Details

Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing


Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing


1. Aufl.

von: Zhuming Bi, Xiaoqin Wang

100,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 04.02.2020
ISBN/EAN: 9781119534242
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 640

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

Broad coverage of digital product creation, from design to manufacture and process optimization This book addresses the need to provide up-to-date coverage of current CAD/CAM usage and implementation. It covers, in one source, the entire design-to-manufacture process, reflecting the industry trend to further integrate CAD and CAM into a single, unified process. It also updates the computer aided design theory and methods in modern manufacturing systems and examines the most advanced computer-aided tools used in digital manufacturing. Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing consists of three parts. The first part on Computer Aided Design (CAD) offers the chapters on Geometric Modelling; Knowledge Based Engineering; Platforming Technology; Reverse Engineering; and Motion Simulation. The second part on Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) covers Group Technology and Cellular Manufacturing; Computer Aided Fixture Design; Computer Aided Manufacturing; Simulation of Manufacturing Processes; and Computer Aided Design of Tools, Dies and Molds (TDM). The final part includes the chapters on Digital Manufacturing; Additive Manufacturing; and Design for Sustainability. The book is also featured for being uniquely structured to classify and align engineering disciplines and computer aided technologies from the perspective of the design needs in whole product life cycles, utilizing a comprehensive Solidworks package (add-ins, toolbox, and library) to showcase the most critical functionalities of modern computer aided tools, and presenting real-world design projects and case studies so that readers can gain CAD and CAM problem-solving skills upon the CAD/CAM theory. Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing is an ideal textbook for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical engineering, manufacturing engineering, and industrial engineering. It can also be used as a technical reference for researchers and engineers in mechanical and manufacturing engineering or computer-aided technologies.
Series Preface xvii Preface xix About the Companion Website xxi 1 Computers in Manufacturing 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.1.1 Importance of Manufacturing 1 1.1.2 Scale and Complexity of Manufacturing 2 1.1.3 Human Roles in Manufacturing 4 1.1.4 Computers in Advanced Manufacturing 6 1.2 Computer Aided Technologies (CATs) 7 1.3 CATs for Engineering Designs 10 1.3.1 Engineering Design in a Manufacturing System 10 1.3.2 Importance of Engineering Design 10 1.3.3 Types of Design Activities 12 1.3.4 Human Versus Computers 13 1.3.5 Human and Machine Interactions 14 1.4 Architecture of Computer Aided Systems 15 1.4.1 Hardware Components 15 1.4.2 Computer Software Systems 17 1.4.3 Servers, Networking, and Cloud Technologies 18 1.5 Computer Aided Technologies in Manufacturing 20 1.6 Limitation of the Existing Manufacturing Engineering Curriculum 22 1.7 Course Framework for Digital Manufacturing 24 1.8 Design of the CAD/CAM Course 25 1.8.1 Existing Design of the CAD/CAM Course 26 1.8.2 Customization of the CAD/CAM Course 27 1.9 Summary 28 1.10 Review Questions 29 References 30 Part I Computer Aided Design (CAD) 35 2 Computer Aided Geometric Modelling 37 2.1 Introduction 37 2.2 Basic Elements in Geometry 38 2.2.1 Coordinate Systems 39 2.2.2 Reference Points, Lines, and Planes 40 2.2.3 Coordinate Transformation of Points 43 2.2.4 Coordinate Transformation of Objects 43 2.3 Representation of Shapes 53 2.3.1 Basic Data Structure 54 2.3.2 Curvy Geometric Elements 56 2.3.3 Euler–Poincare Law for Solids 63 2.4 Basic Modelling Methods 63 2.4.1 Wireframe Modelling 63 2.4.2 Surface Modelling 64 2.4.3 Boundary Surface Modelling (B-Rep) 65 2.4.4 Space Decomposition 67 2.4.5 Solid