional security experts and policymakers.
Foreword By Sen. Mark Warner xv Foreword By Prof. Andrew Odlyzko xxi Preface xxxiii How to Use this Book xxxvii About the Companion Website xxxix 1 Origins of Critical Infrastructure Protection 1 1.1 Recognition 3 1.2 Natural Disaster Recovery 4 1.3 Definitional Phase 5 1.4 Public–Private Cooperation 8 1.5 Federalism: Whole of Government 8 1.6 Rise of the Framework 10 1.7 Implementing a Risk Strategy 12 1.7.1 Risk?Informed Decision?Making 13 1.7.2 Resilience?Informed Decision?Making 14 1.7.3 Prevention or Response? 15 1.8 Analysis 16 1.8.1 The Public–Private Partnership (PPP) Conundrum 17 1.8.2 The Information Sharing Conundrum 17 1.8.3 Climate Change Conundrum 17 1.8.4 The Funding Conundrum 17 1.8.5 Spend 80% on 20% of the Country 18 1.9 Exercises 18 1.10 Discussions 19 References 20 2 Risk Strategies 21 2.1 Expected Utility Theory 23 2.1.1 Threat–Asset Pairs 24 2.2 PRA and Fault Trees 24 2.2.1 An Example: Your Car 26 2.3 MRBA and Resource Allocation 26 2.3.1 Another Example: Redundant Power 27 2.4 Cyber Kill Chains are Fault Trees 28 2.5 PRA in the Supply Chain 29 2.6 Protection Versus Response 30 2.7 Threat is an Output 32 2.8 Bayesian Belief Networks 33 2.8.1 A Bayesian Network for Threat 33 2.8.2 Predictive Analytics 34 2.9 Risk of a Natural Disaster 35 2.9.1 Exceedence 35 2.9.2 EP vs. PML Risk 35 2.10 Earthquakes 36 2.11 Black Swans and Risk 36 2.12 Black Swan Floods 37 2.13 Are Natural Disasters Getting Worse? 38 2.14 Black Swan Al Qaeda Attacks 38 2.15 Black Swan Pandemic 39 2.16 Risk and Resilience 41 2.17 Exercises 42 2.18 Discussions 43 References 43 3 Theories of Catastrophe 44 3.1 Normal Accident Theory (NAT) 45 3.2 Blocks and Springs 46 3.3 Bak’s Punctuated Equilibrium Theory 48 3.4 Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) 51 3.4.1 The State Space Diagram 52 3.5 The US Electric Power Grid 52 3.6 Paradox of Enrichment (POE) 55 3.6.1 The Great Recessions 56 3.6.2 Too Much Money 56 3.7 Competitive Exclusion Principle (CEP) 57 3.7.1 Gause’s Law 58 3.7.2 The Self?Organizing Internet 58 3.7.3 A Monoculture 59 3.8 Paradox of Redundancy (POR) 59 3.9 Resilience of Complex Infrastructure Systems 60 3.9.1 Expected Utility and Risk 60 3.9.2 Countering SOC 60 3.9.3 The TOC Test 61 3.9.4 POE and Nonlinearity 61 3.9.5 CEP and Loss of Redundancy 61 3.9.6 POR and Percolation 62 3.10 Emergence 62 3.10.1 Opposing Forces in Emergent CIKR 62 3.11 Exercises 63 3.12 Discussions 64 References 64 4 Complex CIKR Systems 66 4.1 CIKR as Networks 69 4.1.1 Emergence 72 4.1.2 Classes of CIKR Networks 74 4.1.3 Self?Organized Networks 75 4.2 Cascading CIKR Systems 76 4.2.1 The Fundamental Resilience Line 80 4.2.2 Critical Factors and Cascades 81 4.2.3 Targeted Attacks 82 4.3 Network Flow Risk and Resilience 85 4.3.1 Braess’s Paradox 86 4.3.2 Flow Network Resilience 87 4.4 Paradox of Redundancy 88 4.4.1 Link Percolation and Robustness 88 4.4.2 Node Percolation and Robustness 89 4.4.3 Blocking Nodes 89 4.5 Network Risk 91 4.5.1 Crude Oil and Keystone XL 92 4.5.2 MBRA Network Resource Allocation 92 4.6 The Fragility Framework 96 4.6.1 The Hodges Fragility Framework 96 4.6.2 The Hodges Fault Tree 97 4.7 Exercises 98 4.8 Discussions 99 References 100 5 Communications 101 5.1 Early Years 102 5.2 Regulatory Structure 105 5.3 The Architecture of the Communications Sector 106 5.3.1 Physical Infrastructure 107 