Modelling 68 2.5 Feature-Based Modelling with Design Intents 74 2.6 Interactive Feature-Based Modelling Using CAD Tools 77 2.7 Summary 80 2.8 Modelling Problems 81 References 83 3 Knowledge-Based Engineering 85 3.1 Generative Model in Engineering Design 85 3.2 Knowledge-Based Engineering 85 3.3 Parametric Modelling 87 3.3.1 Define Basic Geometric Elements 89 3.3.2 Types of Parameters 95 3.3.3 Geometric Constraints and Relations 99 3.4 Design Intents 101 3.4.1 Default Location and Orientation of a Part 101 3.4.2 First Sketch Plane 103 3.5 Design Equations 103 3.6 Design Tables 105 3.7 Configurations as Part Properties 111 3.8 Design Tables in Assembly Models 114 3.9 Design Tables in Applications 116 3.10 Design Templates 117 3.11 Summary 119 3.12 Design Problems 119 References 122 4 Platform Technologies 125 4.1 Concurrent Engineering (CE) 125 4.1.1 Brief History 125 4.1.2 Needs of CE 125 4.1.3 Challenges of CE Practice 128 4.1.4 Concurrent Engineering (CE) and Continuous Improvement (CI) 128 4.2 Platform Technologies 130 4.3 Modularization 130 4.4 Product Platforms 132 4.5 Product Variants and Platform Technologies 135 4.6 Fundamentals to Platform Technologies 138 4.7 Design Procedure of Product Platforms 142 4.8 Modularization of Products 142 4.8.1 Classification of Functional Requirements (FRs) 143 4.8.2 Module-Based Product Platforms 143 4.8.3 Scale-Based Product Family 145 4.8.4 Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches 146 4.9 Platform Leveraging in CI 149 4.10 Evaluation of Product Platforms 153 4.10.1 Step 1. Representation of a Modularized Platform 155 4.10.2 Step 2. Mapping a Modular Architecture for Robot Configurations 156 4.10.3 Step 3. Determine Evaluation Criteria of a Product Platform 156 4.10.4 Step 4. Evaluate Platform Solutions 159 4.11 Computer Aided Tools (CAD) for Platform Technologies 160 4.11.1 Modelling Techniques of Product Variants 163 4.11.2 Design Toolboxes 163 4.11.3 Custom Design Libraries 164 4.12 Summary 165 4.13 Design Projects 166 References 169 5 Computer Aided Reverse Engineering 173 5.1 Introduction 173 5.2 RE as Design Methodology 175 5.3 RE Procedure 178 5.4 Digital Modelling 179 5.4.1 Types of Digital Models 180 5.4.2 Surface Reconstruction 181 5.4.3 Algorithms for Surface Reconstruction 181 5.4.4 Limitations of Existing Algorithms 182 5.4.5 Data Flow in Surface Reconstruction 183 5.4.6 Surface Reconstruction Algorithm 184 5.4.7 Implementation Examples 186 5.5 Hardware Systems for Data Acquisition 188 5.5.1 Classification of Hardware Systems 191 5.5.2 Positioning of Data Acquisition Devices 197 5.5.3 Control of Scanning Processes 199 5.5.4 Available Hardware Systems 200 5.6 Software Systems for Data Processing 201 5.6.1 Data Filtering 201 5.6.2 Data Registration and Integration 204 5.6.3 Feature Detection 205 5.6.4 Surface Reconstruction 205 5.6.5 Surface Simplification 205 5.6.6 Segmentation 206 5.6.7 Available Software Tools 206 5.7 Typical Manufacturing Applications 206 5.8 Computer Aided Reverse Engineering (CARE) 208 5.8.1 Recap to Convert Sensed Data into Polygonal Models 209 5.8.2 ScanTo3D for Generation of Parametric Models 211 5.8.3 RE of Assembled Products 212 5.9 RE – Trend of Development 213 5.10 Summary 213 5.11 Design Project 214 References 215 6 Computer Aided Machine Design 219 6.1 Introduction 219 6.2 General Functional Requirements (FRs) of Machines 222 6.3 Fundamentals of Machine Design 223 6.3.1 Link Types 223 6.3.2 Joint Types and Degrees of Freedom (DoFs) 223 6.3.3 Kinematic Chains 225 6.3.4 Mobility of Mechanical Systems 226 6.4 Kinematic Synthesis 230 6.4.1 Type Synthesis 230 6.4.2 Number Synthesis 230 6.4.3 Dimensional Synthesis 232 6.5 Kinematics 233 6.5.1 Positions of Particles, Links, and Bodies in 2D and 3D Space 233 6.5.2 Motions of Particles, Links, and Bodies 235 6.5.3 Vector-Loop Method for Motion Analysis of a Plane Mechanism 240 6.5.4 Kinematic Modelling Based on Denavit–Hartenberg (D-H) Parameters 246 6.5.5 Jacobian Matrix for Velocity Relations 248 6.6 Dynamic Modelling 259 6.6.1 Inertia and Moments of Inertia 259 6.6.2 Newton–Euler Formulation 261 6.6.3 Lagrangian Method 266 6.7 Kinematic and Dynamics Modelling in Virtual Design 269 6.7.1 Motion Simulation 269 6.7.2 Model Preparation 271 6.7.3 Creation of a Simulation Model 271 6.7.4 Define Motion Variables 274 6.7.5 Setting Simulation Parameters 275 6.7.6 Run Simulation and Visualize Motion 275 6.7.7 Analyse Simulation Data 276 6.7.8 Structural Simulation Using Motion Loads 277 6.8 Summary 278 6.9 Design Project 279 References 279 Part II Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) 281 7 Group Technology and Cellular Manufacturing 283 7.1 Introduction 283 7.2 Manufacturing System and Components 283 7.2.1 Machine Tools 287 7.2.2 Material Handling Tools 289 7.2.3 Fixtures 289 7.2.4 Assembling Systems and Others 290 7.3 Layouts of Manufacturing Systems 290 7.3.1 Job Shops 290 7.3.2 Flow Shops 291 7.3.3 Project Shops 292 7.3.4 Continuous Production 292 7.3.5 Cellular Manufacturing 294 7.3.6 Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) 295 7.3.7 Distributed Manufacturing and Virtual Manufacturing 297 7.3.8 Hardware Reconfiguration Versus System Layout 302 7.4 Group Technology (GT) 303 7.4.1 Visual Inspection 304 7.4.2 Product Classification and Coding 305 7.4.3 Production Flow Analysis 317 7.5 Cellular Manufacturing 320 7.6 Summary 325 7.7 Design Problems 326 References 328 8 Computer Aided Fixture Design 331 8.1 Introduction 331 8.2 Fixtures in Processes of Discrete Manufacturing 333 8.3 Fixtures and Jigs 335 8.4 Functional Requirements (FRs) of Fixtures 337 8.5 Fundamentals of Fixture Design 338 8.5.1 3-2-1 Principle 339 8.5.2 Axioms for Geometric Control 339 8.5.3 Axioms for Dimensional Control 341 8.5.4 Axioms for Mechanical Control 341 8.5.5 Fixturing Cylindrical Workpiece 342 8.5.6 Kinematic and Dynamic Analysis 342 8.6 Types and Elements of Fixture Systems 344 8.6.1 Supports 345 8.6.2 Types of Fixture Systems 345 8.6.3 Locators 347 8.6.4 Clamps 348 8.6.5 Flexible Fixtures 348 8.7 Procedure of Fixture Design 354 8.8 Computer Aided Fixture Design 357 8.8.1 Fixture Design Library 357 8.8.2 Interference Detection 359 8.8.3 Accessibility Analysis 360 8.8.4 Analysis of Deformation and Accuracy 361 8.9 Summary 361 8.10 Design Projects 362 References 363 9 Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) 367 9.1 Introduction 367 9.1.1 Human and Machines in Manufacturing 368 9.1.2 Automation in Manufacturing 371 9.1.3 Automated Decision-Making Supports 372 9.1.4 Automation in Manufacturing Execution Systems (MESs) 373 9.2 Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) 375 9.2.1 Numerically Controlled (NC) Machine Tools 375 9.2.2 Industrial Robots 376 9.2.3 Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRS) 376 9.2.4 Flexible Fixture Systems (FFSs) 377 9.2.5 Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMMs) 377 9.2.6 Automated Material Handling Systems (AMHSs) 378 9.3 Numerical Control (NC) Machine Tools 378 9.3.1 Basics of Numerical Control (NC) 380 9.4 Machining Processes 382 9.5 Fundamentals of Machining Programming 384 9.5.1 Procedure of Machining Programming 384 9.5.2 World Axis Standards 385 9.5.3 Default Coordinate Planes 387 9.5.4 Part Reference Zero (PRZ) 390 9.5.5 Absolute and Incremental Coordinates 390 9.5.6 Types of Motion Paths 392 9.5.7 Programming Methods 394 9.5.8 Automatically Programmed Tools (APT) 396 9.6 Computer Aided Manufacturing 398 9.6.1 Main Tasks of CNC Programming 398 9.6.2 Motion of Cutting Tools 398 9.6.3 Algorithms in NC Programming 399 9.6.4 Program Structure 400 9.6.5 Programming Language G-Code 401 9.7 Example of CAM Tool – HSMWorks 405 9.8 Summary 407 9.9 Design Problems 408 9.10 Design Project 409 References 410 10 Simulation of Manufacturing Processes 413 10.1 Introduction 413 10.2 Manufacturing Processes 413 10.3 Shaping Processes 416 10.4 Manufacturing Processes – Designing and Planning 417 10.5 Procedure of Manufacturing Processes Planning 418 10.6 Casting Processes 420 10.6.1 Casting Materials and Products 420 10.6.2 Fundamental of Casting Processes 422 10.6.3 Design for Manufacturing (DFM) for Casting Processes 429 10.6.4 Steps in Casting Processes 430 10.6.5 Components in a Casting System 430 10.6.6 Simulation of Casting