5.3.2 Wireless Networks 108 5.3.3 Extraterrestrial Communication 108 5.3.4 Land Earth Stations 109 5.3.5 Cellular Networks 110 5.3.6 Generations 110 5.3.7 Wi?Fi Technology 111 5.4 Risk and Resilience Analysis 111 5.4.1 Importance of Carrier Hotels 113 5.4.2 Network Analysis 114 5.4.3 Flow Analysis 116 5.4.4 Robustness 116 5.4.5 The Submarine Cable Network 117 5.4.6 HPM Attacks 117 5.5 Cellular Network Threats 118 5.5.1 Cyber Threats 119 5.5.2 HPM?Like Threats 120 5.5.3 Physical Threats 120 5.6 Analysis 120 5.7 Exercises 121 5.8 Discussions 122 References 122 6 Internet 123 6.1 The Internet Monoculture 125 6.1.1 The Original Sin 127 6.1.2 How TCP/IP Works 128 6.1.3 More Original Sin 130 6.2 Analyzing The Autonomous System Network 130 6.2.1 The AS500 Network 130 6.2.2 Countermeasures 132 6.3 The RFC Process 133 6.3.1 Emergence of Email 133 6.3.2 Emergence of TCP/IP 133 6.4 The Internet of Things (IOT) 134 6.4.1 Data Scraping 135 6.4.2 IoT Devices 135 6.4.3 More IoT Exploits 136 6.5 Commercialization 137 6.6 The World Wide Web 137 6.7 Internet Governance 138 6.7.1 IAB and IETF 138 6.7.2 ICANN Wars 140 6.7.3 ISOC 141 6.7.4 W3C 141 6.8 Internationalization 142 6.9 Regulation and Balkanization 142 6.10 Exercises 143 6.11 Discussions 144 7 Cyber Threats 145 7.1 Threat Surface 146 7.1.1 Script Kiddies 148 7.1.2 Black?Hats 149 7.1.3 Weaponized Exploits 149 7.1.4 Ransomware and the NSA 150 7.2 Basic Vulnerabilities 151 7.2.1 The First Exploit 152 7.2.2 TCP/IP Flaws 153 7.2.3 Open Ports 154 7.2.4 Buffer Overflow Exploits 155 7.2.5 DDoS Attacks 155 7.2.6 Email Exploits 156 7.2.7 Flawed Application and System Software 157 7.2.8 Trojans, Worms, Viruses, and Keyloggers 158 7.2.9 Hacking the DNS 159 7.3 Botnets 159 7.3.1 Hardware Flaws 160 7.4 Cyber Risk Analysis 161 7.5 Cyber Infrastructure Risk 161 7.5.1 Blocking Node Analysis 163 7.5.2 Machine Learning Approach 165 7.5.3 Kill Chain Approach 165 7.6 Analysis 166 7.7 Exercises 166 7.8 Discussions 168 References 168 8 Information Technology (IT) 169 8.1 Principles of IT Security 171 8.2 Enterprise Systems 171 8.2.1 Loss of Service 172 8.2.2 Loss of Data 172 8.2.3 Loss of Security 172 8.3 Cyber Defense 173 8.3.1 Authenticate Users 173 8.3.2 Trusted Path 174 8.3.3 Inside the DMZ 175 8.4 Basics of Encryption 176 8.4.1 DES 177 8.4.2 3DES 177 8.4.3 AES 177 8.5 Asymmetric Encryption 177 8.5.1 Public Key Encryption 179 8.5.2 RSA Illustrated 180 8.5.3 Shor’s Algorithm 180 8.6 PKI 181 8.6.1 Definition of PKI 182 8.6.2 Certificates 182 8.6.3 Blockchain 183 8.6.4 FIDO and WebAuth 184 8.6.5 Mathematics of Passwords 184 8.7 Countermeasures 185 8.8 Exercises 187 8.9 Discussions 188 References 188 9 Hacking Social Networks 189 9.1 Web 2.0 and the Social Network 190 9.2 Social Networks Amplify Memes 193 9.3 Topology Matters 194 9.4 Computational Propaganda 194 9.5 The ECHO Chamber 197 9.6 Big Data Analytics 198 9.6.1 Algorithmic Bias 199 9.6.2 The Depths of Deep Learning 200 9.6.3 Data Brokers 200 9.7 GDPR 201 9.8 Social Network Resilience 202 9.9 The Regulated Web 203 9.9.1 The Century of Regulation 203 9.10 Exercises 204 9.11 Discussions 205 References 206 10 Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition 207 10.1 What is SCADA? 208 10.2 SCADA Versus Enterprise Computing Differences 209 10.3 Common Threats 210 10.4 Who is in Charge? 