Processes 432 10.7 Injection Moulding Processes 432 10.7.1 Injection Moulding Machine 433 10.7.2 Steps in the Injection Moulding Process 434 10.7.3 Temperature and Pressure for Moldability 435 10.7.4 Procedure of the Injection Moulding System 436 10.7.5 Other Design Considerations 437 10.8 Mould Filling Analysis 439 10.8.1 Mould Defects 440 10.9 Mould Flow Analysis Tool – SolidWorks Plastics 443 10.10 Summary 447 10.11 Design Project 447 References 448 11 Computer Aided Design of Tools, Dies, and Moulds (TDMs) 451 11.1 Introduction 451 11.2 Overview of Tools, Dies, and Industrial Moulds (TDMs) 453 11.3 Roles of TDM Industry in Manufacturing 454 11.4 General Requirements of TDM 456 11.4.1 Cost Factors 457 11.4.2 Lead-Time Factors 457 11.4.3 Complexity 458 11.4.4 Precision 458 11.4.5 Quality 459 11.4.6 Materials 459 11.5 Tooling for Injection Moulding 459 11.6 Design of Injection Moulding Systems 460 11.6.1 Number of Cavities 460 11.6.2 Runner Systems 462 11.6.3 Geometry of Runners 462 11.6.4 Layout of Runners 464 11.6.5 Branched Runners 465 11.6.6 Sprue Design 466 11.6.7 Design of Gating System 468 11.6.8 Design of Ejection System 471 11.6.9 Design of the Cooling System 472 11.6.10 Moulding Cycle Times 474 11.7 Computer Aided Mould Design 475 11.7.1 Main Components of Mould 475 11.7.2 Mould Tool in SolidWorks 475 11.7.3 Design Procedure 476 11.7.4 Compensation of Shrinkage 477 11.7.5 Draft Analysis 477 11.7.6 Parting Line and Shut-off Planes 479 11.7.7 Parting Surfaces 479 11.7.8 Splitting Mould Components 481 11.7.9 Assembly and Visualization of Moulds 481 11.8 Computer Aided Mould Analysis 483 11.8.1 Thermoformable Materials and Products 483 11.8.2 Compression Moulding 483 11.8.3 Simulation of Compression Moulding 484 11.8.4 Predicating Elongation in SolidWorks 487 11.9 Summary 492 11.10 Design Projects 493 References 493 Part III System Integration 497 12 Digital Manufacturing (DM) 499 12.1 Introduction 499 12.2 Historical Development 500 12.3 Functional Requirements (FRs) of Digital Manufacturing 502 12.3.1 Data Availability, Accessibility, and Information Transparency 502 12.3.2 Integration 503 12.3.3 High-Level Decision-Making Supports 503 12.3.4 Decentralization 504 12.3.5 Reconfigurability, Modularity, and Composability 504 12.3.6 Resiliency 504 12.3.7 Sustainability 505 12.3.8 Evaluation Metrics 505 12.4 System Entropy and Complexity 505 12.5 System Architecture 507 12.5.1 NIST Enterprise Architecture 507 12.5.2 DM Enterprise Architecture 508 12.5.3 Digital Technologies in Different Domains 511 12.5.4 Characteristics of Internet of Things (IoT) Infrastructure 512 12.5.5 Lifecycle and Evolution of EA 516 12.6 Hardware Solutions 517 12.7 Big Data Analytics (BDA) 518 12.7.1 Big Data in DM 519 12.7.2 Big Data Analytics (BDA) 521 12.7.3 Big Data Analytics (BDA) for Digital Manufacturing 521 12.8 Computer Simulation in DM – Simio 522 12.8.1 Modelling Paradigms 523 12.8.2 Object Types and Classes 523 12.8.3 Intelligence – Objects, Events, Logic, Processes, Process Steps, and Elements 525 12.8.4 Case Study of Modelling and Simulation in Simio 526 12.9 Summary 528 12.10 Design Projects 531 References 532 13 Direct and Additive Manufacturing 535 13.1 Introduction 535 13.2 Overview of Additive Manufacturing 536 13.2.1 Historical Development 536 13.2.2 Applications 536 13.2.3 Advantages and Disadvantages 540 13.3 Types of AM Techniques 542 13.3.1 Vat Photo-Polymerization 543 13.3.2 Powder Bed Fusion 544 13.3.3 Binder Jetting 545 13.3.4 Material Jetting 545 13.3.5 Material Extrusion 546 13.3.6 Sheet Lamination 547 13.3.7 Directed Energy Deposition 547 13.4 AM Processes 549 13.4.1 Preparation of CAD Models 550 13.4.2 Preparation of Tessellated Models 550 13.4.3 Slicing Planning and Visualization 551 13.4.4 Machine Setups 552 13.4.5 Building Process 552 13.4.6 Post-Processing 553 13.4.7 Verification and Validation 554 13.5 Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM) 554 13.5.1 Selective Materials and AM Processes 555 13.5.2 Considerations of Adopting AM Technologies 555 13.5.3 Part Features 557 13.5.4 Support Structures 557 13.5.5 Process Parameters 558 13.6 Summary 559 