211 10.5 SCADA Everywhere 212 10.6 SCADA Risk Analysis 213 10.7 NIST?CSF 216 10.8 SFPUC SCADA Redundancy 216 10.8.1 Redundancy as a Resiliency Mechanism 218 10.8.2 Risk Reduction and Resource Allocation 220 10.9 Industrial Control of Power Plants 221 10.9.1 Maximum PML 221 10.9.2 Recovery 221 10.9.3 Node Resilience 222 10.10 Analysis 225 10.11 Exercises 227 10.12 Discussions 228 11 Water and Water Treatment 229 11.1 From Germs to Terrorists 230 11.1.1 Safe Drinking Water Act 231 11.1.2 The WaterISAC 231 11.2 Foundations: SDWA of 1974 232 11.3 The Bioterrorism Act of 2002 232 11.3.1 Is Water for Drinking? 233 11.3.2 Climate Change and Rot: The New Threats 234 11.4 The Architecture of Water Systems 235 11.4.1 The Law of The River 235 11.5 The Hetch Hetchy Network 235 11.5.1 Bottleneck Analysis 236 11.6 Risk Analysis 238 11.6.1 Multidimensional Analysis 238 11.6.2 Blocking Nodes 239 11.7 Hetch Hetchy Investment Strategies 239 11.7.1 The Rational Actor Attacker 240 11.8 Hetch Hetchy Threat Analysis 242 11.8.1 Chem/Bio Threats 242 11.8.2 Earthquake Threats 244 11.8.3 Allocation to Harden Threat–Asset Pairs 244 11.9 Analysis 245 11.10 Exercises 246 11.11 Discussions 247 References 248 12 Energy 249 12.1 Energy Fundamentals 251 12.2 Regulatory Structure of the Energy Sector 252 12.2.1 Evolution of Energy Regulation 252 12.2.2 Other Regulations 253 12.2.3 The Energy ISAC 254 12.3 Interdependent Coal 254 12.3.1 Interdependency with Transportation 254 12.4 The Rise of Oil and the Automobile 255 12.4.1 Oil 255 12.4.2 Natural Gas 256 12.5 Energy Supply Chains 256 12.5.1 PADDs 257 12.5.2 Refineries 258 12.5.3 Transmission 258 12.5.4 Transport4 259 12.5.5 Storage 259 12.5.6 Natural Gas Supply Chains 259 12.5.7 SCADA 259 12.6 The Critical Gulf of Mexico Cluster 259 12.6.1 Refineries 260 12.6.2 Transmission Pipelines 260 12.6.3 Storage 262 12.7 Threat Analysis of the Gulf of Mexico Supply Chain 265 12.8 Network Analysis of the Gulf of Mexico Supply Chain 266 12.9 The Keystonexl Pipeline Controversy 267 12.10 The Natural Gas Supply Chain 268 12.11 Analysis 270 12.12 Exercises 270 12.13 Discussions 271 References 272 13 Electric Power 273 13.1 The Grid 274 13.2 From Death Rays to Vertical Integration 275 13.2.1 Early Regulation 276 13.2.2 Deregulation and EPACT 1992 278 13.2.3 Energy Sector ISAC 278 13.3 Out of Orders 888 and 889 Comes Chaos 279 13.3.1 Economics Versus Physics 280 13.3.2 Betweenness Increases SOC 281 13.4 The North American Grid 281 13.4.1 ACE and Kirchhoff’s Law 283 13.5 Anatomy of a Blackout 283 13.5.1 What Happened on August 14 285 13.6 Threat Analysis 286 13.6.1 Attack Scenario 1: Disruption of Fuel Supply to Power Plants 286 13.6.2 Attack Scenario 2: Destruction of Major Transformers 287 13.6.3 Attack Scenario 3: Disruption of SCADA Communications 287 13.6.4 Attack Scenario 4: Creation of a Cascading Transmission Failure 287 13.7 Risk Analysis 288 13.8 Analysis of WECC96 288 13.9 Analysis 291 13.10 Exercises 292 13.11 Discussions 294 References 294 14 Healthcare and Public Health 295 14.1 The Sector Plan 296 14.2 Roemer’s Model 297 14.2.1 Components of Roemer’s Model 298 14.3 The Complexity of Public Health 299 14.4 Risk Analysis of HPH Sector 300 14.5 Bioterrorism 300 14.5.1 Classification of Biological Agents 301 14.6 Epidemiology 303 14.6.1 The Kermack–McKendrick Model 303 14.6.2 SARS 304 14.7 Predicting Pandemics 304 14.7.1 The Levy Flight Theory of Pandemics 306 14.8 Bio?Surveillance 307 14.8.1 HealthMap 307 14.8.2 Big Data 307 14.8.3 GeoSentinel 308 14.9 Network Pandemics 309 14.10 The World Travel Network 310 14.11 Exercises 312 14.12 Discussions 313 References 313 15 Transportation 314 15.1 Transportation Under Transformation 316 15.2 The Road to Prosperity 319 15.2.1 Economic Impact 319 15.2.2 The National Highway System (NHS) 319 15.2.3 The Interstate Highway Network Is Resilient 320 15.2.4 The NHS Is Safer 320 15.3 Rail 320 15.3.1 Birth of Regulation 322 15.3.2 Freight Trains 323 15.3.3 Passenger Rail 324 15.3.4 Commuter Rail Resiliency 324 15.4 Air 325 15.4.1 Resilience of the Hub?and?Spoke Network 326 15.4.2 Security of Commercial Air Travel 328 15.4.3 How Safe and Secure Is Flying in the United States? 329 15.5 Airport Games 330 15.5.1 GUARDS 330 15.5.2 Bayesian Belief Networks 331 15.6 Exercises 331 15.7 Discussions 332 References 332 16 Supply Chains 334 16.1 The World Is Flat, But Tilted 335 16.1.1 Supply?Side Supply 336 16.1.2 The Father of Containerization 337 16.1.3 The Perils of Efficient Supply Chains 337 16.2 The World Trade Web 340 16.2.1 Economic Contagions 342 16.3 Risk Assessment 344 16.3.1 MSRAM 344 16.3.2 PROTECT 345 16.4 Analysis 346 16.5 Exercises 347 16.6 Discussions 347 References 348 17 Banking and Finance 349 17.1 The Financial System 351 17.1.1 Federal Reserve vs. US Treasury 352 17.1.2 Operating the System 353 17.1.3 Balancing the Balance Sheet 353 17.1.4 Paradox of Enrichment 354 17.2 Financial Networks 355 17.2.1 FedWire 355 17.2.2 TARGET 356 17.2.3 SWIFT 356 17.2.4 Credit Card Networks 356 17.2.5 3?D Secure Payment 357 17.3 Virtual Currency 358 17.3.1 Intermediary PayPal 358 17.3.2 ApplePay 358 17.3.3 Cryptocurrency 359 17.4 Hacking The Financial Network 361 17.5 Hot Money 363 17.5.1 The Dutch Disease 364 17.6 The End of Stimulus? 364 17.7 Fractal Markets 365 17.7.1 Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) 366 17.7.2 Fractal Market Hypothesis (FMH) 366 17.7.3 Predicting Collapse 367 17.8 Exercises 369 17.9 Discussions 370 References 370 18 Strategies for a Networked Nation 371 18.1 Whole of Government 372 18.2 Risk and Resilience 373 18.3 Complex and Emergent CIKR 373 18.4 Communications and the Internet 374 18.5 Information Technology (IT) 375 18.6 Surveillance Capitalism 375 18.7 Industrial Control Systems 376 18.8 Energy and Power 376 18.9 Global Pandemics 377 18.10 Transportation and Supply Chains 377 18.11 Banking and Finance 378 18.12 Discussions 378 Appendix A: Math: Probability Primer 379 A.1 A Priori Probability 379 A.2 A Pori Probability 381 A.3 Random Networks 382 A.4 Conditional Probability 383 A.5 Bayesian Networks 384 A.6 Bayesian Reasoning 385 References 387 Further Reading 388 Appendix B: Math: Risk and Resilience 389 B.1 Expected Utility Theory 390 B.1.1 Fault Trees 390 B.1.2 Fault Tree Minimization 391 B.1.3 XOR Fault Tree Allocation Algorithm 392 B.2 Bayesian Estimation 392 B.2.1 Bayesian Networks 392 B.3 Exceedence and PML Risk 394 B.3.1 Modeling EP 394 B.3.2 Estimating EP From Data 395 B.3.3 How to Process Time?Series Data 396 B.4 Network Risk 397 B.5 Model?Based Risk Analysis (MBRA) 398 B.5.1 Network Resource Allocation 401 B.5.2 Simulation 402 B.5.3 Cascade Risk 402 B.5.4 Flow Risk 402 References 403 Appendix C: Math: Spectral Radius 404 C.1 Network as Matrix 404 C.2 Matrix Diagonalization 404 C.3 Relationship to Risk and Resilience 406 C.3.1 Equation 1 406 C.3.2 Equation 2 407 Reference 407 Appendix D: Math: Tragedy of the Commons 408 D.1 Lotka–Volterra Model 408 D.2 Hopf–Holling Model 408 Appendix E: Math: The DES and RSA Algorithm 410 E.1 DES Encryption 410 E.2 RSA Encryption 410 Appendix F: Glossary 412 Index 414