13.7 Design Project 560 References 560 14 Design for Sustainability (D4S) 563 14.1 Introduction 563 14.2 Sustainable Manufacturing 563 14.3 Drivers for Sustainability 565 14.3.1 Shortage of Natural Resources 566 14.3.2 Population Increase 568 14.3.3 Global Warming 569 14.3.4 Pollution 571 14.3.5 Globalized Economy 571 14.4 Manufacturing and Sustainability 572 14.4.1 Natural Resources for Manufacturing 572 14.4.2 Population Increase and Manufacturing 573 14.4.3 Global Warming and Manufacturing 574 14.4.4 Pollution and Manufacturing 574 14.4.5 Manufacturing in a Globalized Economy 574 14.5 Metrics for Sustainable Manufacturing 575 14.6 Reconfigurability for Sustainability 580 14.7 Lean Production for Sustainability 582 14.8 Lifecycle Assessment (LCA) and Design for Sustainability (D4S) 584 14.9 Continuous Improvement for Sustainability 585 14.10 Main Environmental Impact Factors 585 14.10.1 Carbon Footprint 586 14.10.2 Total Energy 586 14.10.3 Air Acidification 586 14.10.4 Water Eutrophication 586 14.11 Computer Aided Tools – SolidWorks Sustainability 586 14.11.1 Material Library 587 14.11.2 Manufacturing Processes and Regions 588 14.11.3 Transportation and Use 591 14.11.4 Material Comparison Tool 592 14.11.5 Costing Analysis in SolidWorks 594 14.12 Summary 594 14.13 Design Project 596 References 596 Index 601
Zhuming Bi, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering at Purdue University in Fort Wayne, Indiana, USA. He has over 30 years of experience in Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Xiaoqin Wang, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the School of Mechanical Engineering at Nanjing University of Science and Technology in Nanjing, China. Her research background is in Computer Aided Design, Dynamics, Vibration Impact, and Noise Control. She has been teaching computer-aided design and drawing for 20 years.
Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing Broad coverage of digital product creation, from design to manufacture and process optimization This book addresses the need to provide up-to-date coverage of current CAD/CAM usage and implementation. It covers, in one source, the entire design-to-manufacture process, reflecting the industry trend to further integrate CAD and CAM into a single, unified process. It also updates the computer aided design theory and methods in modern manufacturing systems and examines the most advanced computer-aided tools used in digital manufacturing. Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing consists of three parts. The first part on Computer Aided Design (CAD) offers the chapters on Computer Aided Geometric Modelling; Knowledge-Based Engineering; Platform Technologies; Computer Aided Reverse Engineering; and Computer Aided Machine Design. The second part on Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) covers Group Technology and Cellular Manufacturing; Computer Aided Fixture Design; Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM); Simulation of Manufacturing Processes; and Computer Aided Design of Tools, Dies, and Moulds (TDMs). The final part includes the chapters on Digital Manufacturing (DM); Direct and Additive Manufacturing and Design for Sustainability (D4S). The book is also featured for being uniquely structured to classify and align engineering disciplines and computer aided technologies from the perspective of the design needs in whole product life cycles, utilizing a comprehensive Solidworks package (add-ins, toolbox, and library) to showcase the most critical functionalities of modern computer aided tools, and presenting real-world design projects and case studies so that readers can gain CAD and CAM problem-solving skills upon the CAD/CAM theory. Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing is an ideal textbook for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical engineering, manufacturing engineering, and industrial engineering. It can also be used as a technical reference for researchers and engineers in mechanical and manufacturing engineering or computer-aided technologies.

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