Ted G. Lewis has over 35 published books to his credit, and extensive experience in both industry and academia. He served as a senior executive in DaimlerChrysler Corp, Eastman Kodak Company, and Oregon Advanced Computing Institute, as well as a professor of computer science at the University of Missouri-Rolla, University of Louisiana, Oregon State University, and the Naval Postgraduate School. Lewis was Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Software Magazine, IEEE Computer Magazine, and founded several of its periodicals.
COVERS CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION, PROVIDING A RIGOROUS TREATMENT OF RISK, RESILIENCE, COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS, AND SECTOR DEPENDENCE Wide in scope, this classroom-tested book is the only one to emphasize a scientific approach to protecting the key infrastructures components of a nation. It analyzes the complex network of entities that make up a nation's infrastructure, and identifies vulnerabilities and risks in various sectors by combining network science, complexity theory, risk analysis, and modeling and simulation. This approach reduces the complex problem of protecting water supplies, energy pipelines, telecommunication stations, power grid, and Internet and Web networks to a much simpler problem of protecting a few critical nodes. The new third edition of Critical Infrastructure Protection in Homeland Security: Defending a Networked Nation incorporates a broader selection of ideas and sectors than the previous book. Divided into three sections, the first part looks at the historical origins of homeland security and critical infrastructure, and emphasizes current policy. The second examines theory and foundations, highlighting risk and resilience in the context of complexity theory, network science, and the prevailing theories of catastrophe. The last part covers the individual sectors, including communications, internet, cyber threats, information technology, social networks, SCADA, water and water treatment, energy, and more. This important guide also reviews leadership standards within the organizational structure, warning signs of cultural degradation and remedies, as well as the importance of using diverse methods over time to assess culture. This vital resource: Covers theories of catastrophes, details of how sectors work, and how to deal with the problem of critical infrastructure protection's enormity and complexity Places great emphasis on computer security and whole-community response Includes PowerPoint slides for use by lecturers, as well as an instructor's guide with answers to exercises Offers five robust appendices that augment the non-mathematical chapters with more rigorous explanations and mathematics Critical Infrastructure Protection in Homeland Security, Third Edition is an important book for upper-division undergraduates and first-year graduate students in political science, history, public administration, and computer technology. It will also be of great interest to professional security experts and policymakers.

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